Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública]]> http://www.scielosp.org/rss.php?pid=1020-498919970007&lang=en vol. 2 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielosp.org/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielosp.org <![CDATA[<strong>Multifactorial analysis of the risk factors for low birthweight in Salvador, Bahia</strong>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49891997000700001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en El presente estudio constituye un análisis multifactorial de los factores de riesgo de bajo peso al nacer en un grupo de recién nacidos en una zona urbana del Brasil. Se incluyeron en el estudio un total de 1 023 nacidos vivos, dados a luz en cuatro maternidades de Salvador, Bahia, entre julio de 1987 y febrero de 1988. Las fuentes de información fueron las historias clínicas y las entrevistas con las madres en la maternidad. El análisis se realizó mediante regresión logística. En el modelo final los factores de riesgo incluidos fueron los siguientes: edad materna menos de 21 años o más de 35; edad gestacional menos de 38 semanas; resultado desfavorable del embarazo anterior; intervalo intergenésico previo de 12 meses o menos; tabaquismo; e hipertensión. Se presentan los valores del riesgo atribuible poblacional para los factores de riesgo incluidos en el modelo final. Esos factores deben emplearse para detectar a las gestantes con alto riesgo de dar a luz un niño de bajo peso, a las que debe brindarse mayor atención prenatal.<hr/>This study is a multifactorial analysis of the risk factors for low birthweight in a group of newborns in an urban area of Brazil. A total of 1 023 infants born in four maternity units in Salvador, Bahia, between July 1987 and February 1988 were included in the study. The sources of information were clinical histories and interviews with the mothers in the maternity units. The analysis was by means of logistic regression. In the final model the risk factors were the following: maternal age less than 21 years or more than 35; gestational age less than 38 weeks; unfavorable outcome of an earlier pregnancy; interval of 12 months or less since prior birth; tobacco smoking; and hypertension. The population attributable risk values for the risk factors included in the final model are presented. These factors should be used to identify pregnant women at high risk of giving birth to a low-birthweight baby, in order to provide them with more prenatal care. <![CDATA[<b>A modified cluster-sampling method for post-disaster rapid assessment of needs </b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49891997000700002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en El método de muestreo por conglomerados puede utilizarse para llevar a cabo la evaluación rápida de las necesidades de salud y de otro tipo en comunidades afectadas por desastres naturales. El método, que se basa en el modelo usado por el Programa Ampliado de Inmunización de la OMS para estimar la cobertura con vacunación, ha sido modificado para que proporcione 1) estimaciones de la población que queda en una zona determinada y 2) estimaciones del número de personas con necesidades específicas en la zona que ha sido afectada por un desastre. Este enfoque difiere del que se ha usado anteriormente a raíz de otros desastres en que las evaluaciones rápidas de las necesidades solo han consistido en estimar la proporción de la población con necesidades específicas. Aquí se propone un diseño de encuesta modificado que se basa en el uso de n x k para calcular la población restante, la gravedad del daño, la proporción y el número de personas con necesidades específicas, el número de domicilios dañados o destruidos y los cambios que sufren estas estimaciones en determinado período como parte de la encuesta.<hr/>The cluster-sampling method can be used to conduct rapid assessment of health and other needs in communities affected by natural disasters. Modelled after WHO's Expanded Programme on Immunization method of estimating immunization coverage, the method has been modified to provide (1) estimates of the population remaining in an area, and (2) estimates of the number of people in the post-disaster area with specific needs. This approach differs from that used previously in other disasters where rapid needs assessments only estimated the proportion of the population with specific needs. We proposed a modified n x k survey design to estimate the remaining population, severity of damage, the proportion and number of people with specific needs, the number of damaged or destroyed and remaining housing units, and the changes in these estimates over a period of time as part of the survey. <![CDATA[<b>Maternal and child health indicators</b>: <b>implications of the tenth revision of the International Classification of Diseases</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49891997000700003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Since the end of the 1940s, when the World Health Organization assumed responsibility for the decennial revisions of the Classification of Causes of Death, the Classification came to include diseases and definitions of use in vital statistics, resulting in the Sixth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-6). The most recent revision of this work, the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10), is more significantly different than any revision since ICD-6, especially in the area of maternal and child health. Among the changes introduced in ICD-10 are the inclusion of obstetrical tetanus in the chapter on infectious diseases, which will facilitate the recording of this cause of maternal death; the incorporation of new definitions, such as late maternal death; and the redefinition of the perinatal period, which ICD-10 defines as starting at 22 completed weeks of gestation and ending 7 completed days after birth. This article seeks to highlight these changes and to discuss their consequences for the presentation and interpretation of indicators used in the evaluation of maternal and child health.<hr/>A partir de finales de los años cuarenta, cuando la OMS asumió la responsabilidad de revisar cada decenio la Clasificación Internacional de Causas de Defunción, la Clasificación vino a incluir enfermedades y definiciones de utilidad para las estadísticas vitales, y ello dio por resultado la Sexta Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades (CID-6). La revisión más reciente de esta obra, que es la Clasificación Estadística Internacional de Enfermedades y Problemas Relacionados con la Salud (CID-10), representa los cambios más importantes que se han efectuado desde la CID-6, principalmente en lo relativo al área maternoinfantil. Entre los cambios introducidos en la CID-10 figuran la inclusión del tétanos obstétrico en el capítulo sobre enfermedades infecciosas, que facilitará el registro de esta causa de muerte materna; la incorporación de nuevas definiciones, tales como la de muerte materna tardía; y la redefinición del período perinatal, que según lo define la CID-10 se extiende desde las 22 semanas de gestación hasta el séptimo día después del nacimiento. El artículo resalta estos cambios y examina sus consecuencias para la presentación e interpretación de los indicadores que se usan en la evaluación de la salud materna e infantil. <![CDATA[<strong>Use of insecticide-impregnated mosquito nets and other impregnated materials for malaria control in the Americas</strong>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49891997000700004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article reviews the current status of the use of insecticide-impregnated mosquito nets and other impregnated materials in the Americas. Studies from Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela are examined. It is concluded that most studies have suffered from experimental design errors, short duration problems, and/or inadequate measurement of health indicators. The review brings out the great difficulty of conducting scientific studies that attempt to measure the impact of insecticide-treated materials on malaria incidence. In particular, the low incidence of malaria in the Americas, the high prevalences of P. vivax and relapsing cases, and the relationship between human activity patterns and the crepuscular biting patterns of certain malaria vectors stand in the way of easy experimental design and execution. The utilization of impregnated mosquito nets or other impregnated materials as a major component of an integrated malaria control program would be premature at this time. However, it is recommended that well-conceived large-scale trials and interventions be considered when they are based on a thorough understanding of the dynamics of malaria transmission in the area of study.<hr/>En este artículo se revisa el uso actual en las Américas de mosquiteros y otros materiales impregnados con insecticida. Se examinan diversos estudios efectuados en el Brasil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Perú, Suriname y Venezuela y se llega a la conclusión de que en su mayor parte estos estudios adolecen de graves deficiencias de diseño, problemas de excesiva brevedad, o de una medición inadecuada de los indicadores de salud. La revisión resalta la gran dificultad de llevar a cabo estudios que buscan medir el impacto de los materiales tratados con insecticidas sobre la incidencia de malaria. En particular, la baja incidencia de malaria en las Américas, las altas prevalencias de Plasmodium vivax y de casos recurrentes y la relación entre los patrones de actividad de los seres humanos y los hábitos de picadura crepusculares de los mosquitos impiden hacer experimentos de fácil diseño y ejecución. Por ahora sería prematuro usar mosquiteros u otros materiales impregnados como componentes principales de un programa integral para el control de la malaria. No obstante, se recomienda que se considere llevar a cabo ensayos bien diseñados a gran escala siempre que se basen en un conocimiento profundo de la dinámica de la transmisión de la malaria en la zona del estudio. <![CDATA[<b>The Canadian health system and its financing</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49891997000700005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This work stems from a brief visit in 1993 to the Canadian health services as part of the PAHO International Health Training Program and the subsequent research, discussion, and analysis relating to that experience. By no means is this paper an exhaustive account of the system, but rather a close look at one of its aspects: financing. The main objective is to identify some of the virtues and limitations of a health system that is considered one of the most efficient, effective, and equitable in the world. Although the Canadian health system is financed by the federal government and the provincial governments, cost containment is a constant concern, since factors such as the growing use of highly complex technologies, hospital care, and long-term treatment of chronic and degenerative illnesses tend to increase costs. The progressive reduction in the federal budget has led to more efficient use of resources and the rationalization of installed capacity. At the same time, the relative simplicity of the system’s operation has permitted administrative costs to be kept low. In addition, alternative forms of care, such as local centers for community-based care, care at home and in special institutions to promote the maximum level of self-sufficiency, and the use of volunteers, have been devised in order to partially control cost increases. The people’s participation in planning and decision-making permit them to guide the development of the health services. Nevertheless, given the current situation, it is essential that the system be modified to prepare it for the challenges the twenty-first century will bring.<hr/>El presente trabajo es el fruto de una breve visita realizada en 1993 a los servicios de salud de Canadá como parte del Programa de Formación en Salud Internacional de la OPS, y de un subsiguiente ejercicio de investigación, discusión y análisis. No pretende en modo alguno ser exhaustivo, sino más bien aproximarse a uno de los aspectos relevantes del sistema: su financiamiento. El objetivo central es identificar algunas de las virtudes y limitaciones de un sistema de salud que se considera de los más eficientes, efectivos y equitativos del mundo. A pesar de que el gobierno federal y los gobiernos provinciales financian el sistema de salud canadiense, la contención de costos es una preocupación constante, ya que factores como el uso creciente de tecnologías de alta complejidad, la atención hospitalaria y el tratamiento prolongado de las enfermedades crónicas y degenerativas contribuyen a aumentar los costos. La progresiva reducción del presupuesto federal ha llevado a un uso más eficiente de los recursos y a la racionalización de la capacidad instalada. Asimismo, la relativa sencillez con que funciona el sistema ha permitido mantener bajos los costos administrativos. Además, se han ideado otras formas de atención, como los centros locales de atención comunitaria, la atención domiciliaria y en asilos para promover la autosuficiencia en la medida de lo posible, y el uso de personal voluntario, para controlar parcialmente el incremento de los costos. La participación de la población en la planificación de los servicios de salud y en la toma de decisiones le permite orientar su desarrollo. Dada la situación actual, resulta imprescindible, sin embargo, modificar el sistema para adecuarlo a los desafíos planteados por el siglo XXI. <![CDATA[<b>Health communication and interactive education and their application to control of the diabetic patient</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49891997000700006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en En este artículo se analiza la necesidad de participación de los grupos destinatarios para hacer más efectiva la educación en salud. Partiendo del enfoque tradicional de la educación, se profundiza en las distintas opciones de los procesos de comunicación y educación en este campo. En el modelo de comunicación participatoria, donde se desempeña la doble función de emisor y receptor, se llega a la coproducción de los mensajes de educación en salud. En vista de la experiencia del Programa de Educación en Diabetes del Instituto Nacional de Endocrinología de Cuba, se presenta un modelo de educación en salud basado en una estrategia de comunicación interactiva. Su objetivo es desarrollar en el sujeto la capacidad para pensar y decidir acerca de su salud partiendo de la discusión en grupos, facilitada por el proveedor de salud. En este modelo, el propósito y el contenido educativo los formulan los mismos beneficiarios. El punto de partida de la discusión se centra en el sujeto, tomando en cuenta sus necesidades de salud reales y sentidas. Se revisan los resultados obtenidos con esta metodología y se concluye que el modelo abre nuevas posibilidades educativas que facilitan la toma de decisiones en materia de salud y estilos de vida saludables.<hr/>This article analyzes the need for participation of the groups that are the recipients of health messages in order to make health education more effective. Taking the traditional educational approach as the point of departure, the different options for communication and education processes in this field are explored in depth. The participatory communication model, in which the subject plays the role of both transmitter and recipient, leads to the coproduction of health education messages. In light of the experience of the Diabetes Education Program of the National Endocrinology Institute of Cuba, a health education model based on a strategy of interactive communication is presented. Its objective is to develop in the patient the capability to think and decide about his or her health through discussion groups facilitated by a health care provider. In this model, the beneficiaries of the health message help shape its aim and content. The discussion centers on the patient, taking into account his or her real health needs and feelings. The results obtained with this methodology are reviewed, and it is concluded that this model opens new educational possibilities that will facilitate decision-making with regard to health and healthy lifestyles. <![CDATA[<b>Distribution of human resources in eight general hospitals in São Paulo</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49891997000700007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en O desenvolvimento tecnológico e o aparecimento de novas especialidades médicas motivaram um aumento na divisão de trabalho nos hospitais, com conseqüente criação de subáreas. A redistribuição dos recursos humanos nos hospitais passa, então, a ser uma meta importante para o alcance da eficiência. Através de entrevistas realizadas entre maio e outubro de 1993, com diretores e superintendentes de oito hospitais em São Paulo, Brasil, o presente estudo descreveu e analisou a distribuição dos recursos humanos em quatro grandes áreas: infra-estrutura; internação clínico-cirúrgica; área complementar de diagnóstico e terapêutica; ambulatório e emergência. O estudo analisou também a proporção de funcionários por leito, além de traçar uma comparação entre hospitais públicos e privados. Os resultados revelaram que, em média, a relação funcionários/leito é igual a 6,8. A distribuição percentual de funcionários por grandes áreas, conforme o estudo, foi de 46,9% na infra-estrutura, 10,7% na área complementar de diagnóstico e terapêutica, 32,0% na internação e 10,3% na área de ambulatório/emergência.<hr/>Technological development and the appearance of new medical specialties have led to increased division of labor in hospitals, with the resultant creation of subareas. Therefore, the redistribution of human resources in hospitals has become an important aim in order to achieve efficiency. On the basis of interviews conducted between May and October 1993 with the directors and superintendents of eight hospitals in São Paulo, Brazil, this study describes and analyzes the distribution of human resources in four broad areas: infrastructure, clinico-surgical inpatient care, the complementary area of diagnostics and therapeutics, and emergency and outpatient care. The study also analyzed the ratio of employees per bed, besides outlining a comparison of public and private hospitals. The results revealed that, on average, the ratio of employees to beds was 6.8. The proportional distribution of employees by broad areas was found to be 46.9% in infrastructure, 10.7% in diagnostics and therapeutics, 32.0% in inpatient care, and 10.3% in outpatient/emergency care. <![CDATA[<b>Turnover of nursing personnel in hospitals in Ribeirão Preto</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49891997000700008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Este estudo, desenvolvido em 1990, teve como objetivo a mensuração e a análise da rotatividade dos trabalhadores de enfermagem alocados nos nove hospitais gerais do Município de Ribeirão Preto, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. A população investigada constituiu-se de enfermeiros, auxiliares de enfermagem, técnicos de enfermagem e atendentes de enfermagem admitidos ou demitidos entre 1.° de janeiro e 31 de dezembro de 1990. O acompanhamento foi feito através de consulta mensal junto à seção de pessoal dos hospitais. A rotatividade foi quantificada com a aplicação de dois indicadores de rotatividade, a taxa líquida de substituição e a mediana de tempo de serviço do grupo de trabalhadores demitentes. Os resultados evidenciaram o crescimento da força de trabalho em enfermagem em Ribeirão Preto no ano de 1990. Porém, também ficou evidente a elevada rotatividade, principalmente nos hospitais filantrópicos e privados investigados, com taxas líquidas de substituição de 32% e 39% ao ano e mediana de tempo de serviço de 8 meses e 12 meses, respectivamente, o que poderia causar aumento de custos e comprometer a produtividade. O único hospital público investigado apresentou níveis mais baixos de rotatividade em comparação aos demais, com uma taxa líquida de substituição de 6% ao ano e mediana de tempo de serviço de 42 meses. As categorias de enfermeiro e atendente de enfermagem foram as mais substituídas e, conseqüentemente, as menos estáveis no emprego.<hr/>The present study was carried out in 1990 with the objective of measuring and analyzing the turnover of nursing personnel in nine general hospitals located in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil. The population under study consisted of nurses, nursing assistants, nursing technicians, and nursing attendants who started work or left their jobs between 1 January and 31 December 1990. Employment status for these workers was checked monthly based on information from the human resources department of each hospital. Two types of turnover indices were calculated: the liquid rate of substitution and the median length of service of the departing workers. Results showed that the number of nursing personnel employed in Ribeirão Preto increased in 1990. However, results also revealed a high turnover rate, especially for philanthropic and private institutions, with liquid substitution rates of 32% and 39% per year and median lengths of service of 8 months and 12 months, respectively. These circumstances could lead to higher costs and reduced productivity. The only public hospital in the study presented the lowest level of turnover (liquid substitution rate of 6% and median length of service of 42 months). Nurses and attendants had the highest substitution rates and thus were the least stable categories. <![CDATA[<strong>New challenges in the field of advanced education for nursing personnel in Latin America</strong>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49891997000700009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This document examines and describes the basic characteristics of the 48 postgraduate nursing programs that exist in Latin American countries. A critical and holistic analysis model is used to identify their ideological foundations, the policies that govern them at the ministerial and institutional levels, and the conditions in which the programs operate, in an attempt to highlight areas where critical needs exist and to offer recommendations on how to satisfy them. Emphasis is placed on the capacity of international agencies, governments, and universities to improve postgraduate nursing education through the definition of priorities in light of the general reforms taking place in the health sector, the provision of support for research on nursing topics, and the coordination of cooperation initiatives at the national and international levels. <![CDATA[<B>Histerectomía vaginal guiada por visualización laparoscópica</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49891997000700010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This document examines and describes the basic characteristics of the 48 postgraduate nursing programs that exist in Latin American countries. A critical and holistic analysis model is used to identify their ideological foundations, the policies that govern them at the ministerial and institutional levels, and the conditions in which the programs operate, in an attempt to highlight areas where critical needs exist and to offer recommendations on how to satisfy them. Emphasis is placed on the capacity of international agencies, governments, and universities to improve postgraduate nursing education through the definition of priorities in light of the general reforms taking place in the health sector, the provision of support for research on nursing topics, and the coordination of cooperation initiatives at the national and international levels. <![CDATA[<B>El edema de miembros inferiores</B>: <B>causas y medidas que lo alivian</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49891997000700011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This document examines and describes the basic characteristics of the 48 postgraduate nursing programs that exist in Latin American countries. A critical and holistic analysis model is used to identify their ideological foundations, the policies that govern them at the ministerial and institutional levels, and the conditions in which the programs operate, in an attempt to highlight areas where critical needs exist and to offer recommendations on how to satisfy them. Emphasis is placed on the capacity of international agencies, governments, and universities to improve postgraduate nursing education through the definition of priorities in light of the general reforms taking place in the health sector, the provision of support for research on nursing topics, and the coordination of cooperation initiatives at the national and international levels. <![CDATA[<B>Un llamado para poner fin a la mutilación genital femenina</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49891997000700012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This document examines and describes the basic characteristics of the 48 postgraduate nursing programs that exist in Latin American countries. A critical and holistic analysis model is used to identify their ideological foundations, the policies that govern them at the ministerial and institutional levels, and the conditions in which the programs operate, in an attempt to highlight areas where critical needs exist and to offer recommendations on how to satisfy them. Emphasis is placed on the capacity of international agencies, governments, and universities to improve postgraduate nursing education through the definition of priorities in light of the general reforms taking place in the health sector, the provision of support for research on nursing topics, and the coordination of cooperation initiatives at the national and international levels. <![CDATA[<B>Dos organismos internacionales aúnan esfuerzos para combatir la malaria</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49891997000700013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This document examines and describes the basic characteristics of the 48 postgraduate nursing programs that exist in Latin American countries. A critical and holistic analysis model is used to identify their ideological foundations, the policies that govern them at the ministerial and institutional levels, and the conditions in which the programs operate, in an attempt to highlight areas where critical needs exist and to offer recommendations on how to satisfy them. Emphasis is placed on the capacity of international agencies, governments, and universities to improve postgraduate nursing education through the definition of priorities in light of the general reforms taking place in the health sector, the provision of support for research on nursing topics, and the coordination of cooperation initiatives at the national and international levels. <![CDATA[<B>Reconsideración de los riesgos asociados con la enfermedad de Creutzfeldt-Jakob</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49891997000700014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This document examines and describes the basic characteristics of the 48 postgraduate nursing programs that exist in Latin American countries. A critical and holistic analysis model is used to identify their ideological foundations, the policies that govern them at the ministerial and institutional levels, and the conditions in which the programs operate, in an attempt to highlight areas where critical needs exist and to offer recommendations on how to satisfy them. Emphasis is placed on the capacity of international agencies, governments, and universities to improve postgraduate nursing education through the definition of priorities in light of the general reforms taking place in the health sector, the provision of support for research on nursing topics, and the coordination of cooperation initiatives at the national and international levels. <![CDATA[<B>Hacia un consenso internacional para el empleo de terapia antirretroviral</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49891997000700015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This document examines and describes the basic characteristics of the 48 postgraduate nursing programs that exist in Latin American countries. A critical and holistic analysis model is used to identify their ideological foundations, the policies that govern them at the ministerial and institutional levels, and the conditions in which the programs operate, in an attempt to highlight areas where critical needs exist and to offer recommendations on how to satisfy them. Emphasis is placed on the capacity of international agencies, governments, and universities to improve postgraduate nursing education through the definition of priorities in light of the general reforms taking place in the health sector, the provision of support for research on nursing topics, and the coordination of cooperation initiatives at the national and international levels. <![CDATA[<B>Epidemiología y biología de la transmisión sexual del VIH</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49891997000700016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This document examines and describes the basic characteristics of the 48 postgraduate nursing programs that exist in Latin American countries. A critical and holistic analysis model is used to identify their ideological foundations, the policies that govern them at the ministerial and institutional levels, and the conditions in which the programs operate, in an attempt to highlight areas where critical needs exist and to offer recommendations on how to satisfy them. Emphasis is placed on the capacity of international agencies, governments, and universities to improve postgraduate nursing education through the definition of priorities in light of the general reforms taking place in the health sector, the provision of support for research on nursing topics, and the coordination of cooperation initiatives at the national and international levels. <![CDATA[<B>En búsqueda de un tratamiento para la enfermedad de Alzheimer</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49891997000700017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This document examines and describes the basic characteristics of the 48 postgraduate nursing programs that exist in Latin American countries. A critical and holistic analysis model is used to identify their ideological foundations, the policies that govern them at the ministerial and institutional levels, and the conditions in which the programs operate, in an attempt to highlight areas where critical needs exist and to offer recommendations on how to satisfy them. Emphasis is placed on the capacity of international agencies, governments, and universities to improve postgraduate nursing education through the definition of priorities in light of the general reforms taking place in the health sector, the provision of support for research on nursing topics, and the coordination of cooperation initiatives at the national and international levels. <![CDATA[<B>Un sistema para evaluar la farmacodependencia en la ciudad de México</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49891997000700018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This document examines and describes the basic characteristics of the 48 postgraduate nursing programs that exist in Latin American countries. A critical and holistic analysis model is used to identify their ideological foundations, the policies that govern them at the ministerial and institutional levels, and the conditions in which the programs operate, in an attempt to highlight areas where critical needs exist and to offer recommendations on how to satisfy them. Emphasis is placed on the capacity of international agencies, governments, and universities to improve postgraduate nursing education through the definition of priorities in light of the general reforms taking place in the health sector, the provision of support for research on nursing topics, and the coordination of cooperation initiatives at the national and international levels. <![CDATA[<B>Reevaluación de la prevalencia de la esquistosomiasis en el Brasil</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49891997000700019&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This document examines and describes the basic characteristics of the 48 postgraduate nursing programs that exist in Latin American countries. A critical and holistic analysis model is used to identify their ideological foundations, the policies that govern them at the ministerial and institutional levels, and the conditions in which the programs operate, in an attempt to highlight areas where critical needs exist and to offer recommendations on how to satisfy them. Emphasis is placed on the capacity of international agencies, governments, and universities to improve postgraduate nursing education through the definition of priorities in light of the general reforms taking place in the health sector, the provision of support for research on nursing topics, and the coordination of cooperation initiatives at the national and international levels. <![CDATA[<b>Política sobre medicamentos</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49891997000700020&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This document examines and describes the basic characteristics of the 48 postgraduate nursing programs that exist in Latin American countries. A critical and holistic analysis model is used to identify their ideological foundations, the policies that govern them at the ministerial and institutional levels, and the conditions in which the programs operate, in an attempt to highlight areas where critical needs exist and to offer recommendations on how to satisfy them. Emphasis is placed on the capacity of international agencies, governments, and universities to improve postgraduate nursing education through the definition of priorities in light of the general reforms taking place in the health sector, the provision of support for research on nursing topics, and the coordination of cooperation initiatives at the national and international levels. <![CDATA[<B>Retiros del mercado</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49891997000700021&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This document examines and describes the basic characteristics of the 48 postgraduate nursing programs that exist in Latin American countries. A critical and holistic analysis model is used to identify their ideological foundations, the policies that govern them at the ministerial and institutional levels, and the conditions in which the programs operate, in an attempt to highlight areas where critical needs exist and to offer recommendations on how to satisfy them. Emphasis is placed on the capacity of international agencies, governments, and universities to improve postgraduate nursing education through the definition of priorities in light of the general reforms taking place in the health sector, the provision of support for research on nursing topics, and the coordination of cooperation initiatives at the national and international levels. <![CDATA[<b>Enmiendas a la rotulación </b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49891997000700022&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This document examines and describes the basic characteristics of the 48 postgraduate nursing programs that exist in Latin American countries. A critical and holistic analysis model is used to identify their ideological foundations, the policies that govern them at the ministerial and institutional levels, and the conditions in which the programs operate, in an attempt to highlight areas where critical needs exist and to offer recommendations on how to satisfy them. Emphasis is placed on the capacity of international agencies, governments, and universities to improve postgraduate nursing education through the definition of priorities in light of the general reforms taking place in the health sector, the provision of support for research on nursing topics, and the coordination of cooperation initiatives at the national and international levels. <![CDATA[<b>Reacciones adversas </b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49891997000700023&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This document examines and describes the basic characteristics of the 48 postgraduate nursing programs that exist in Latin American countries. A critical and holistic analysis model is used to identify their ideological foundations, the policies that govern them at the ministerial and institutional levels, and the conditions in which the programs operate, in an attempt to highlight areas where critical needs exist and to offer recommendations on how to satisfy them. Emphasis is placed on the capacity of international agencies, governments, and universities to improve postgraduate nursing education through the definition of priorities in light of the general reforms taking place in the health sector, the provision of support for research on nursing topics, and the coordination of cooperation initiatives at the national and international levels. <![CDATA[<b>Uso racional </b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49891997000700024&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This document examines and describes the basic characteristics of the 48 postgraduate nursing programs that exist in Latin American countries. A critical and holistic analysis model is used to identify their ideological foundations, the policies that govern them at the ministerial and institutional levels, and the conditions in which the programs operate, in an attempt to highlight areas where critical needs exist and to offer recommendations on how to satisfy them. Emphasis is placed on the capacity of international agencies, governments, and universities to improve postgraduate nursing education through the definition of priorities in light of the general reforms taking place in the health sector, the provision of support for research on nursing topics, and the coordination of cooperation initiatives at the national and international levels. <![CDATA[<b>Decisiones diversas</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49891997000700025&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This document examines and describes the basic characteristics of the 48 postgraduate nursing programs that exist in Latin American countries. A critical and holistic analysis model is used to identify their ideological foundations, the policies that govern them at the ministerial and institutional levels, and the conditions in which the programs operate, in an attempt to highlight areas where critical needs exist and to offer recommendations on how to satisfy them. Emphasis is placed on the capacity of international agencies, governments, and universities to improve postgraduate nursing education through the definition of priorities in light of the general reforms taking place in the health sector, the provision of support for research on nursing topics, and the coordination of cooperation initiatives at the national and international levels. <![CDATA[<strong>Control of hereditary diseases</strong>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49891997000700026&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This document examines and describes the basic characteristics of the 48 postgraduate nursing programs that exist in Latin American countries. A critical and holistic analysis model is used to identify their ideological foundations, the policies that govern them at the ministerial and institutional levels, and the conditions in which the programs operate, in an attempt to highlight areas where critical needs exist and to offer recommendations on how to satisfy them. Emphasis is placed on the capacity of international agencies, governments, and universities to improve postgraduate nursing education through the definition of priorities in light of the general reforms taking place in the health sector, the provision of support for research on nursing topics, and the coordination of cooperation initiatives at the national and international levels. <![CDATA[<strong>Mental health of refugees</strong>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49891997000700027&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This document examines and describes the basic characteristics of the 48 postgraduate nursing programs that exist in Latin American countries. A critical and holistic analysis model is used to identify their ideological foundations, the policies that govern them at the ministerial and institutional levels, and the conditions in which the programs operate, in an attempt to highlight areas where critical needs exist and to offer recommendations on how to satisfy them. Emphasis is placed on the capacity of international agencies, governments, and universities to improve postgraduate nursing education through the definition of priorities in light of the general reforms taking place in the health sector, the provision of support for research on nursing topics, and the coordination of cooperation initiatives at the national and international levels. <![CDATA[<strong>Modelo OMS de información sobre prescripción de medicamentos</strong>: <strong>medicamentos utilizados en enfermedades parasitarias</strong>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49891997000700028&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This document examines and describes the basic characteristics of the 48 postgraduate nursing programs that exist in Latin American countries. A critical and holistic analysis model is used to identify their ideological foundations, the policies that govern them at the ministerial and institutional levels, and the conditions in which the programs operate, in an attempt to highlight areas where critical needs exist and to offer recommendations on how to satisfy them. Emphasis is placed on the capacity of international agencies, governments, and universities to improve postgraduate nursing education through the definition of priorities in light of the general reforms taking place in the health sector, the provision of support for research on nursing topics, and the coordination of cooperation initiatives at the national and international levels. <![CDATA[<strong>Alivio del dolor en el cáncer. Con una guía sobre la disponibilidad de opioides</strong>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49891997000700029&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This document examines and describes the basic characteristics of the 48 postgraduate nursing programs that exist in Latin American countries. A critical and holistic analysis model is used to identify their ideological foundations, the policies that govern them at the ministerial and institutional levels, and the conditions in which the programs operate, in an attempt to highlight areas where critical needs exist and to offer recommendations on how to satisfy them. Emphasis is placed on the capacity of international agencies, governments, and universities to improve postgraduate nursing education through the definition of priorities in light of the general reforms taking place in the health sector, the provision of support for research on nursing topics, and the coordination of cooperation initiatives at the national and international levels. <![CDATA[<strong>Farmacopea Internacional</strong>: <strong>Volumen 4. Pruebas, métodos y requisitos generales. Normas de calidad para sustancias farmacéuticas, excipientes y formas farmacéuticas</strong>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49891997000700030&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This document examines and describes the basic characteristics of the 48 postgraduate nursing programs that exist in Latin American countries. A critical and holistic analysis model is used to identify their ideological foundations, the policies that govern them at the ministerial and institutional levels, and the conditions in which the programs operate, in an attempt to highlight areas where critical needs exist and to offer recommendations on how to satisfy them. Emphasis is placed on the capacity of international agencies, governments, and universities to improve postgraduate nursing education through the definition of priorities in light of the general reforms taking place in the health sector, the provision of support for research on nursing topics, and the coordination of cooperation initiatives at the national and international levels. <![CDATA[<strong>Perspectivas educacionales convergentes</strong>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49891997000700031&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This document examines and describes the basic characteristics of the 48 postgraduate nursing programs that exist in Latin American countries. A critical and holistic analysis model is used to identify their ideological foundations, the policies that govern them at the ministerial and institutional levels, and the conditions in which the programs operate, in an attempt to highlight areas where critical needs exist and to offer recommendations on how to satisfy them. Emphasis is placed on the capacity of international agencies, governments, and universities to improve postgraduate nursing education through the definition of priorities in light of the general reforms taking place in the health sector, the provision of support for research on nursing topics, and the coordination of cooperation initiatives at the national and international levels.