ISSN 1555-7960 printed version
ISSN 1527-3172 on-line version




C. William Keck, MD, MPH, FACPM


Executive Editor

Gail Reed, MS - Oakland, CA, United States


Managing Editor

Christina Mills MD FRCPC (Managing Editor) - Oakland, CA, United States


Senior Editor

Conner Gorry MA - Oakland, CA, United States


Contributing Editors

  • Diane Appelbaum, RN, FNP, MS
  • Debra Evenson, JSD
  • Peter Bourne, MD, MA


Section Writers

  • Gloria Giraldo, MPH
  • Anna Kovac
  • Julián Torres


Copy Editor

Carolyn Gorry


Research Associate

Barbara Collins



Susan C. Greenblatt, MPH


Editorial Board

  • James Boex, PhD, MBA
    Professor of Public Health Sciences
    Univ. of Cincinnati College of Medicine, USA
  • Peter Bourne, MD, MA
    Visiting Fellow, Green Templeton College
    University of Oxford, UK
  • Alfred Brann, MD
    Professor of Pediatrics
    Emory University School of Medicine, USA
  • Jaime Breilh, MD, PhD, MSc
    Director, Health Department
    Universidad Andina Simón Bolívar, Ecuador
  • José F. Cordero, MD, MPH
    Dean, Graduate School of Public Health
    University of Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico
  • Yamila de Armas, MD
    Deputy Director of Health
    Havana City Province, Cuba
  • Maria Cecilia de Souza Minayo, MS, PhD
    Professor of Sociology
    National School of Public Health, Brazil
  • Ernesto De la Torre, MD, PhD
    Consulting Professor of Pediatrics
    Medical Sciences University of Havana, Cuba
  • Timothy De Ver Dye, PhD, MS, MA, MPA
    Professor, Public Health & Preventive Medicine
    Director, Center for Research & Evaluation
    SUNY Upstate Medical University, USA
  • Roger Downer, PhD, DrSc, FRSC, MRIA
    President Emeritus, University of Limerick, Ireland
  • Leith L. Dunn, PhD
    Senior Lecturer & Director, Centre for Gender &
    Development Studies, University of the West Indies
  • Dabney Evans, MPH, CHES
    Sr. Associate Faculty, Rollins School of Public Health
    Executive Director, Institute of Human Rights
    Emory University, USA
  • Lowell Gerson, PhD
    Professor Emeritus of Epidemiology
    Northeastern Ohio Universities Colleges of
    Medicine & Pharmacy USA
  • Jean Handy, PhD
    Associate Professor of Microbiology & Immunology
    University of North Carolina School of Medicine, USA
  • Barbara J. Hatcher, PhD, MPH, RN
    Director, Center for Learning & Global Public Health
    American Public Health Association
    Secretary General, World Federation of Public Health Associations, USA
  • Raúl Herrera, MD, PhD, DrSc
    Chair, National Nephrology Group
    Member, Academy of Sciences, Cuba
  • Eve Higginbotham, MD
    Dean, Vice President for Academic Affairs & CEO
    Morehouse School of Medicine, USA
  • Sharon K. Hull, MD, MPH
    Associate Professor & Chair, Behavioral & Community Health Sciences
    Northeastern Ohio Universities Colleges of Medicine & Pharmacy, USA
  • Emelia Icart, EdD Special Education
    La Castellana Psychopedagogical Center, Cuba
  • C. William Keck, MD, MPH, FACPM
    Professor Emeritus, Community Health Sciences
    Northeastern Ohio Universities Colleges of
    Medicine & Pharmacy, USA
  • Ann Marie Kimball, MD, MPH
    Director, Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation
    Emerging Infections Network; Professor of
    Epidemiology, School of Public Health & Community Medicine
    University of Washington, USA
  • Barry Kistnasamy, MBChB, Mmed
    Coordinator, Health Management Programme
    Nelson Mandela School of Medicine
    University of KwaZulu Natal, South Africa
  • Patrick Kuma-Aboagye, MB-BCH, MPH
    Coordinator, Reproductive Health Programme
    Ghana Health Service, Ghana
  • Albert Kuperman, PhD
    Associate Dean for Educational Affairs
    Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, USA
  • Margaret D. Larkins-Pettigrew, MD, MEd, BSN
    Assistant Professor & Director
    Global Health and Reproductive Science
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, USA
  • Linh Cu Le, MD, PhD
    Associate Professor of Public Health
    Hanoi School of Public Health, Vietnam
  • Miguel Marquez, MD, MPH
    Former PAHO Representative in Cuba, Ecuador
  • Nancy Myers, PhD, RN
    Assistant Professor of Epidemiology
    Northeastern Ohio Universities Colleges of
    Medicine & Pharmacy, USA
  • Daniel J. Ncayiyana, MD, FACOG
    Director, Benguela Health
    Editor-in-Chief, South African Medical Journal
    South Africa
  • André-Jacques Neusy, MD, DTM&H
    Founding Director, Center for Global Health
    NYU School of Medicine & Vice President for
    International Programs, GHEC, Belgium
  • F. Javier Nieto, MD, PhD
    Chair, Dept of Population Health Sciences
    University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and
    Public Health, USA
  • Jorge Pérez, MD, MPH
    Deputy Director
    Pedro Kourí Tropical Medicine Institute, Cuba
  • Patricia Rodney, PhD, MPH, RN
    Assistant Dean for Public Health Education
    Professor, Community Health & Preventive Medicine
    Morehouse School of Medicine, USA
  • María Isabel Rodríguez, MD
    Minister of Public Health & Social Assistance
    El Salvador
  • Francisco Rojas Ochoa, MD, PhD
    Distinguished Professor
    Medical Sciences University of Havana
    Editor, Revista Cubana de Salud Pública, Cuba
  • F. Douglas Scutchfield, MD, FACPM
    Professor, Health Services Research & Policy
    University of Kentucky Medical Center, USA
  • Stuart Shanker, DPhil, MA
    Distinguished Professor, Psychology & Philosophy
    Director, Milton & Ethel Harris Research Initiative
    York University, Canada
  • Augusto Sola, MD
    Director, Neonatal Research & Academic Affairs
    Morristown Memorial Hospital, USA
  • Ronald St. John, MD, MPH
    President, St. John Public Health Consulting
    International, Canada
  • Pedro Urra, MS
    Director, National Medical Sciences Information
    Center & INFOMED, Cuba
  • Pedro A. Valdés-Sosa, MD, PhD
    Deputy Director, Cuban Neuroscience Center
    Member, Academy of Sciences, Cuba
  • Luis F. Vélez, MD, MPH, PhD
    Asst. Professor of Epidemiology & Biostatistics
    Institute for Health Promotion Research
    University of Texas Health Science Center, USA
  • Howard Waitzkin, MD, MS, PhD
    Distinguished Professor, Depts. of Sociology,
    Family and Community Medicine & Internal Medicine
    University of New Mexico, USA



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