Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista de Saúde Pública]]> http://www.scielosp.org/rss.php?pid=0034-891019970004&lang=en vol. 31 num. 4 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielosp.org/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielosp.org <![CDATA[<b>Tuberculosis associated with AIDS</b>: <b>the position in a Northeastern region of Brazil</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-89101997000400001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Investigar os principais aspectos da co-infecção pelo HIV e o Mycobacterium tuberculosis nos pacientes adultos assistidos pelo hospital de referência para doenças infecciosas do Estado do Ceará, Brasil, responsável pela notificação de 89,3% dos casos registrados no Estado, entre 1986-92. METODOLOGIA: Foram coletados dados de prontuários de pacientes maiores de 15 anos, com diagnóstico de AIDS, atendidos em hospital de referência estadual, região Nordeste do Brasil. A análise dos dados seguem o critério do Ministério da Saúde, para definição dessa doença. RESULTADOS: A tuberculose apresentou-se em 30,6% dos pacientes estudados (151/493) e foi diagnosticada até o primeiro ano após o diagnóstico da AIDS em 76,8% dos casos. Observou-se um tendência crescente na proporção de casos de tuberculose entre pacientes com AIDS conforme decresce o nível de escolaridade (<0,001). A forma extrapulmonar apresentou-se em 23,9% dos casos e a forma miliar em 25% destes casos, diferindo significativamente (p<0,001 para as duas proporções) dos casos com tuberculose sem infecção pelo HIV registrados no Estado, em 1992. CONCLUSÃO: O precoce desenvolvimento da tuberculose, a elevada presença de formas extrapulmonares e a alta letalidade indicam que as medidas de prevenção e controle da AIDS e da tuberculose não devem ser vistas separadamente.<hr/>INTRODUCTION: The main aspects of the HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis coinfection in the adult patients attended by the main reference hospital for infectious diseases in the State of Ceará, Brazil, responsible for the notification of 89.3% of the cases registered in the state between 1986 and 1992 were investigated. METHODOLOGY: Data were collected from the case histories of patients of more than 15 years of age with a diagnosis of AIDS, attended in a state reference hospital in Northeastern Brazil. The analysis of the data obeys the criteria of the Ministry of Health for the definition of this disease. RESULTS: Tuberculosis had been present in 30.6% of the patients studied (151/493) and it was diagnosed by the first year after the AIDS diagnosis in 76.8% of the cases. The proportion of AIDS cases with tuberculosis is significantly greater (p=0,032) among men (94.7%) than among women (88.3%). An increased linear trend in the proportion of cases with tuberculosis was noticed in the AIDS cases according to the decrease in level of schooling (p<0,001). The direct baciloscopy of the sputum although considered a high priority exam, was made in only 72.9% of the patients, presenting positive results in 28.3% of these. The extrapulmonary form was detected in 23.9% of the cases and, among those, the miliary form in 25% and the meningitis in 16.7%. These results differ in a significant way (p<0,001 for all) from the cases with tuberculosis without HIV infection in adults registered in the state in 1992 (9.8% extrapulmonary, 7.2% miliary and 3.3% meningitis). In most cases, death occurred in the presence of tuberculosis (52.3%), and only 10.6% managed to recover from the tuberculosis. CONCLUSIONS: The premature development of tuberculosis in AIDS patients, the presence of a high percentage of extrapulmonary forms and the high lethality are indicators that the prevention and control measures of these two pathologies cannot be considered separately in this State. <![CDATA[<b>Infant mortality in a midwest city of Southeastern Brazil, 1990 to 1992</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-89101997000400002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en INTRODUÇÃO: A mortalidade infantil em Presidente Prudente, SP (Brasil), foi estudada no período de 1990 a 1992, a partir de aplicação de métodos para obtenção de diagnóstico coletivo que orientassem a identificação e escolha de estratégias de controle de problemas locais. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram utilizadas declarações de óbito colhidas no cartório, cujos dados originais foram corrigidos por meio de pesquisa documental nos serviços de saúde e entrevistas domiciliares. Para estudar variáveis como idade materna e peso ao nascer foram utilizados os dados do Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC). A qualidade dos dados originais das declarações de óbitos foi inicialmente analisada pela quantidade de informações, sensibilidade, especificidade e valor de Kappa. RESULTADO: A sensibilidade global para a causa básica de óbito foi 78,84% e Kappa igual a 71,32 para o total de causas. Ocorreram 189 óbitos, sendo 66,15% no período neonatal (41,28% durante o primeiro dia de vida) e 33,85% no infantil tardio. O peso ao nascer de 58,28% dos óbitos foi menor que 2.500g. As causas básicas de óbito foram estudadas segundo a possibilidade de serem prevenidas (método desenvolvido por Erica Taucher) por grupos de causas reduzidas utilizadas no "International Collaborative Effort" (ICE), causas múltiplas e distribuição geográfica. Observou-se que nos óbitos ocorridos até 27 dias, 22,23% poderiam ser evitados por adequada atenção ao parto, 20,64% seriam redutíveis por diagnóstico e tratamento precoce, 13,75% por bom controle da gravidez e apenas 7,94% não evitáveis. Das mortes ocorridas no período infantil tardio, 12,17% foram classificadas como outras preveníveis e 4,23% foram consideradas não evitáveis. Segundo os grupos do ICE, 58,74% faleceram por imaturidade ou asfixias; 19,58% por infecções e, 12,17%, por anomalias congênitas. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem prioridade para assistência obstétrica no trabalho de parto e atenção pediátrica por baixo peso ao nascer, entre outras. A análise por causas múltiplas mostra que 76,05% dos óbitos têm as causas básicas relacionadas a causas perinatais e confirma a relação entre as deficiências de peso e as complicações respiratórias do recém-nascido. As complicações maternas também relacionaram-se com o baixo peso. Identificaram-se grandes diferenças no coeficiente de mortalidade infantil entre as áreas da zona urbana não somente restritas aos valores, como também ao tipo de doenças responsáveis pela ocorrência do óbito. Conclui-se haver vantagem no uso associado das quatro técnicas que são complementares, tanto para estudo, como para planejamento de ações dirigidas à prevenção da mortalidade infantil.<hr/>INTRODUCTION: Infant mortality was studied in an urban area of Southeastern Brazil in the period from 1990 to 1992 using data from death certificates collected at the registry office, by the application of methods for obtaining a collective diagnosis which will assist in the identification and choice of strategies for the control of local problems. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The original data were corrected using documental research into health services and household interviews. Data of the Live Birth Information System (SINASC) was used to study variables such as maternal age and birthweight. The quality of original death certificates was initially analyzed using the amount of information, sensitivity, specificity and Kappa value. RESULTS: The global sensitivity for the underlying cause was 78.84% and Kappa 71.32% for the total of causes. One hundred and eighty-nine deaths occurred, 66.15% of them in the neonatal period, (41.28% during the first day of life) and 33.85% in late childhood. The birthweight of 58.28% of deaths was less than 2,500g. The underlying causes of death were studied the by possibility, of their avoidance (a method developed by Erica Taucher), by a "reduced" group of causes (utilized in International Collaborative Effort (ICE)), multiple causes statistics and geographical distribution. It was observed that in the deaths occurring up to 27 days, 22.23% could have been avoided by adequate care during labour, and 20.64% could have been avoided by early diagnosis and early treatment, 13.75% by good pregnancy care and only 7.94% were unavoidable. Of the deaths occurring in late childhood, 12.17% were classified as of avoidable causes and 4.23% were considered as unavoidable. Using ICE groups, 58.74% died of immaturity or asphyxia, 19.58 of infection and 12.17% from congenital abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that priority be given to obstetrical care at delivery and during labour and to the pediatric care of low birth weight, among others. The analysis using multiple causes statistics shows that 76.05% of the deaths have underlying causes related to neonatal disorders and confirms the relationship with the weight deficiencies of the newborn. The maternal complications were also related to weight deficiencies. Great differences were identified in infant mortality rates in urban zones not only restricted to the value of the rates but also to the diseases responsible for the occurrence of deaths. We therefore conclude that there is an advantage to be gained in using the four methods, which are complementary, for studying or planning actions with a view to prevent infant mortality. <![CDATA[<b>Factors affecting nutrition behavior among middle-class adolescents in urban area of Northern region of Brazil </b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-89101997000400003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en INTRODUCTION: Brazil has been called a nation in nutrition transitional because of recent increases in the prevalence of obesity and related chronic diseases. With overweight conditions already prevalent among middle-income populations, there exists a need to identify factors that influence nutrition behavior within this group. OBJECTIVE: To address this subject, a research study was implemented among middle-class adolescents attending a large private secondary school in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. The study determined the availability and accessibility of snack foods as well as subjects’ attitudes and preferences towards, and the influence of family and friends on healthy (high-nutrient density) snack choices. METHODS: The 4-stage process included: (a) a nutrition expert focus group discussion that reported local nutrition problems in general and factors related to adolescent nutrition, (b) an adolescent pilot survey (n=63) that solicited information about snacking preferences and habits as well as resources for nutrition information and snack money; (c) a survey of various area food market sources to determine the availability and accessibility of high nutrient density snacks; and (d) a follow-up adolescent survey (n=55) that measured snack food preferences and perceptions about their cost and availability. RESULTS: Results included the finding that, although affordable high nutrient density snacks were available, preferences for low nutrient density snacks prevailed. The adolescents were reportedly more likely to be influenced by and obtain nutrition information from family members than friends. CONCLUSION: From study results it is apparent that a focus on food availability will not automatically result in proper nutritional practices among adolescents. This fact and the parental influence detected are evidence of a need to involve adolescents and their parents in nutrition education campaigns to improve adolescent snack food choices.<hr/>INTRODUÇÃO: O Brasil tem sido considerado um País em transição nutricional em razão dos recentes aumentos na prevalência de obesidade e doenças crônicas na classe média, sendo importante identificar os fatores que influenciam as preferências nutricionais desse grupo. Foi realizado estudo com estudantes de classe média de um colégio secundário, particular, em Manaus, AM, Brasil. Com o objetivo de determinar a disponibilidade e a acessibilidade das merendas e analisar as atitudes e preferências dos estudantes e a influência de vários fatores na escolha de merendas nutritivas. MÉTODOS: O estudo incluiu quatros fases: (a) discusão em um grupo de especialistas em nutrição sobre a disponibilidade e acessibilidade das merendas em Manaus; (b) inquérito junto a um grupo dos adolescentes (n=63) sobre suas preferências e hábitos nutricionais; (c) inquérito junto a supermercados selecionado para identificar a disponibilidade e acessibilidade das merendas preferidas; (d) um grupo acompanhado de uma subamostra dos adolescentes (n=55) para identificar a preferências e atitudes sobre o custo e disponibilidade das merendas. RESULTADOS: Foi constatado que os estudantes possuíam condições financeiras para comprar merendas e que as merendas nutritivas não custam mais do que as não nutritivas. A preferência dos adolescentes foi por merendas não nutritivas. Os fatores que, principalmente, influenciam na escolha originam-se da família e da televisão. CONCLUSÃO: As implicações para futuras pesquisas e programas nutricionais são discutidos, recomendando-se campanha de educação nutricional para famílias, visto a importância desta na escolha de merendas entre esses adolescentes. <![CDATA[<b>Sources of information and their relationship to the degree of knowledge of AIDS, in adolescents of Mexico</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-89101997000400004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en INTRODUCCIÓN: En México 2,1% de casos con SIDA son adolescentes. Los casos de 20 a 29 años alcanzan a 30,5% y una proporción importante pudo infectarse VIH en la adolescencia. El nivel de conocimientos de los adolescentes sobre VIH/SIDA es variable. En contextos urbanos poseen conceptos errados y mitos que podrían orientarlos a prácticas riesgosas. Los medios masivos e interpersonales son fuentes importantes de información en la construcción social del VIH/SIDA en los adolescentes. El objetivo es relacionar el grado de conocimientos sobre VIH/SIDA con la exposición a fuentes informativas masivas e interpersonales en los adolescentes de Guadalajara, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Encuesta a 1.410 adolescentes, varones y mujeres de 15 a 19 años, en diferentes estratos socio-económicos. Se aplicaron pruebas de significación Ji Cuadrada y BTukey, Intervalos de Confianza del 95% para proporciones y medias y ANOVA factorial simple. RESULTADO: Hay un nivel regular de conocimientos con medias favorables a los estratos alto y medio. La información de periódicos y profesores tuvo relación directa con el nivel de conocimientos controlada por la exposición a la televisión y variables socio-demográficas. CONCLUSIONES: Hay desigualdades por estratos socio-económicos en la relación de las fuentes informativas y los niveles de conocimientos sobre VIH/SIDA. Es necesario fortalecer y desarrollar acciones educativas por fuentes masivas e interpersonales, con énfasis en estratos bajo y marginado.<hr/>INTRODUCTION: In Mexico 2.1% of the cases of AIDS are in adolescents. The cases of AIDS in the age group of 20 to 29 account for 30.5% of all the cases and an important proportion could have been infected with HIV in their adolescence, in view of the longth of the incubation period from the infection with HIV to the manifestation of the syndrome. The adolescent's knowledge of HIV/AIDS varies. In some urban contexts the adolescents have lay concepts and myths that could guide them into misting practices that could lead to contamination by HIV. The mass media, especially television, and interpersonal sources such as teachers, parents and peers are important sources of information about HIV/AIDS and have a central role in the social construction and public perception of the problem in adolescents. The objective of the study is to relate the degree of knowledge of HIV/AIDS to the exposure to information sources among adolescents in Guadalajara city, in Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Survey sample with autoapplied questionnaire. Sample of 1,410 adolescents, male and female, of 15 to 19 years of age, in the four socioeconomic strata. The Chi-square and BTukey tests, 95% confidence interval for proportions and means, and simple ANOVA factor were applied. RESULTS: A considerate degree of knowledge (mean of 13.94 correct answer out of 24, standard deviation=4.09, 95% CI=13.69-14.11) was found significant mean differences in favor of the high (15.70) and medium (14.26) strata as opposed to the low (13.51) and marginalized (12.85) (F=19.39, p <.0001, BTukey level .050). The information published by the newspapers (F=11.1; p <.001) and the teachers (F=3.72; p < .05) had a direct relationship to the degree of knowledge imported by the daily exposure to the television and other social demographic variables. CONCLUSIONS: The results describe the presence of inequalities by socioeconomic strata in the list of sources in information and the levels of knowledge about HIV/AIDS. It is necessary to strengthen and develop educational action and the publication of messages through the media, institutions and interpersonal networks, with emphasis on interpersonal and media sources available to the low and marginalized strata, and at the same time, to strengthen the action of sources of information available to the other socioeconomic strata. <![CDATA[<b>Use of outpatient services in an urban area of Southern Brazil</b>: <b>place and frequency</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-89101997000400005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Estabelecer a utilização de serviços médicos ambulatoriais na Cidade de Pelotas, RS, Brasil. METODOLOGIA: Foi feito estudo transversal amostral com base populacional. Foram entrevistados 1.657 adultos, durante os meses de março e junho de 1992. As perdas amostrais totalizaram 9,7%. Durante a análise utilizou-se duas variáveis dependentes: o tipo de serviço de saúde classificado quanto à natureza do lucro e a freqüência de consultas durante o último ano. RESULTADOS: Na análise verificou-se que o tipo de serviço estava associado com variáveis sociais tais como classe social, propriamente dita, escolaridade e local de residência. A variável freqüência de consultas relacionou-se com sexo feminino, fatores de risco e motivos de consultas. CONCLUSÃO: Concluiu-se que a escolha do tipo de serviço de saúde dependia de fatores ligados à classe social antes do que variáveis associadas à gravidade dos problemas de saúde.<hr/>OBJECTIVE: The objective was determine the use of health services by the adult population in Pelotas, RS, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was made on the basis of a population sample. One thousand six hundred and fifty-seven persons we interviewed during the months of March and June, 1992. A percentage of 9.7 of the sample was lost. RESULTS: Two dependents variables. One the type of service as determined by type of payment. The other the number of medical visits made during the previous year. The type of service was seen to be associated with the following social variables: social class, level of schooling and place of residence. The frequency of medical visits was associated with sex, risk factors and reasons for the visit. CONCLUSION: It was conclued that choise of the type of service depends more heavily in social class than other variables associated with the severity of the disease in question. <![CDATA[<b>Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) ecology of natural and artificial rural breeding places in horthern Parana, Brazil<i>. </i>V. Larvae captured in artificial reservoirs installed in ciliary forest</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-89101997000400006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en INTRODUÇÃO: A utilização pelos Culicidae de recipientes contendo água para a colocação de seus ovos, em área antropogênica, pode indicar plasticidade genética que os direcione evolutivamente no sentido da domiciliação. Nesse sentido, foram coletadas as diferentes espécies de Culicidae que colonizam recipientes alocados em mata ciliar, na área rural. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram instalados recipientes de pneu, plástico, lata e bambu, em mata ciliar, em área rural no Norte do Paraná, Brasil. RESULTADOS: Coletaram-se larvas de Cx. grupo coronator, Cx. declarator, Cx. laticlasper, Cx. (Melanoconion) secção Spissipes, Cx. tatoi, Tr. compressum, Tr. pallidiventer, Ae. terrens, Cx. mollis, Cx. bigoti, Hg. leucocelaenus, Cx. eduardoi, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Li. durhamii e Toxorhynchites sp. As cinco primeiras espécies foram específicas de pneus. As duas espécies de Trichoprosopon ficaram restritas a bambu. Ae. terrens e Cx. mollis foram caletadas em pneu e bambu, Cx. bigoti foi coletada em pneu, lata e bambu, enquanto que Hg. leucocelaenus só não foi encontrada em lata. As quatro últimas espécies foram coletadas em todos os tipos de recipientes. Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. eduardoi, Li. durhamii tiveram significante flutuação populacional. CONCLUSÕES: O pneu caracterizou-se como o recipiente mais aceito pelos culicídeos. As áreas onde a mata ciliar esteve mais densa e o locais onde o solo esteve mais úmido foram os pontos com maior número de capturas. A mata ciliar, mesmo muito reduzida e alterada, foi suficiente para abrigar várias espécies de culicídeos. As espécies caputradas podem ser portadoras de plasticidade gênica que as capacitem a colonizar ambientes antropogênicos.<hr/>INTRODUCTION: The use of receptacles containing water for the laying of the Culicidae eggs in an anthropogenic area, may indicate a genetic plasticity thet leads them evolutionarily towards domiciliation. Thus, the varions species of Culicidae which colonize the receptables placed in reparian forest were collected for this study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The materials used were: Tires, plastic, can and bamboo receptacles, installed in a rural area of a reparian forest along a river in Northern Parana, Brazil. RESULTS: The results were obtained by means of the collection of Cx.grup coronator, Cx. declarator, Cx. laticlasper, Cx. (Melanoconion), Cx. section Spissipes, Cx. mollis, Ae. terrens, Tr. compressum, Tr. pallidiventer, Hg. leucocelaenus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Li. durhamii and Toxorhynchites sp larvae. The first five species were tire specific, while the two Trichoprosopon species were bamboo specific. Ae. terrens and Cx. mollis were collected both in tires and bamboo, Cx. bigoti was collected in tires, cans and bamboo, while Hg. leucocelaenus could only be found in cans. The last four species were collected in all kinds of receptacles. Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. eduardoi and Li. durhamii had significant population fluctuations. DISCUSSION: Tires were characterized as the receptacle most acceptable to the Culicidae. The areas where the forest was the densest and the places where the soil was the most humid were the spots with the highest capture register. <![CDATA[<b>Study of phlebotomines (Diptera: Psychodidae) in focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-89101997000400007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en INTRODUÇÃO: Nas Américas, Lutzomyia longipalpis tem sido incriminada como vetora da leishmaniose visceral em, praticamente, todas as áreas de ocorrência dessa parasitose. A notificação de casos humanos a partir de 1980 e a presença de cães com aspecto sugestivo de leishmaniose visceral no Município de Corumbá, Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil, levaram a investigações entomológicas na área, com o objetivo de identificar a população de flebotomíneo vetora. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: A pesquisa foi realizada no peri e intradomicílio de três residências urbanas e em ecótopo natural, representado por uma gruta, situado fora do perímetro urbano. As capturas, semanais em sua maioria, foram realizadas com armadilhas automáticas luminosas, no período de 1984 a 1986. Os dados metereológicos desse período foram obtidos junto à Estação Metereológica da cidade e os de 1925 a 1982, de bibliografia. RESULTADOS: A fauna flebotomínea urbana, composta de oito espécies, mostrou-se semelhante à da gruta, porém nesta, a abundância das espécies foi maior. Na área urbana, Lu. cruzi predominou tanto no intra como no peridomicílio: no bairro central, representou 90,3% dos espécimens e nos dois bairros periféricos, os seus percentuais foram menores. Lu. forattinii, também, teve freqüência expressiva em um dos bairros periféricos (39,0 %). Na gruta, Lu. corumbaensis foi a espécie predominante. Comenta-se o impacto das condições climáticas e do inseticida aplicado na área urbana na freqüência das espécies, e da utilização da gruta como criadouro pelos flebotomíneos, com base na evolução da razão entre os sexos ao longo do período. Foram adicionadas informações sobre antropofilia e de coleta com isca canina de Lu. forattinii. CONCLUSÃO: O predomínio de Lu. cruzi na área urbana; a expressiva freqüência de Lu. forattinii na periferia da cidade, bem como a sua antropofilia e o estreito grau de parentesco destas espécies com Lu. longipalpis, a principal vetora da leishmaniose visceral em outras áreas da América, são aspectos que sugerem a participação de ambas na transmissão da doença, em Corumbá.<hr/>INTRODUCTION: In the Americas, Lutzomyia longipalpis has been incriminated as the vector of visceral leishmaniasis in almost all the areas in which this disease has been reported. The notification of human cases of visceral leishmaniasis and the presence of dogs with an appearance suggestive of the disease in the county of Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, led us to undertake an entomological investigation in this area, for the purpose of identifying the phlebotomine vector. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The county of Corumbá is located in the Pantanal region and its urban area is situated at 18° 59’ 44" South and 57° 39’ 16" West. The research project was carried out in peri and intradomiciliary environments, in three urban districts, one of which was central and the other two on the outskirts, and in a cave situated outside the urban perimeter. Most of the captures were made weekly with light automatic traps, in the period from February 1984 to December 1986. Meteorological data for this period were obtained from the city,s meteorological station and those for the period from 1925 to 1982 from the literature. RESULTS: The urban phlebotomine fauna consisted of eight species and was similar to that of the cave, except that in the latter the species were more abundant. Lutzomyia cruzi was predominant in the peri and intradomiciliary environments. Its prevalence in the central district was of 90.3% and lower in the outskirts. Lu. forattinii presented considerable prevalence (39.0%) in one of the outlying districts too. In the cave, Lu. corumbaensis was the predominant species, followed by Lu. sordellii, Lu. forattinii, Lu. peresi and Lu. cruzi. The impact of the climatic condition and the action of insecticides in the urban area on the frequence of the species, as well as the use of the cave as a breeding ground by the phlebotomines, in view of the changes in the sex rate, are commented. Data on anthropophily and captures of Lu. forattinii using dog bait have been added. CONCLUSION: The predominance of Lu. cruzi in the urban area; the great prevalence of Lu. forattinii in most of the outlying areas studied and the anthropophily of this latter species, as well as the strong affinity of these species with Lu. longipalpis, the main vector of visceral leishmaniais in other areas of the Americas, suggest the participation of both in the transmission of the disease in Corumbá. <![CDATA[<b>Tuberculosis lymphadenitis in slaughtered swine from S. Paulo State (Brazil)</b>: <b>gross lesions, histopathology and demonstration of mycobacteria</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-89101997000400008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en INTRODUÇÃO: Como a ocorrência de linfadenites tuberculóides nos suínos oferece riscos à saúde pública, sobretudo em indivíduos imunocomprometidos, foi estudada a distribuição das lesões tuberculóides e a presença de micobactérias em linfonodos, tecido hepático e muscular de suínos de abate, no Estado de São Paulo, SP (Brasil), no período de 1993-1994. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram estudadas 60 carcaças de suínos abatidos, sendo que, trinta apresentavam lesões tuberculóides macroscópicas (grupo A) e trinta estavam livres de tais lesões (grupo B ou controle). Foram analisadas seis localizações: linfonodos (retrofaríngeos, jejunais e mediastínicos), tecido hepático e tecido muscular (masséter e diafragma). Os exames executados foram: histopatologia e o cultivo para micobactérias. RESULTADOS: No grupo A, 14 em 30 carcaças apresentaram granuloma na histopatologia e, em 14, houve o isolamento de representantes do Complexo MAC (Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare). No grupo B não foram observadas lesões na histopatologia, e de quatro carcaças houve o isolamento de micobactérias de rápido crescimento. As lesões macroscópicas foram encontradas predominantemente nos linfonodos mesentéricos. O Complexo MAC foi isolado apenas em linfonodos do grupo com lesão, não sendo isolado em tecido hepático e muscular. CONCLUSÃO: Não foi possível o estabelecimento de relação entre o tipo de micobactéria isolada e as características macroscópicas das lesões.<hr/>INTRODUCTION: As the occurrence of tuberculosis lymphadenitis in swine constitutes a public health risk, especially in immunosuppressed individuals, the distribution of tuberculoid lesions and the presence of micobacteria in lymphonodes and hepatic and muscular tissue in swine for slaughter, in the State of S. Paulo, SP (Brazil), in the period from 1993 to 1994, were studied. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Tuberculous lesions in 60 carcasses of swine, slaughtered at abattoirs during the period 1993-1994, were studied. When macroscopic lesions were observed, a representative sampling of lymphnodes, hepatic and muscular tissues (masseter and diaphragm) were examined using histophatological and micobacterial isolation techniques. RESULTS: The macroscopic lesions were found predominantly in mesenteric lymphnodes. The MAI Complex (M.avium-intracellulare) was isolated mainly in the carcass group that showed lesions and was not found in the control group. Microorganisms of the MAI Complex were not isolated from hepatic and muscular tissues. CONCLUSION: No clear relationship between the type of mycobacteria isolated and the macroscopic lesions observed during the carcass inspection was found. <![CDATA[<b>Hearing findings in subjects after meningitis</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-89101997000400009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en INTRODUÇÃO: Realizou-se estudo para verificar a ocorrência de indivíduos que apresentam perda auditiva por terem contraído meningite, bem como caracterizar a perda diagnosticada quanto ao tipo, ao grau e à configuração audiométrica. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram levantados 949 prontuários de pacientes atendidos em um centro de distúrbios da audição, selecionados os que indicaram perda auditiva pós- meningite e realizada avaliação audiológica a que foram submetidos os pacientes. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados indicaram 6,2% de ocorrência de perda auditiva devido à meningite. A característica dessa perda auditiva foi do tipo predominantemente neurossensorial, simétrica, linear e de grau profundo.<hr/>INTRODUCTION: It was proposed to ascertain the occurrence of individuals who present hearing loss, due to contracting meningitis, as well as to characterize the diagnosed loss as far as the type, degree and the audiometric configuration are concerned. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The methodology used comprised a survey of 949 references of patients attended at the Hearing Disturbance Center of the HPRLLP/USP, in order to select those who presented hearing loss after meningitis and, from the analysis of the hearing evaluation to which they were submitted, achieve the proposed goal. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The results indicated a 6.2 percent occurrence as regards hearing loss due to meningitis in relation to other causes and the characteristic of this hearing loss was predominantly sensorineural, symmetrical, al linear and to a profound degree. <![CDATA[<b>Immunological behavior of the meningococcal vaccines</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-89101997000400010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A doença meningocócica continua sendo um grande problema de saúde pública em todos os continentes, e as vacinas anti-meningocócicas têm sido indicadas na prevenção e controle de epidemias. As vacinas polissacarídicas A e C são relativamente eficazes, com comportamentos imunológicos distintos frente às faixas etárias; no entanto, para o sorogrupo B, embora existam numerosos estudos internacionais até agora já desenvolvidos, ainda não se tem uma vacina altamente segura e eficaz de ampla aceitação. O polissacáride capsular do meningococo B não é imunogênico devido ao seu mimetismo com componentes celulares do hospedeiro. Tentativas de se introduzir carreadores protéicos vêm sendo feitas para se obter uma vacina que seja imunogênica em todas as faixas etárias e de preferência protetora contra todos os meningococos. Foi feita revisão da literatura com o objetivo de estudar o comportamento imunológico de todas as vacinas, até então desenvolvidas, e mostrar os esforços que estão sendo empreendidos no sentido de se buscar um produto seguro e eficaz para o controle da doença meningocócica<hr/>Meningococcal disease continues to be a great health problem on all continents and the meningococcal vaccines have been proposed for their prevention and epidemic control. The polysaccharide A and C vaccines are relatively efficacious with distinct immunological behavior with regard to the different age groups, however, up to the present no highly efficacious vaccine for meningococcal B disease exists. The meningococcal B capsular polysaccharide is not immunogenic due to the structural mimicry of mammalian tissues and efforts to produce carrier proteins have been proposed in order to obtain an immunogenic vaccine for all age groups that would if possible, protect against all the meningococci. This review of the literature presents the study of the development of the immunological behavior of all the meningococcal vaccines undergoing development and reports on the efforts to obtain a safe and efficacious product for the control of meningococcal disease. <![CDATA[<b>Aflatoxins in foodstuffs</b>: <b>current concepts on mechanisms of toxicity and its involvement in the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-89101997000400011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Foram revistos os conceitos de maior relevância sobre mecanismos de toxicidade e evidências do envolvimento das aflatoxinas na etiologia do câncer hepático humano. A aflatoxina B1 (AFB1), principal metabólito produzido por fungos do gênero Aspergillus, manifesta seus efeitos tóxicos após conversão hepática em AFB1-epóxido, o qual reage com macromoléculas celulares, incluindo proteínas, RNA (ácido ribonucléico) e DNA (ácido desoxirribonucléico). A reação com o DNA ocorre através da ligação com guaninas, ao nível do códon 249, do gene supressor de tumores p53. Em seres humanos, estudos de biomonitoramento individual de derivados AFB1-N7-guanina tem demonstrado que as aflatoxinas constituem importantes fatores de risco, com uma provável interação sinergística com o vírus da hepatite B, para o desenvolvimento do carcinoma hepatocelular em populações expostas. Considerando-se a ocorrência freqüente das aflatoxinas em produtos alimentícios, no Brasil, ressalta-se a necessidade de estudos que avaliem criteriosamente o impacto dos níveis de exposição a estas toxinas sobre a saúde humana.<hr/>Current concepts derived from intensive research over the last decade, on biotransformation, mechanisms of toxicity and evidences for the involvement of aflatoxins in the etiolgy of human liver cancer are summarily presented. Aflatoxin B1(AFB1), the main metabolite produced by moulds of genus Aspergillus, exerts its effects after conversion to the reactive compound AFB1-epoxide, by the action of cytochrome P450-dependent enzymes. This epoxide can form derivatives with cellular macromolecules, including proteins, RNA and DNA. The reaction with DNA occurs with guanines in the códon 249 of tumor suppressor gene p53. Primary biotransformation of AFB1 also produces hydroxylated and less toxic derivatives, such as aflatoxins Q1 and P1. Differences intra and interspecies in the pathways of activation/detoxification are directly related to the susceptibility of animals to aflatoxin effects. In humans, studies of individual biomonitoring of AFB1 metabolites such as AFB1-N7-guanine have demonstrated that aflatoxins constitute an important risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in exposed populations. Some of these studies also show a synergistic action between aflatoxins and the hepatitis B virus in the development of human HCC. In view of these concepts, and taking into account the frequent detection of aflatoxins in Brazilian foodstuffs, the need for investigation into the level of exposure to these toxins and its impact on human health is stressed. <![CDATA[<b>Research on social support and health</b>: <b>current status</b> <b>and new challenges</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-89101997000400012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en La categoría de "apoyo social" ha permitido desarrollar toda una corriente de investigación que busca explicar algunas de las diferencias existentes en la distribución de ciertas enfermedades tanto físicas como mentales. El concepto de apoyo social presenta varios problemas que es preciso resolver. Este artículo discute algunos de estos problemas, y mostra la posibilidad de enriquecer el tema desde una perspectiva sociológica. Se discute el origen conceptual del término y se analizan diversas definiciones del mismo. Se analizar las formas en que la investigación reciente ha tratado de vincular la disponibilidad de apoyo social con la existencia de ciertos niveles de salud y enfermedad. Se discuten las diferencias entre el modelo del efecto directo y el modelo del efecto amortiguador. Se muestra la necesidad de estudiar al apoyo social no sólo como posible determinante de ciertas formas de enfermedad, sino también como una variable dependiente. Se subraya la importancia de buscar las determinantes del apoyo social en todos los niveles de la realidad social, dando especial importancia a las variables de clase social y género. Se presenta una discusión sobre los avances logrados en el estudio de los factores que se asocian a la disponibilidad de apoyo social por parte de los individuos. Se muestra que el apoyo social es a su vez producto de ciertos ordenamientos sociales que pueden ser identificados con claridad a través de un análisis sociológico del fenómeno. Para ilustrar este argumento, se discute el caso de la atención, entendida como una forma de apoyo social, y se muestra que la distribución de la misma está determinada socialmente. Se finaliza con una reflexión sobre la necesidad de integrar diversos enfoques teórico-metodológicos como condición necesaria para lograr nuevos avances en el estudio del apoyo social<hr/>On the borderline between sociology and psychology, the concept of social support has made it possible to develop a whole research tradition aimed at explaining some of the differences existing in the distribution of mental and physical disease. The concept of social support itself, however, still presents some ambiguities which must be clarified. These problems are discussed and it is showed and shows that the topic can be enriched with the contribution of the social sciences. Different definitions of the concept itself, are briefly analysed and the complexity and multidimensional character of social support are highlighted. The association between social support and health is discussed. The differences and implications of the direct effect model and the buffering effect model are addressed, and the relevance of the construct of social support is enhanced. The need to study social support not only as a likely determinant of some forms of disease, but also as a dependent variable, is brought out. Some recent developments in the study of factors associated with the availability of social support are discussed. It is shown that social support is a product of certain social factors which can be clearly identified by sociological analysis. In order to illustrate this point, the structural determinants of a specific dimension of social support -attention- are discussed. The importance of structural variables like social class and gender in attempting to explain the differential distribution of certain forms of social support is emphasized. It is proposed, on the theoretical level, that the intersection between two related autonomous constructs -social class and social support- may better explain those aspects of these concepts that are of importance to observed heterogeneity in the distribution of mental and physical health. Different theoretical and methodological approaches to the understanding of the determinants of social support and its effect on health are suggested. <![CDATA[<b>Characteristics of people involved in accidents with two-wheel-vehicles </b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-89101997000400013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en La categoría de "apoyo social" ha permitido desarrollar toda una corriente de investigación que busca explicar algunas de las diferencias existentes en la distribución de ciertas enfermedades tanto físicas como mentales. El concepto de apoyo social presenta varios problemas que es preciso resolver. Este artículo discute algunos de estos problemas, y mostra la posibilidad de enriquecer el tema desde una perspectiva sociológica. Se discute el origen conceptual del término y se analizan diversas definiciones del mismo. Se analizar las formas en que la investigación reciente ha tratado de vincular la disponibilidad de apoyo social con la existencia de ciertos niveles de salud y enfermedad. Se discuten las diferencias entre el modelo del efecto directo y el modelo del efecto amortiguador. Se muestra la necesidad de estudiar al apoyo social no sólo como posible determinante de ciertas formas de enfermedad, sino también como una variable dependiente. Se subraya la importancia de buscar las determinantes del apoyo social en todos los niveles de la realidad social, dando especial importancia a las variables de clase social y género. Se presenta una discusión sobre los avances logrados en el estudio de los factores que se asocian a la disponibilidad de apoyo social por parte de los individuos. Se muestra que el apoyo social es a su vez producto de ciertos ordenamientos sociales que pueden ser identificados con claridad a través de un análisis sociológico del fenómeno. Para ilustrar este argumento, se discute el caso de la atención, entendida como una forma de apoyo social, y se muestra que la distribución de la misma está determinada socialmente. Se finaliza con una reflexión sobre la necesidad de integrar diversos enfoques teórico-metodológicos como condición necesaria para lograr nuevos avances en el estudio del apoyo social<hr/>On the borderline between sociology and psychology, the concept of social support has made it possible to develop a whole research tradition aimed at explaining some of the differences existing in the distribution of mental and physical disease. The concept of social support itself, however, still presents some ambiguities which must be clarified. These problems are discussed and it is showed and shows that the topic can be enriched with the contribution of the social sciences. Different definitions of the concept itself, are briefly analysed and the complexity and multidimensional character of social support are highlighted. The association between social support and health is discussed. The differences and implications of the direct effect model and the buffering effect model are addressed, and the relevance of the construct of social support is enhanced. The need to study social support not only as a likely determinant of some forms of disease, but also as a dependent variable, is brought out. Some recent developments in the study of factors associated with the availability of social support are discussed. It is shown that social support is a product of certain social factors which can be clearly identified by sociological analysis. In order to illustrate this point, the structural determinants of a specific dimension of social support -attention- are discussed. The importance of structural variables like social class and gender in attempting to explain the differential distribution of certain forms of social support is emphasized. It is proposed, on the theoretical level, that the intersection between two related autonomous constructs -social class and social support- may better explain those aspects of these concepts that are of importance to observed heterogeneity in the distribution of mental and physical health. Different theoretical and methodological approaches to the understanding of the determinants of social support and its effect on health are suggested. http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-89101997000400014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en