Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública]]> http://www.scielosp.org/rss.php?pid=1020-498920140007&lang=en vol. 36 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielosp.org/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielosp.org <![CDATA[<b>Can the Perinatal Information System in Peru be used to measure the proportion of adverse birth outcomes attributable to maternal syphilis infection?</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892014000700001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: To describe the capacity of Peru's Perinatal Information System (Sistema Informático Perinatal, SIP) to provide estimates for monitoring the proportion of stillbirths and other adverse birth outcomes attributable to maternal syphilis. METHODS: A descriptive study was conducted to assess the quality and completeness of SIP data from six Peruvian public hospitals that used the SIP continuously from 2000 - 2010 and had maternal syphilis prevalence of at least 0.5% during that period. In-depth interviews were conducted with Peruvian stakeholders about their experiences using the SIP. RESULTS: Information was found on 123 575 births from 2000 - 2010 and syphilis test results were available for 99 840 births. Among those 99 840 births, there were 1 075 maternal syphilis infections (1.1%) and 619 stillbirths (0.62%). Among women with syphilis infection in pregnancy, 1.7% had a stillbirth, compared to 0.6% of women without syphilis infection. Much of the information needed to estimate the proportion of stillbirths attributable to maternal syphilis was available in the SIP, with the exception of syphilis treatment information, which was not collected. However, SIP data collection is complex and time-consuming for clinicians. Data were unlinked across hospitals and not routinely used or quality-checked. Despite these limitations, the SIP data examined were complete and valid; in 98% of records, information on whether or not the infant was stillborn was the same in both the SIP and clinical charts. Nearly 89% of women had the same syphilis test result in clinical charts and the SIP. CONCLUSIONS: The large number of syphilis infections reported in Peru's SIP and the ability to link maternal characteristics to newborn outcomes make the system potentially useful for monitoring the proportion of stillbirths attributable to congenital syphilis in Peru. To ensure good data quality and sustainability of Peru's SIP, data collection should be simplified and information should be continually quality-checked and used for the benefit of participating facilities.<hr/>OBJETIVO: Describir la capacidad del Sistema Informático Perinatal (SIP) del Perú para proporcionar estimaciones que permitan vigilar la proporción de mortinatos y otros resultados adversos del nacimiento atribuibles a sífilis materna. MÉTODOS: Se llevó a cabo un estudio descriptivo para evaluar la calidad y la integridad de los datos del SIP correspondientes a seis hospitales públicos peruanos que utilizaron el SIP de forma continuada del 2000 al 2010, y presentaron una prevalencia de sífilis materna de como mínimo 0,5% durante ese período. Se realizaron entrevistas exhaustivas con interesados directos de Perú acerca de sus experiencias con el uso del SIP. RESULTADOS: Se obtuvo información sobre 123 575 nacimientos ocurridos del 2000 al 2010 y se dispuso de resultados de pruebas serológicas de sífilis correspondientes a 99 840 nacimientos. Se produjeron 1 075 casos de sífilis materna (1,1%) y 619 mortinatos (0,62%). El 1,7% de las mujeres con sífilis gestacional tuvieron un mortinato, en comparación con el 0,6% de las mujeres sin infección sifilítica. En el SIP se disponía de gran parte de la información necesaria para calcular la proporción de mortinatos atribuibles a sífilis materna, a excepción de la información sobre el tratamiento de la sífilis, que no se recopiló. Sin embargo, la recopilación de datos del SIP es compleja y exige a los médicos clínicos dedicar tiempo. Los datos de los diferentes hospitales no estaban vinculados, no se utilizaban habitualmente ni se sometían a controles de calidad. A pesar de estas limitaciones, los datos del SIP analizados estaban completos y eran válidos; en 98% de los registros, la información sobre si se trataba o no de un mortinato coincidía entre el SIP y las historias clínicas. En casi 89% de las mujeres los resultados de las pruebas serológicas de sífilis eran los mismos en las historias clínicas y el SIP. CONCLUSIONES: El gran número de infecciones sifilíticas notificadas en el SIP del Perú y la capacidad de vincular las características maternas con los resultados de los recién nacidos hacen que el sistema sea potencialmente útil para vigilar la proporción de mortinatos atribuibles a sífilis congénita en Perú. Con objeto de garantizar la buena calidad de los datos y la sostenibilidad del SIP en Perú, es preciso simplificar la recopilación de datos y mantener un control permanente de la calidad de la información, que debe utilizarse en beneficio de los establecimientos participantes. <![CDATA[<b>Thyroid hormone prescription patterns in a colombian population</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892014000700002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Determinar los patrones de prescripción de hormonas tiroideas en personas afiliadas al Sistema General de Seguridad Social en Salud de Colombia. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo a partir de una base de datos poblacional de 6,2 millones de personas. Se seleccionaron los pacientes medicados con hormonas tiroideas, de uno y otro sexo y todas las edades, con tratamiento continuo de abril a junio de 2013. Se diseñó una base de datos sobre consumo de medicamentos, obtenidos por la empresa que dispensa dichos fármacos. RESULTADOS: Se hallaron 29 947 pacientes tratados para hipotiroidismo en 82 ciudades colombianas. La mayoría (79,1%) eran mujeres, con una edad media de 63,2 ± 16,1 años. La presentación prescrita con mayor frecuencia fue levotiroxina en tabletas de 50 µg (85,7%) a dosis diarias definidas mayores de las recomendadas, sobre todo como monoterapia. Se detectaron diferencias significativas entre los grupos etarios y las ciudades de residencia para el uso combinado de hormona tiroidea y de comedicación. Los medicamentos prescritos de manera concomitante con mayor frecuencia fueron los antiulcerosos (44%), hipoglucemiantes (17,4%) y sales de hierro (16,1%). CONCLUSIONES: Existen diferencias significativas en las recetas de los médicos en las ciudades estudiadas. Hacen falta guías de manejo clínico que estandaricen las dosis y conductas médicas, pues es probable que su ausencia tenga impacto en la salud de los pacientes. Es necesario explorar la efectividad clínica de las prescripciones estudiadas.<hr/>OBJECTIVE: Determine thyroid hormone prescription patterns in the population covered by the Colombian Social Security Health System. METHODS: Descriptive study using a database of 6.2 million people. The selected patients, men and women of all ages, received continuous thyroid hormone treatment from April to June 2013. A database on medication use was designed, using data obtained by the company that dispenses these drugs. RESULTS: It was found that 29 947 patients in 82 Colombian cities had been treated for hypothyroidism. The majority (79.1%) were women, with an average age of 63.2 ± 16.1 years. The most common prescription was for levothyroxine in 50 µg tablets (85.7%) at higher-than-recommended daily dosages, especially as monotherapy. Significant differences between age groups and cities of residence were found for the combined use of thyroid hormone and co-medication. The most frequently prescribed concomitant drugs were antiulcer agents (44%), hypoglycemics (17.4%), and iron salts (16.1%). CONCLUSIONS: There are significant differences in prescribing practices in the cities studied. Clinical management guidelines that standardize dosages and physicians' practices are needed, since a lack of guidelines has likely had an impact on patients' health. The clinical efficacy of the prescriptions studied should be explored. <![CDATA[<b>Satisfaction of hypertensive users with primary health care services in Brazil</b>: <b>a validation study</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892014000700003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Validar um instrumento para avaliar o grau de satisfação de hipertensos adultos com o controle da hipertensão no contexto da atenção primária à saúde no Brasil. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi realizado em 2009 em dois municípios do Nordeste do Brasil. Realizou-se uma seleção probabilística 725 de indivíduos adultos cadastrados no programa de controle de hipertensos do Ministério da Saúde (Hiperdia). Inicialmente, foram formuladas 65 perguntas com respostas em escala tipo Likert, norteadas pela Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCATool), reunidas em oito dimensões da atenção primária à saúde (saúde do caso confirmado de hipertensão, acesso ao diagnóstico, acesso ao tratamento, adesão/vínculo, elenco de serviços, coordenação, enfoque na família e orientação para a comunidade). O processo de validação do instrumento envolveu: consulta a especialistas, validação da escala tipo Likert, análise fatorial exploratória, análise de consistência interna e análise fatorial confirmatória. RESULTADOS: Quarenta e cinco perguntas que satisfizeram todos os critérios foram confirmadas e utilizadas para compor os fatores definitivos. O estudo de validação do instrumento mostrou uma elevada consistência interna em seu conjunto (a de Cronbach = 91,5%) e em cada uma das oito dimensões (> 70%). Todos os indicativos de confiabilidade e de validade diagnosticados neste estudo mostram que a avaliação do nível de satisfação dos usuários hipertensos medida pelo instrumento é válida e confiável. CONCLUSÕES: O instrumento pode ser reproduzido e utilizado com usuários hipertensos adultos da rede de atenção primária em outras partes do Brasil.<hr/>OBJECTIVE: To validate an instrument to evaluate the level of satisfaction of hypertensive adults with hypertension control services in the context of primary health care in Brazil. METHODS: The study was carried out in 2009, in two municipalities located in Northeast Brazil. A probabilistic sample of 725 adults was selected among participants of the Ministry of Health hypertension control program (Hiperdia). Sixty-five Likert-like items were initially developed guided by the Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCATool), distributed in eight primary care dimensions (health status of confirmed hypertension case, access to diagnosis, access to treatment, adherence, services provided, coordination, focus on family, and community guidance). The process of validation covered consultation with specialists, validation of the Likert-like choices, exploratory factorial analysis, analysis of internal consistency, and confirmatory factorial analysis. RESULTS: Forty-five items that satisfied all criteria were confirmed and used in the final scale. The instrument's validation study revealed high overall internal consistency (Cronbach a = 91.5%) and high internal consistency in each of the eight dimensions (> 70%). All reliability and validity indicators show that the evaluation of user satisfaction level with the proposed instrument is valid and reliable. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed instrument can be reproduced and used with adult hypertensive individuals receiving primary health care in other regions of Brazil. <![CDATA[<b>Orphans of the Mexican drug war</b>: <b>insights on a public health challenge</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892014000700004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: To describe how the Government of Mexico and other direct stakeholders perceive children orphaned by the drug war; to determine the current measures addressing this as a public health problem; and to compare these measures to international frameworks so that relevant recommendations can be identified. METHODS: This was an exploratory, descriptive case study using qualitative methods. Semi-structured interviews were performed with key informants at the federal, state, and municipal government levels in Mexico, as well as non-governmental organizations, and other institutes working with orphans. Participants were identified with a purposive snowball sample. RESULTS: No official definition of "orphan" was identified; nor was there a shared perception among the key informants of what constitutes being an orphan. An official, collective definition is important because it modifies the quantity of children categorized as such within the target population. Although most of the interviewees perceive that the number of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) has increased in the last 6 years, they acknowledged there is no reliable data to prove it. The increase, they believe, is due not to the drug war, but to a loss of family cohesion. Stakeholders recommend improving public policies, currently identified as the most difficult barrier to overcome due to a perceived inability to modify existing laws. However, the General Law for Victims was recently passed by the Government of Mexico and addresses many of the challenges identified. CONCLUSIONS: When compared to the international frameworks, there are three major issues in Mexico's current situation: coordination among and within stakeholders; emphasis on using community solutions; and putting in place preventive programs. For two of these problems, the General Law of Victims offers solutions.<hr/>OBJETIVO: Describir cómo el Gobierno de México y otros interesados directos perciben el tema de los niños huérfanos como consecuencia de la lucha contra el narcotráfico; determinar las iniciativas actuales que abordan este tema como un problema de salud pública; y comparar estas iniciativas con los marcos internacionales con objeto de poder determinar las recomendaciones pertinentes. MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio de casos exploratorio y descriptivo que utilizó métodos cualitativos. Se llevaron a cabo entrevistas semiestructuradas con informantes clave a escalas federal, estatal y municipal del gobierno de México, así como con organizaciones no gubernamentales y otras instituciones que colaboraban con los huérfanos. Los participantes fueron seleccionados mediante un muestreo intencionado de bola de nieve. RESULTADOS: No se encontró ninguna definición oficial de "huérfano"; ni existía entre los informantes clave una percepción compartida de lo que constituye ser un huérfano. Es importante que exista una definición oficial y colectiva porque modifica la cantidad de niños clasificados como tales entre la población examinada. Aunque la mayor parte de los entrevistados perciben que el número de niños huérfanos y vulnerables (NHV) ha aumentado en los seis últimos años, también reconocen que no existen datos fidedignos que lo demuestren. Creen que el aumento no se debe a la lucha contra el narcotráfico sino a una pérdida de la cohesión familiar. Los interesados directos recomiendan mejorar las políticas públicas, que actualmente se consideran como la barrera más difícil de superar, dada la incapacidad percibida para modificar las leyes existentes. Sin embargo, el Gobierno de México aprobó recientemente la Ley General de Víctimas, que aborda muchos de los retos señalados. CONCLUSIONES: En comparación con los marcos internacionales, existen tres asuntos principales en la situación actual de México: la coordinación entre y dentro de los distintos grupos de interesados directos; el énfasis en el empleo de soluciones comunitarias; y la implantación de programas preventivos. La Ley General de Víctimas ofrece una solución para dos de estos problemas. <![CDATA[<b>Human respiratory syncytial virus and metapneumovirus in patients with acute respiratory infection in Colombia, 2000 - 2011</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892014000700005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) in Colombia from 2000 - 2011, including seasonal trends. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal aspirates and/or throat swabs from 14 870 patients with acute respiratory infections (ARI) were studied. Two subgroups were analyzed using molecular biology techniques. The first consisted of 264 RSV indirect fluorescence assay (IFA)-positive samples, the second of 264 RSV IFA-negative samples. RSV and hMPV were detected using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: 2 799 samples (18.8%) contained a respiratory virus. RSV was detected by IFA in 1 333 samples (8.9%). RSV was detected by RT-PCR in 192 samples from the RSV IFA-positive subgroup and in 25 samples from the RSV IFA-negative subgroup. hMPV was detected in eight samples from the RSV IFA-positive subgroup and in 11 samples from the RSV IFA-negative subgroup. Among the RSV infections, subtype A was dominant in two-year intervals, subtype B was dominant in one-year intervals. 85.3% of RSV and 74% of hMPV infections occurred in children younger than 5 years old. RSV and hMPV infections were associated with rainy seasons. Co-infection with RSV A and RSV B was detected in two patients. Five cases of co-infection with RSV and hMPV were detected. CONCLUSIONS: This report is the first to examine the epidemiology of ARIs in Colombia, with an emphasis on RSV and hMPV. The samples studied here were obtained over a 12-year period and represent all age groups and both genders.<hr/>OBJETIVO: Describir la epidemiología y tendencias estacionales del virus sincitial respiratorio (VSR) y metapneumovirus humano (MPVh) en Colombia durante el período 2000 - 2011. MÉTODOS: Se recolectaron aspirados nasofaríngeos o hisopados faríngeos de 14 870 pacientes con infección respiratoria aguda. Se analizaron dos subgrupos por técnicas de biología molecular. El primero estuvo compuesto por 264 muestras positivas para el VSR por inmunofluorescencia indirecta (IFI), y el segundo estuvo compuesto por 264 muestras negativas para el VSR por IFI. La técnica utilizada para la detección del VSR y el MPVh en ambos subgrupos fue la transcripción inversa asociada a la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (RT-PCR). RESULTADOS: 2 799 muestras (18,8%) contenían algún virus respiratorio. Se detectó VSR por IFI en 1 333 muestras (8,9%), e igualmente fue detectado por RT-PCR en 192 muestras en el subgrupo de muestras positivas para el VSR por IFI y en 25 muestras en el subgrupo de muestras negativas para el VSR por IFI. Se detectó MPVh en 8 muestras en el subgrupo de muestras positivas para el VSR por IFI, y en 11 muestras en el subgrupo de muestras negativas para el VSR por IFI. De las infecciones causadas por el VSR, el subtipo A fue dominante en períodos bianuales; en contraste, el subtipo B fue dominante en períodos anuales. El 85,3% de las infecciones por el VSR y 74% de las infecciones por el MPVh ocurrieron en niños menores de 5 años de edad. Las infecciones causadas por el VSR y el MPVh se asociaron con las estaciones de lluvia. Se encontró coinfección con VSR A y VSR B en 2 pacientes, y coinfección con VSR y MPVh en 5 pacientes. CONCLUSIONES: Esta investigación es la primera en estudiar la epidemiología de las infecciones respiratorias agudas en Colombia, con énfasis en las causadas por el VSR y el MPVh. Las muestras estudiadas fueron recolectadas durante un período de 12 años y representan todos los grupos etarios de ambos sexos. <![CDATA[<b>Diagnostic accuracy of hemoglobin for iron deficiency in pregnancy</b>: <b>disclosing results of a cited clinical trial</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892014000700006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: To analyze the accuracy of hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations as a diagnostic indicator of iron deficiency in pregnant women and to measure the efficacy of oral iron therapy using Hb z-scores rather than Hb absolute values. METHODS: The sensitivity and specificity of Hb < 11.0 g/dL, and its receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, in the diagnosis of iron deficiency (serum ferritin (SF) < 12.0 ng/mL) were determined in 318 women in their second trimester of pregnancy who had been screened for a clinical trial conducted in 2001 in Northeast Brazil. A secondary analysis of iron therapy efficacy was carried out using data from the trial's three different treatments (60 mg of oral iron once per week (n = 46), twice per week (n = 50), and once per day (n = 44)). The mean differences between post- and pre-treatment Hb absolute values (g/dL) and z-scores (standard deviation (SD)) were calculated for the three treatment groups for study participants with and without iron deficiency. RESULTS: Hb sensitivity, specificity, and area under the ROC curve were 60.7%, 44.3%, and 0.54 respectively. Women without iron deficiency showed improvements in Hb absolute values (as in the clinical trial's overall results) but did not have improved Hb z-scores (with scores of - 0.6 SD (95% confidence interval (CI): - 0.99, - 0.28); - 0.2 SD (95% CI: - 0.47, 0.08); and - 0.1 SD (95% CI: - 0.33, 0.18) for weekly, twice-per-week, and daily iron treatment schemes respectively). In contrast, iron-deficient women treated with the intermittent schemes had reductions in both Hb absolute values and Hb z-scores, respectively: weekly = - 0.42 g/dL (95% CI: - 0.72, - 0.12) and - 1.4 SD (95% CI: - 1.74, - 0.99); twice per week = - 0.14 g/dL (95% CI: - 0.46, 0.17) and - 1.1 SD (95% CI: - 1.44, - 0.75). CONCLUSIONS: These analyses revealed that Hb concentrations were not an accurate indicator of either iron needs or iron-therapy response in pregnant women.<hr/>OBJETIVO: Analizar la precisión de las concentraciones de hemoglobina (Hb) como indicador diagnóstico de la carencia de hierro en mujeres embarazadas, y medir la eficacia del tratamiento con hierro por vía oral empleando las puntuaciones z de Hb en lugar de sus valores absolutos. MÉTODOS: Se determinaron la sensibilidad y la especificidad de un valor de Hb < 11,0 g/dl, y su curva de eficacia diagnóstica (ROC, por sus siglas en inglés), en el diagnóstico de la carencia de hierro (ferritina sérica [FS] < 12,0 ng/ml) en 318 mujeres que estaban en su segundo trimestre de embarazo y habían sido sometidas a tamizaje para un estudio clínico llevado a cabo en el noreste del Brasil el año 2001. Se realizó un análisis secundario de la eficacia del tratamiento con hierro mediante el empleo de los datos de tres pautas de tratamiento diferentes incluidas en el estudio (60 mg de hierro por vía oral una vez por semana [n = 46], dos veces por semana [n = 50], y una vez al día [n = 44]). Se calcularon las diferencias medias entre los valores absolutos (en g/dl) de Hb y las puntuaciones z (desviaciones estándar [DE]), posteriores y previos al tratamiento, correspondientes a los tres grupos de tratamiento de participantes en el estudio con y sin carencia de hierro. RESULTADOS: La sensibilidad, la especificidad y el área bajo la curva ROC de la Hb fueron de 60,7, 44,3 y 0,54%, respectivamente. Las mujeres que no tenían carencia de hierro mostraron incrementos de los valores absolutos de Hb (de manera similar a los resultados globales del estudio clínico) pero no presentaron mejores puntuaciones z de Hb (puntuaciones de - 0,6 DE [IC de 95%: - 0,99, - 0,28]; - 0,2 DE [IC de 95%: - 0,47, 0,08]; y - 0,1 DE [IC de 95%: - 0,33, 0,18], correspondientes a las pautas de ferroterapia de una vez por semana, dos veces por semana y una vez al día, respectivamente). Por el contrario, las mujeres que tenían carencia de hierro y fueron tratadas mediante las pautas intermitentes presentaron reducciones tanto de los valores absolutos como de las puntuaciones z de Hb, respectivamente: una vez por semana = - 0,42 g/dl (IC de 95%: - 0,72, - 0,12) y - 1,4 DE (IC de 95%: - 1,74, - 0,99); dos veces por semana = - 0,14 g/dl (IC de 95%: - 0,46, 0,17) y - 1,1 DE (IC de 95%: - 1,44, - 0,75). CONCLUSIONES: Estos análisis revelaron que las concentraciones de Hb no eran un indicador preciso de las necesidades de hierro ni de la respuesta al tratamiento con hierro en las mujeres embarazadas. <![CDATA[<b>Opportunities for physical therapy contributions to primary health care in the South of Brazil</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892014000700007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Identificar situações com potencialidade para atuação da fisioterapia em uma área de abrangência da Estratégia Saúde da Família no Sul do Brasil. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo transversal, foram visitados 629 domicílios e coletadas informações sobre 2 316 pessoas através de um instrumento semiestruturado que investigou a existência de agravos à saúde com potencialidade para atuação da fisioterapia (diabetes, hipertensão arterial, doenças osteomusculares, doenças neurológicas, doenças respiratórias em adultos e crianças). Na presença desses agravos, investigamos se as famílias ou pacientes haviam recebido orientação para melhora da qualidade de vida e qual profissional havia fornecido essas informações. Finalmente, investigamos se os entrevistados conheciam o atendimento fisioterapêutico e a demanda por esse tipo de atendimento ao longo da vida e nos últimos 12 meses. RESULTADOS: Nas 629 famílias investigadas, foram referidos os seguintes agravos: diabetes (11,9%), hipertensão (46,9%), doenças osteomusculares (36,7%), doenças neurológicas (3,4%), doenças respiratórias em adultos (18,9%) e crianças (15,7%) e atraso do desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor (DNPM) (3,8%). O recebimento de orientações específicas foi referido por 57,3% dos diabéticos, 64,1% dos hipertensos, 39,8% dos portadores de doenças osteomusculares, 45,5% dos doentes neurológicos, 26,9% dos adultos e 60,6% das crianças com doenças respiratórias e 62,5% das crianças com atraso do DNPM. Em relação ao conhecimento sobre a profissão, 92,4% já tinham ouvido falar em fisioterapia. Desses, 41,0% relataram ter necessitado fisioterapia alguma vez na vida, sendo a maioria (54,4%) para patologias traumato-ortopédicas. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados respaldam a necessidade de inserção do fisioterapeuta na equipe da Estratégia Saúde da Família.<hr/>OBJECTIVE: To identify opportunities for physical therapy contributions in an area covered by the Family Health Strategy in the South of Brazil. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 629 households were visited and information on 2 316 people was collected using a semi-structured instrument investigating the occurrence of health problems that could benefit from physical therapy (diabetes, hypertension, musculoskeletal diseases, neurological disorders, respiratory diseases in adults and children). When health problems were identified, we investigated whether the families or patients had received guidance to improve quality of life, and which professionals had provided advice. Finally, we investigated whether respondents were familiar with physical therapy and if they had required this type of care in their lifetime or in the past 12 months. RESULTS: The following health problems were reported by 629 participating families: diabetes (11.9%), hypertension (46.9%), musculoskeletal disorders (36.7%), neurological diseases (3.4%), respiratory diseases in adults (18.9%) and children (15.7%) and developmental delay (3.8%). Specific guidance was provided to 57.3% of people with diabetes, 64.1% of people with hypertension, 39.8% of people with musculoskeletal disorders, 45.5% of neurological patients, 26.9% of adults and 60.6% of children with respiratory diseases and 62.5% of children with developmental delay. Regarding knowledge about the profession, 92.4% of respondents were familiar with physical therapy. Of these, 41% reported having had the need for physical therapy, mostly (54.4%) for trauma/orthopedic disorders. CONCLUSIONS: The present results warrant the inclusion of physical therapists as part of the Family Health Strategy team in Brazil. <![CDATA[<b>Systematic review of risk factors for suicide and suicide attempt among psychiatric patients in Latin America and Caribbean</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892014000700008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: To analyze published evidence from the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region pertaining to risk factors for completed suicide and suicide attempts among psychiatric populations. METHODS: Potential studies were identified through systematic electronic searches in MEDLINE and LILACS. Included studies were cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional designed investigations of psychiatric samples in which suicide or a suicide attempt was reported as an outcome and evaluated with some measure of impact (odds ratio, risk ratio, or hazard ratio). Methodological quality was assessed using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) recommendations. RESULTS: Of the 2 987 identified studies, a total of 17 studies were reviewed to determine potential suicidal risk factors. Eleven studies used a case-control design, five used a cross-sectional design, and only one study used a prospective-cohort design. The main risk factors for suicide attempts in LAC included major depressive disorder (MDD), family dysfunction, and prior suicide attempt, while the main risk factors for completed suicide were male gender and MDD. The methodological quality of most of the studies was low. CONCLUSIONS: This review provides evidence that the majority of relevant risk factors for suicide and suicide attempts in the LAC region are similar to those observed in Western societies but different from those reported in Eastern societies. Studies of higher methodological quality from the region are needed to support these results.<hr/>OBJETIVO: Analizar los datos probatorios publicados de la región de América Latina y el Caribe (ALC) que fueran pertinentes a los factores de riesgo de suicidio consumado e intentos de suicidio entre las poblaciones psiquiátricas. MÉTODOS: Se seleccionaron los posibles estudios mediante búsquedas electrónicas sistemáticas en MEDLINE y LILACS. Se incluyeron estudios cuyos diseños de investigación fueran de cohortes, de casos y controles, o transversales de muestras psiquiátricas, y en los que el suicidio o un intento de suicidio se notificaran como un resultado, y se evaluaran mediante alguna medida de la repercusión (razón de posibilidades, razón de riesgos o razón de riesgos instantáneos). Se evaluó la calidad metodológica mediante el uso de las recomendaciones de la iniciativa de Fortalecimiento de la Notificación de los Estudios Observacionales en Epidemiología (STROBE, por sus siglas en inglés). RESULTADOS: Se analizaron 17 de los 2 987 estudios seleccionados con objeto de determinar los posibles factores de riesgo de suicidio. Once estudios usaron un diseño de casos y controles, cinco usaron un diseño transversal, y un único estudio usó un diseño de cohortes prospectivo. Los principales factores de riesgo de intento de suicidio en ALC fueron el trastorno depresivo mayor (TDM), la disfunción familiar y el intento de suicidio previo, mientras que los principales factores de riesgo de suicidio consumado fueron el sexo masculino y el TDM. La mayor parte de los estudios mostraron una mala calidad metodológica. CONCLUSIONES: Esta revisión aporta datos probatorios de que la mayor parte de los factores de riesgo pertinentes al suicidio y los intentos de suicidio en la región de ALC son similares a los observados en las sociedades occidentales pero diferentes a los notificados en las sociedades orientales. Se necesitan estudios regionales de mayor calidad metodológica para apoyar estos resultados. <![CDATA[<b>The positive deviance approach to change nutrition behavior</b>: <b>a systematic review</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892014000700009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Realizar uma revisão sistemática da literatura sobre a utilização do método do desvio positivo para promover a mudança de comportamento alimentar, a fim de identificar as potencialidades desse método para a educação em saúde e nutrição. MÉTODOS: As bases acessadas foram: Biblioteca Cochrane, LILACS, MEDLINE, SciELO, PubMed e Scopus. Os descritores utilizados para a busca foram: positive deviance, desvio positivo, positive deviance inquiry e positive deviants. Os critérios de inclusão foram presença de dados originais, metodologia claramente definida e textos disponíveis na íntegra. Os estudos selecionados tiveram seus principais resultados descritos e analisados através de critérios psicossociais (condições socioeconômicas e de saúde, hábitos de higiene e alimentares), antropométricos (peso, altura), bioquímicos e clínicos (presença de morbidades e exames bioquímicos) para determinar as potencialidades e limitações do desvio positivo para mudar o comportamento alimentar. RESULTADOS: Dos 47 estudos identificados, nove atenderam os critérios de inclusão. Os objetivos descritos da aplicação do desvio positivo foram: prevenção e reabilitação da desnutrição materna e infantil em áreas de vulnerabilidade socioeconômica e tratamento do sobrepeso e obesidade em adultos. A melhoria de indicadores de nutrição materno-infantil e a sustentabilidade de comportamentos benéficos destacaram-se como potencialidades do desvio positivo. CONCLUSÕES: O desvio positivo pode contribuir para promover mudanças no comportamento alimentar com vistas à reversão de quadros de desnutrição infantil, bem como de sobrepeso e obesidade em adultos. O desvio positivo parece ser eficaz para promover educação em saúde em áreas de vulnerabilidade socioeconômica.<hr/>OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of the literature describing the use of the positive deviance approach to change nutrition behavior in order to identify the potentials of this method for health and nutrition education. METHODS: Cochrane Library, LILACS, MEDLINE, SciELO, PubMed, and Scopus were searched. The following search terms were used: positive deviance, desvio positivo, positive deviance inquiry and positive deviants. Inclusion criteria were: reporting primary data, clearly defined methods, and availability of full text. The main results of the studies selected for inclusion were described and examined based on psychosocial (socioeconomic and health status, hygiene and nutrition habits), anthropometric (weight, height), and biochemical and clinical (presence of morbidity and biochemical tests) criteria to determine the potential and limitations of the positive deviance approach to change nutrition behavior. RESULTS: Of the 47 studies identified, nine met the inclusion criteria. The positive deviance method was used for prevention and rehabilitation of child and maternal malnutrition in areas of socioeconomic vulnerability and for the treatment of overweight and obesity in adults. An improvement in maternal and child nutrition and the maintenance of beneficial behaviors over time were underscored as positive impacts of the method. CONCLUSIONS: The positive deviance approach may help change nutrition behaviors with the aim of reversing child malnutrition and overweight and obesity in adults. This approach seems effective to promote health education in areas of socioeconomic vulnerability. <![CDATA[<b>Environmental health in Peru</b>: <b>outdoor and indoor air contamination</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892014000700010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Realizar uma revisão sistemática da literatura sobre a utilização do método do desvio positivo para promover a mudança de comportamento alimentar, a fim de identificar as potencialidades desse método para a educação em saúde e nutrição. MÉTODOS: As bases acessadas foram: Biblioteca Cochrane, LILACS, MEDLINE, SciELO, PubMed e Scopus. Os descritores utilizados para a busca foram: positive deviance, desvio positivo, positive deviance inquiry e positive deviants. Os critérios de inclusão foram presença de dados originais, metodologia claramente definida e textos disponíveis na íntegra. Os estudos selecionados tiveram seus principais resultados descritos e analisados através de critérios psicossociais (condições socioeconômicas e de saúde, hábitos de higiene e alimentares), antropométricos (peso, altura), bioquímicos e clínicos (presença de morbidades e exames bioquímicos) para determinar as potencialidades e limitações do desvio positivo para mudar o comportamento alimentar. RESULTADOS: Dos 47 estudos identificados, nove atenderam os critérios de inclusão. Os objetivos descritos da aplicação do desvio positivo foram: prevenção e reabilitação da desnutrição materna e infantil em áreas de vulnerabilidade socioeconômica e tratamento do sobrepeso e obesidade em adultos. A melhoria de indicadores de nutrição materno-infantil e a sustentabilidade de comportamentos benéficos destacaram-se como potencialidades do desvio positivo. CONCLUSÕES: O desvio positivo pode contribuir para promover mudanças no comportamento alimentar com vistas à reversão de quadros de desnutrição infantil, bem como de sobrepeso e obesidade em adultos. O desvio positivo parece ser eficaz para promover educação em saúde em áreas de vulnerabilidade socioeconômica.<hr/>OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of the literature describing the use of the positive deviance approach to change nutrition behavior in order to identify the potentials of this method for health and nutrition education. METHODS: Cochrane Library, LILACS, MEDLINE, SciELO, PubMed, and Scopus were searched. The following search terms were used: positive deviance, desvio positivo, positive deviance inquiry and positive deviants. Inclusion criteria were: reporting primary data, clearly defined methods, and availability of full text. The main results of the studies selected for inclusion were described and examined based on psychosocial (socioeconomic and health status, hygiene and nutrition habits), anthropometric (weight, height), and biochemical and clinical (presence of morbidity and biochemical tests) criteria to determine the potential and limitations of the positive deviance approach to change nutrition behavior. RESULTS: Of the 47 studies identified, nine met the inclusion criteria. The positive deviance method was used for prevention and rehabilitation of child and maternal malnutrition in areas of socioeconomic vulnerability and for the treatment of overweight and obesity in adults. An improvement in maternal and child nutrition and the maintenance of beneficial behaviors over time were underscored as positive impacts of the method. CONCLUSIONS: The positive deviance approach may help change nutrition behaviors with the aim of reversing child malnutrition and overweight and obesity in adults. This approach seems effective to promote health education in areas of socioeconomic vulnerability. <![CDATA[<b>Vasectomy and prostate cancer</b>: <b>the controversy reignited</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892014000700011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Realizar uma revisão sistemática da literatura sobre a utilização do método do desvio positivo para promover a mudança de comportamento alimentar, a fim de identificar as potencialidades desse método para a educação em saúde e nutrição. MÉTODOS: As bases acessadas foram: Biblioteca Cochrane, LILACS, MEDLINE, SciELO, PubMed e Scopus. Os descritores utilizados para a busca foram: positive deviance, desvio positivo, positive deviance inquiry e positive deviants. Os critérios de inclusão foram presença de dados originais, metodologia claramente definida e textos disponíveis na íntegra. Os estudos selecionados tiveram seus principais resultados descritos e analisados através de critérios psicossociais (condições socioeconômicas e de saúde, hábitos de higiene e alimentares), antropométricos (peso, altura), bioquímicos e clínicos (presença de morbidades e exames bioquímicos) para determinar as potencialidades e limitações do desvio positivo para mudar o comportamento alimentar. RESULTADOS: Dos 47 estudos identificados, nove atenderam os critérios de inclusão. Os objetivos descritos da aplicação do desvio positivo foram: prevenção e reabilitação da desnutrição materna e infantil em áreas de vulnerabilidade socioeconômica e tratamento do sobrepeso e obesidade em adultos. A melhoria de indicadores de nutrição materno-infantil e a sustentabilidade de comportamentos benéficos destacaram-se como potencialidades do desvio positivo. CONCLUSÕES: O desvio positivo pode contribuir para promover mudanças no comportamento alimentar com vistas à reversão de quadros de desnutrição infantil, bem como de sobrepeso e obesidade em adultos. O desvio positivo parece ser eficaz para promover educação em saúde em áreas de vulnerabilidade socioeconômica.<hr/>OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of the literature describing the use of the positive deviance approach to change nutrition behavior in order to identify the potentials of this method for health and nutrition education. METHODS: Cochrane Library, LILACS, MEDLINE, SciELO, PubMed, and Scopus were searched. The following search terms were used: positive deviance, desvio positivo, positive deviance inquiry and positive deviants. Inclusion criteria were: reporting primary data, clearly defined methods, and availability of full text. The main results of the studies selected for inclusion were described and examined based on psychosocial (socioeconomic and health status, hygiene and nutrition habits), anthropometric (weight, height), and biochemical and clinical (presence of morbidity and biochemical tests) criteria to determine the potential and limitations of the positive deviance approach to change nutrition behavior. RESULTS: Of the 47 studies identified, nine met the inclusion criteria. The positive deviance method was used for prevention and rehabilitation of child and maternal malnutrition in areas of socioeconomic vulnerability and for the treatment of overweight and obesity in adults. An improvement in maternal and child nutrition and the maintenance of beneficial behaviors over time were underscored as positive impacts of the method. CONCLUSIONS: The positive deviance approach may help change nutrition behaviors with the aim of reversing child malnutrition and overweight and obesity in adults. This approach seems effective to promote health education in areas of socioeconomic vulnerability.