Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública]]> http://www.scielosp.org/rss.php?pid=1020-498920000009&lang=en vol. 8 num. 4 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielosp.org/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielosp.org <![CDATA[<B>Stratification of a city with hyperendemic dengue hemorrhagic fever</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892000000900001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en La gran heterogeneidad ambiental de viviendas y barrios en los centros urbanos donde se cría Aedes aegypti, principal vector del dengue, junto con la escasez de recursos y de personal entrenado en el control de mosquitos constituyen retos para cualquier iniciativa destinada a controlar el dengue hemorrágico (DH). Una adecuada vigilancia epidemiológica puede servir de base para comenzar a estratificar los centros urbanos e identificar las zonas críticas donde deben concentrarse las tareas de control. En este estudio, se estratificó una ciudad hiperendémica en dengue hemorrágico (Maracay, Venezuela) con la ayuda de un sistema de información geográfica (SIG) y el análisis de la persistencia, la incidencia y la prevalencia del dengue mediante diagnósticos clínicos registrados de 1993 a 1998. Maracay tiene cerca de un millón de habitantes que viven en unos 349 barrios de 6 poblaciones que integran el Área Metropolitana, donde se notificaron 10 576 casos de dengue, 2 593 casos de DH y 8 defunciones. La incidencia de DH mostró una relación directa con la incidencia del dengue, el número de habitantes y la densidad poblacional. El patrón espacial de la incidencia del dengue fue estable durante los años estudiados y se encontraron relaciones positivas y significativas de la incidencia del dengue por barrio entre pares de años. La persistencia del dengue se relacionó directamente con la incidencia mensual por barrio. Estos patrones espaciales facilitaron la estratificación de la ciudad en tres estratos: 68 barrios sin dengue aparente, 226 barrios con baja persistencia y prevalencia, y 55 barrios con alta persistencia y prevalencia. Se recomienda otorgar alta prioridad de control a estos 55 barrios que ocupan 35% del área urbana y presentaron 70% de todos los casos de dengue.<hr/>Any effort to control dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) faces a number of challenges. Among these are the great environmental heterogeneity of homes and neighborhoods in urban centers where the primary dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, breeds, as well as shortages of resources and of personnel trained in mosquito control. Adequate epidemiological surveillance could serve as a basis to begin to stratify urban communities and identify the areas in them where control efforts should be focused. In this study we stratified Maracay, Venezuela, a city with hyperendemic dengue hemorrhagic fever, using a geographic information system and analyzing the persistence, incidence, and prevalence of dengue, by means of clinical diagnoses reported from 1993 through 1998. Maracay has around one million inhabitants living in some 349 neighborhoods in the six communities that make up the greater Maracay metropolitan area. During that 1993­1998 period the Maracay area reported 10 576 cases of dengue, 2 593 cases of DHF, and 8 deaths. The incidence of DHF was related to the incidence of dengue, the number of inhabitants in an area, and population density. The spatial pattern of dengue incidence was stable over the years that were studied, and significant, positive relationships were found between pairs of years and the incidence of dengue by neighborhood. The persistence of dengue was related directly to monthly incidence by neighborhood. These spatial patterns helped to divide the city into three strata: 68 neighborhoods without apparent dengue, 226 neighborhoods with low persistence and prevalence, and 55 neighborhoods with high persistence and prevalence. We recommend giving the highest priority for control efforts to these 55 neighborhoods, which make up just 35% of the Maracay urban area but had 70% of all the reported dengue cases. <![CDATA[<strong>Plasma lipids and other cardiovascular risk factors in Costa Rican adolescents</strong>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892000000900002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This study assessed plasma lipids and other cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents in a developing Latin American country and compared those risk factors to those of adolescents in the United States of America, where the risk of heart disease is high. In a cross-sectional study, data were collected from September 1998 to April 1999 on 161 Costa Rican adolescents between the ages of 12 and 20. A general questionnaire was used to collect demographic, smoking, socioeconomic, and women's health data. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and a fasting blood sample were taken. The Costa Rican males had lower levels of total cholesterol than did the Costa Rican females (mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM), 149 ± 6.5 mg/dL vs. 158 ± 6.3 mg/dL). This was mainly due to lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in males than in females (mean ± SEM, 38 ± 2.0 mg/dL vs. 44 ± 2.4 mg/dL). As compared to the United States, adolescents in this study had lower levels of total cholesterol, largely due to lower HDL cholesterol. Both genders of Costa Ricans had levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol that were similar to those of counterpart groups in the United States. Costa Rican male and female adolescents had higher LDL/HDL ratios than did their United States counterparts. Therefore, as compared to the United States, Costa Rican adolescents have an adverse lipid profile as demonstrated by a higher LDL/HDL ratio. Overweight prevalence in Costa Rica was 13%, approaching the 15% overall level of the United States.<hr/>En este estudio se investigaron los lípidos plasmáticos y otros factores de riesgo cardiovascular en adolescentes de un país latinoamericano en desarrollo y se compararon con los factores de riesgo de los adolescentes de los Estados Unidos de América (EUA), en los que el riesgo de cardiopatía es alto. El estudio, de tipo transversal, se realizó entre septiembre de 1998 y abril de 1999, y recogió datos de 161 adolescentes costarricences de 12 a 20 años de edad. Mediante un cuestionario general se registró la información demográfica, socioeconómica, obstétrico-ginecológica y sobre el consumo de tabaco. Se efectuaron mediciones antropométricas, se registró la tensión arterial y se obtuvieron muestras de sangre en ayunas. Los varones costarricenses tenían concentraciones totales de colesterol inferiores a las de las mujeres costarricenses (media ± error estándar de la media (EEM) 149 ± 6,5 mg/dL frente a 158 ± 6,3 mg/dL). Esto se debió, sobre todo, a las menores concentraciones de colesterol de las lipoproteínas de alta densidad (HDL) en los hombres que en las mujeres (media ± EEM, 38 ± 2,0 mg/dL frente a 44 ± 2,4 mg/dL). En comparación con los adolescentes de los EUA, los de Costa Rica tenían menores niveles de colesterol total, debido sobre todo al colesterol de las HDL. Los costarricenses de ambos sexos tenían concentraciones de colesterol de las lipoproteínas de baja densidad (LDL) similares a las de los grupos correspondientes en los EUA y mayores razones LDL/HDL. Por tanto, en comparación con los adolescentes de los EUA, los costarricenses tenían un perfil lipídico adverso, como demuestra la mayor razón LDL/HDL. La prevalencia del sobrepeso en Costa Rica fue del 13%, cercana al 15% global de los EUA. <![CDATA[<B>Decentralization of the health care system in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil</B>: <B>financing and the model of care</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892000000900003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en O presente trabalho analisa o financiamento do sistema público de saúde no Brasil, o Sistema Único de Saúde, no Estado de Mato Grosso, buscando identificar o modelo assistencial que vem se conformando a partir de 1994. Para isso, foram estudados 16 municípios, selecionados segundo porte, envolvimento com o Sistema Único de Saúde e nível sócio-sanitário. Observou-se que entre 1994 e 1998 a contrapartida financeira municipal e as transferências para atendimentos ambulatoriais foram as responsáveis pela elevação dos gastos com saúde. Contudo, o modelo de assistência à saúde que vem se definindo em grande parte dos municípios mato-grossenses se volta cada vez mais para a assistência individual, curativa, especializada e com alta incorporação tecnológica. Aponta para isso o fato de que, em relação à assistência ambulatorial, os maiores incrementos de recursos financeiros aconteceram no segmento de complementação diagnóstica e terapêutica de média e alta complexidade, atingindo até 300% em alguns municípios. Como os recursos para a saúde são escassos e o modelo de assistência adotado por muitos municípios ainda desloca recursos da atenção primária à saúde para o segmento de atenção de maior complexidade, acredita-se que a inviabilidade financeira do SUS é uma possibilidade que não pode ser descartada. Embora o universo de estudo tenha se limitado ao Estado de Mato Grosso, certamente situações parecidas estão se configurando em inúmeros municípios brasileiros e, provavelmente, também em municípios de outros países latino-americanos, nos quais a descentralização foi incorporada como uma das estratégias de reforma do Estado.<hr/>This piece analyzes the funding of the public Unified Health System (UHS) in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, in order to identify the model of care that has been taking shape there since 1994. We studied 16 municipalities, selected according to their size, degree of involvement with the UHS, and socioeconomic and health conditions. We found that between 1994 and 1998 there were large increases in health spending, due to higher municipal expenditures and to rising intergovernmental transfers for outpatient care. However, the health care system taking shape in a large number of Mato Grosso municipalities is increasingly focused on an individual, curative, specialized, and highly technological type of care. Indicative of this trend is the fact that the biggest increases in spending for outpatient care-up to 300% in some municipalities- have come from diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are of medium or high complexity. Since the resources for health care are limited, and since the model of care adopted by many municipalities continues to shift resources from primary health care to more complex procedures, we believe that the financial viability of the Unified Health System is coming into question. Although this study was limited to the state of Mato Grosso, other Brazilian municipalities are no doubt facing similar situations. The same is probably true for municipalities in other South American countries that have adopted decentralization of the health care system as one of the strategies for State reform. <![CDATA[<B>Asymptomatic carriers of hydatidosis</B>: <B>epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892000000900004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Hasta hace poco tiempo, la hidatidosis se consideraba un estado patológico de resolución exclusivamente quirúrgica. Sin embargo, en los últimos años se ha avanzado en los campos de la epidemiología, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de la enfermedad y la nueva información aportada sobre la historia natural de la hidatidosis ha permitido definir nuevos criterios de atención. Ahora se sabe que hasta 67% de los portadores no sintomáticos de quistes hepáticos mantienen esa condición durante toda la vida. Esta situación genera resultados especiales en el inmunodiagnóstico. Así, la inmunoadsorción enzimática (ELISA) rinde una sensibilidad de 63% y una especificidad de 97% en portadores asintomáticos, mientras que la doble difusión cinco (DD5) tiene una sensibilidad de solo 31% en esos portadores. Por otra parte, los estudios por imágenes basados en la ecografía se han transformado en el método de elección para detectar a los portadores no sintomáticos. Son de 49 a 73% más sensibles que la serología e incluso pueden utilizarse como parte del sistema de vigilancia epidemiológica y del monitoreo de programas de control. También se han modernizado los esquemas de intervención. El tratamiento quimioterápico de portadores asintomáticos con albendazol produce hasta 69% de respuestas favorables, mientras que los tratamientos quirúrgicos mínimamente invasores como la punción-aspiración- inyección-reaspiración (PAIR) producen una reducción del volumen medio del quiste de hasta 66%. Estos factores han permitido instaurar un protocolo de tratamiento para portadores asintomáticos en los servicios hospitalarios de la Provincia de Río Negro, Argentina. Este se basa en el seguimiento de los quistes pequeños (tipo Ia de la escala de Gharbi modificada), tratamiento inicial con albendazol y con PAIR si no hay respuesta, en los quistes de mayor tamaño o complejidad (tipos Ib, II y III), y seguimiento de los quistes no vitales o muertos (tipos IV y V).<hr/>Until a short time ago, hydatidosis was considered a pathology that could only be resolved surgically. However, in recent years progress has been made with the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease, and new information on the natural history of hydatidosis has helped define new criteria for its treatment. It is now known that as many as 67% of the carriers of liver cysts who are asymptomatic remain so throughout their lives. This situation produces special results in immunologic testing. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has a sensitivity of 63% and a specificity of 97% with asymptomatic carriers, while the double diffusion arc 5 test (DD5) achieves a sensitivity of only 31% with the same population. On the other hand, imaging studies based on ultrasonography have become the method of choice to detect asymptomatic carriers. Ultrasonography studies are 49% to 73% more sensitive than serological tests, and they can even be used as a part of epidemiological surveillance systems and to monitor control programs. Treatment schemes have also been modernized. Treating asymptomatic carriers chemotherapeutically with albendazole produces favorable results in as many as 69% of cases, while such minimally invasive surgical treatments as puncture-aspiration-injection-reaspiration (PAIR) reduce average cyst volume by as much as 66%. These factors have made it possible for hospital services in the province of Río Negro, Argentina, to establish a treatment scheme for asymptomatic carriers. It is based on the monitoring of small cysts (type Ia on the modified Gharbi scale); initial treatment with albendazole, followed by PAIR if there is no response, in larger or more complex cysts (types Ib, II, and III); and follow-up of inviable or dead cysts (types IV and V). <![CDATA[<b>Parenting and physical punishment</b>: <b>primary care interventions in Latin America</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892000000900005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Physical punishment is a form of intrafamilial violence associated with short- and long-term adverse mental health outcomes. Despite these possible consequences, it is among the most common forms of violent interpersonal behavior. For many children it begins within the first year of life. The goal of this study was to determine the feasibility of involving public sector primary health care providers to inform parents about alternatives to physical punishment. The study used a qualitative design utilizing focus groups and survey questionnaires with parents and providers at six clinic sites chosen to be representative of public sector practice settings in Costa Rica and in metropolitan Santiago, Chile. The data were collected during 1998 and 1999. In the focus groups and surveys the parents voiced a range of opinions about physical punishment. Most acknowledged its common use but listed it among their least preferred means of discipline. Frequency of its use correlated positively with the parents' belief in its effectiveness and inversely with their satisfaction with their children's behavior. Some parents wanted to learn more about discipline; others wanted help with life stresses they felt led them to use physical punishment. Parents reported they chose other family members more frequently as a source of parenting information than they did health care providers. Some parents saw providers as too rushed and not knowledgeable enough to give good advice. Providers, in turn, felt ill equipped to handle parents' questions, but many of the health professionals expressed interest in more training. Parents and providers agreed that problems of time, space, and resources were barriers to talking about child discipline in the clinics. Many parents and providers would welcome a primary-care-based program on physical punishment. Such a program would need to be customized to accommodate local differences in parent and provider attitudes and in clinic organization. Health care professionals need more training in child discipline and in the skills required to interact with parents on issues relating to child behavior.<hr/>El castigo corporal representa una forma de violencia que acarrea consecuencias mentales adversas en el corto y largo plazo. No obstante, es una de las formas más frecuentes de violencia personal y en muchos casos comienza cuando el niño aún no ha cumplido un año de edad. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la factibilidad de utilizar a proveedores de atención primaria del sector público para explicar a los padres que hay otras opciones diferentes del castigo corporal. El estudio tuvo un diseño cualitativo y se valió de grupos de enfoque y formularios de encuesta para padres y proveedores de atención en seis centros ambulatorios que fueron elegidos como muestra representativa de los consultorios públicos de Costa Rica y de la zona metropolitana de Santiago, Chile. Los datos se recolectaron en 1998 y 1999. En los grupos de enfoque y las encuestas los padres expresaron diferentes opiniones sobre el castigo corporal. La mayoría reconocieron que la práctica estaba difundida, pero la colocaron en la lista de conductas punitivas que menos les gustaban. Su frecuencia mostró una correlación positiva con la creencia en su efectividad por parte de los padres y una correlación inversa con la satisfacción de los padres con la conducta de sus hijos. Algunos padres querían aprender más acerca de las formas de disciplinar a los hijos; otros querían que se les ayudara a sobrellevar las presiones de la vida que, según ellos, los hacían recurrir al castigo corporal. Los padres dijeron haber acudido a otros miembros de la familia como fuentes de información sobre la disciplina de los hijos con mayor frecuencia que a proveedores de atención de salud. A algunos padres les parecía que estos proveedores siempre andaban con demasiada prisa y que no poseían conocimientos suficientes para darles buenos consejos. Por otra parte, los proveedores de atención se sentían poco preparados para contestar las preguntas de los padres, pero muchos expresaron el deseo de recibir capacitación adicional. Tanto los padres como los proveedores de servicios estuvieron de acuerdo en que las limitaciones de tiempo, espacio y recursos planteaban barreras que impedían que se hablara del castigo de los hijos en el consultorio. A muchos padres y proveedores les gustaría que se creara un programa sobre el castigo corporal en el contexto de la atención primaria. Un programa de esa naturaleza tendría que adaptarse a las diferencias locales en cuanto a las actitudes de los padres y el personal y a la organización de los consultorios. Los proveedores de atención de salud necesitan un mayor adiestramiento sobre la disciplina de los niños y deben adquirir las habilidades indispensables para comunicarse con los padres sobre la conducta de sus hijos. <![CDATA[<B>Assessment of oral health in an elderly Brazilian population</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892000000900006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as condições de saúde bucal em pessoas com 60 anos ou mais no Município de Araraquara, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, no ano de 1998. Participaram do estudo 194 pessoas (91 institucionalizadas, com idade média de 73,6 anos, e 103 não-institucionalizadas, com idade média de 69,3 anos), que foram examinadas por um cirurgião-dentista, previamente treinado, para determinar a prevalência das principais doenças bucais. Os resultados mostraram um grande número de pessoas edentadas (72% dos institucionalizados e 60% dos não-institucionalizados) e de dentes extraídos (93 e 90%, respectivamente), grande freqüência de bolsas periodontais (57 e 75%) e de próteses inadequadas (80% das próteses em pessoas institucionalizadas e 61% em pessoas não-institucionalizadas). Os resultados mostram o comprometimento da qualidade de vida de grande parte dessas pessoas e indicam a necessidade de maior atenção dos serviços públicos a esse grupo populacional.<hr/>This study assessed the oral health of individuals 60 years or older in the city of Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil, in 1998. Of the 194 people who participated in the study, 91 of them were institutionalized and had an average age of 73.6 years, and 103 were not institutionalized and had an average age of 69.3 years. The study participants were examined by a previously trained oral surgeon who determined the prevalence of the most common oral health problems. The results revealed a large number of edentulous individuals (72% of those institutionalized and 60% of the noninstitution-alized participants) and many persons with extracted teeth (93% and 90%, respectively), as well as a high frequency of periodontal pockets (57% and 75%, respectively) and of inadequate dentures (80% and 61%, respectively). Our results show reduced quality of life for a large proportion of these older individuals, and also indicate that public health services should pay greater attention to this population group. <![CDATA[<b>Evaluation of the response to tuberculin among university students in the health field</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892000000900007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Se realizó un estudio transversal con el fin de evaluar la respuesta a la tuberculina en estudiantes del área de la salud (medicina, odontología, enfermería y bacteriología) en comparación con estudiantes de otras áreas de la Universidad de Antioquia (Medellín, Colombia) en tres niveles, (inicial, intermedio y final) del programa académico. La muestra comprendió 490 estudiantes, 273 del área de la salud y 217 de las otras áreas; la selección se hizo de manera aleatoria con base en los listados del Departamento de Admisiones y Registros de la Universidad para el segundo semestre de 1998. Se determinó la presencia de cicatriz de vacunación BCG y factores de riesgo de tuberculosis. La tuberculina se evaluó 72 horas después de la aplicación intradérmica de 2 UT de PPD, RT-23. La respuesta a la tuberculina no mostró diferencias por nivel de estudios ni nivel socioeconómico; solo la presencia de cicatriz BCG estuvo significativamente asociada (P=0,007). Estos resultados indican que los estudiantes del área de la salud tienen un contacto reducido con pacientes con tuberculosis o sus muestras durante su formación, lo cual no descarta la tuberculosis como riesgo profesional para el personal de salud.<hr/>A cross-sectional study was done at the University of Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia, to evaluate the response to a tuberculin skin test among students in undergraduate health programs (medicine, odontology, nursing, and bacteriology) as compared to undergraduate students in nonhealth programs. The study included students from the beginning, middle, and end of the university's academic programs. The sample of 490 students included 273 from health programs and 217 from nonhealth programs. Participants were randomly selected using lists provided by the university registrar, for the second semester of 1998. The presence of a BCG vaccination scar was determined, and all the participants were also questioned about TB-related risk factors. Tuberculin skin test reactivity was evaluated by the size of induration 72 hours after intradermal injection of two tuberculin units of purified protein derivative RT 23. There were no differences in tuberculin reactivity between students from the health programs and from the nonhealth programs, irrespective of the academic level. However, there was a significantly higher proportion of positive skin tests among students with a BCG scar. These results suggest that undergraduate health students do not have extensive contact with TB patients or with clinical samples from such patients. Nevertheless, the results do not rule out TB as an occupational risk for health personnel. <![CDATA[<strong>Las defunciones de carácter ocupacional y la globalización económica</strong>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892000000900008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Se realizó un estudio transversal con el fin de evaluar la respuesta a la tuberculina en estudiantes del área de la salud (medicina, odontología, enfermería y bacteriología) en comparación con estudiantes de otras áreas de la Universidad de Antioquia (Medellín, Colombia) en tres niveles, (inicial, intermedio y final) del programa académico. La muestra comprendió 490 estudiantes, 273 del área de la salud y 217 de las otras áreas; la selección se hizo de manera aleatoria con base en los listados del Departamento de Admisiones y Registros de la Universidad para el segundo semestre de 1998. Se determinó la presencia de cicatriz de vacunación BCG y factores de riesgo de tuberculosis. La tuberculina se evaluó 72 horas después de la aplicación intradérmica de 2 UT de PPD, RT-23. La respuesta a la tuberculina no mostró diferencias por nivel de estudios ni nivel socioeconómico; solo la presencia de cicatriz BCG estuvo significativamente asociada (P=0,007). Estos resultados indican que los estudiantes del área de la salud tienen un contacto reducido con pacientes con tuberculosis o sus muestras durante su formación, lo cual no descarta la tuberculosis como riesgo profesional para el personal de salud.<hr/>A cross-sectional study was done at the University of Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia, to evaluate the response to a tuberculin skin test among students in undergraduate health programs (medicine, odontology, nursing, and bacteriology) as compared to undergraduate students in nonhealth programs. The study included students from the beginning, middle, and end of the university's academic programs. The sample of 490 students included 273 from health programs and 217 from nonhealth programs. Participants were randomly selected using lists provided by the university registrar, for the second semester of 1998. The presence of a BCG vaccination scar was determined, and all the participants were also questioned about TB-related risk factors. Tuberculin skin test reactivity was evaluated by the size of induration 72 hours after intradermal injection of two tuberculin units of purified protein derivative RT 23. There were no differences in tuberculin reactivity between students from the health programs and from the nonhealth programs, irrespective of the academic level. However, there was a significantly higher proportion of positive skin tests among students with a BCG scar. These results suggest that undergraduate health students do not have extensive contact with TB patients or with clinical samples from such patients. Nevertheless, the results do not rule out TB as an occupational risk for health personnel. <![CDATA[<B>Las neoplasias intracervicales en mujeres positivas a VIH y al virus del papiloma humano</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892000000900009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Se realizó un estudio transversal con el fin de evaluar la respuesta a la tuberculina en estudiantes del área de la salud (medicina, odontología, enfermería y bacteriología) en comparación con estudiantes de otras áreas de la Universidad de Antioquia (Medellín, Colombia) en tres niveles, (inicial, intermedio y final) del programa académico. La muestra comprendió 490 estudiantes, 273 del área de la salud y 217 de las otras áreas; la selección se hizo de manera aleatoria con base en los listados del Departamento de Admisiones y Registros de la Universidad para el segundo semestre de 1998. Se determinó la presencia de cicatriz de vacunación BCG y factores de riesgo de tuberculosis. La tuberculina se evaluó 72 horas después de la aplicación intradérmica de 2 UT de PPD, RT-23. La respuesta a la tuberculina no mostró diferencias por nivel de estudios ni nivel socioeconómico; solo la presencia de cicatriz BCG estuvo significativamente asociada (P=0,007). Estos resultados indican que los estudiantes del área de la salud tienen un contacto reducido con pacientes con tuberculosis o sus muestras durante su formación, lo cual no descarta la tuberculosis como riesgo profesional para el personal de salud.<hr/>A cross-sectional study was done at the University of Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia, to evaluate the response to a tuberculin skin test among students in undergraduate health programs (medicine, odontology, nursing, and bacteriology) as compared to undergraduate students in nonhealth programs. The study included students from the beginning, middle, and end of the university's academic programs. The sample of 490 students included 273 from health programs and 217 from nonhealth programs. Participants were randomly selected using lists provided by the university registrar, for the second semester of 1998. The presence of a BCG vaccination scar was determined, and all the participants were also questioned about TB-related risk factors. Tuberculin skin test reactivity was evaluated by the size of induration 72 hours after intradermal injection of two tuberculin units of purified protein derivative RT 23. There were no differences in tuberculin reactivity between students from the health programs and from the nonhealth programs, irrespective of the academic level. However, there was a significantly higher proportion of positive skin tests among students with a BCG scar. These results suggest that undergraduate health students do not have extensive contact with TB patients or with clinical samples from such patients. Nevertheless, the results do not rule out TB as an occupational risk for health personnel. <![CDATA[<B>Soplan vientos traicioneros</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892000000900010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Se realizó un estudio transversal con el fin de evaluar la respuesta a la tuberculina en estudiantes del área de la salud (medicina, odontología, enfermería y bacteriología) en comparación con estudiantes de otras áreas de la Universidad de Antioquia (Medellín, Colombia) en tres niveles, (inicial, intermedio y final) del programa académico. La muestra comprendió 490 estudiantes, 273 del área de la salud y 217 de las otras áreas; la selección se hizo de manera aleatoria con base en los listados del Departamento de Admisiones y Registros de la Universidad para el segundo semestre de 1998. Se determinó la presencia de cicatriz de vacunación BCG y factores de riesgo de tuberculosis. La tuberculina se evaluó 72 horas después de la aplicación intradérmica de 2 UT de PPD, RT-23. La respuesta a la tuberculina no mostró diferencias por nivel de estudios ni nivel socioeconómico; solo la presencia de cicatriz BCG estuvo significativamente asociada (P=0,007). Estos resultados indican que los estudiantes del área de la salud tienen un contacto reducido con pacientes con tuberculosis o sus muestras durante su formación, lo cual no descarta la tuberculosis como riesgo profesional para el personal de salud.<hr/>A cross-sectional study was done at the University of Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia, to evaluate the response to a tuberculin skin test among students in undergraduate health programs (medicine, odontology, nursing, and bacteriology) as compared to undergraduate students in nonhealth programs. The study included students from the beginning, middle, and end of the university's academic programs. The sample of 490 students included 273 from health programs and 217 from nonhealth programs. Participants were randomly selected using lists provided by the university registrar, for the second semester of 1998. The presence of a BCG vaccination scar was determined, and all the participants were also questioned about TB-related risk factors. Tuberculin skin test reactivity was evaluated by the size of induration 72 hours after intradermal injection of two tuberculin units of purified protein derivative RT 23. There were no differences in tuberculin reactivity between students from the health programs and from the nonhealth programs, irrespective of the academic level. However, there was a significantly higher proportion of positive skin tests among students with a BCG scar. These results suggest that undergraduate health students do not have extensive contact with TB patients or with clinical samples from such patients. Nevertheless, the results do not rule out TB as an occupational risk for health personnel. <![CDATA[<B>Efectos de añadir interleucina-2 a los medicamentos anti-VIH</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892000000900011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Se realizó un estudio transversal con el fin de evaluar la respuesta a la tuberculina en estudiantes del área de la salud (medicina, odontología, enfermería y bacteriología) en comparación con estudiantes de otras áreas de la Universidad de Antioquia (Medellín, Colombia) en tres niveles, (inicial, intermedio y final) del programa académico. La muestra comprendió 490 estudiantes, 273 del área de la salud y 217 de las otras áreas; la selección se hizo de manera aleatoria con base en los listados del Departamento de Admisiones y Registros de la Universidad para el segundo semestre de 1998. Se determinó la presencia de cicatriz de vacunación BCG y factores de riesgo de tuberculosis. La tuberculina se evaluó 72 horas después de la aplicación intradérmica de 2 UT de PPD, RT-23. La respuesta a la tuberculina no mostró diferencias por nivel de estudios ni nivel socioeconómico; solo la presencia de cicatriz BCG estuvo significativamente asociada (P=0,007). Estos resultados indican que los estudiantes del área de la salud tienen un contacto reducido con pacientes con tuberculosis o sus muestras durante su formación, lo cual no descarta la tuberculosis como riesgo profesional para el personal de salud.<hr/>A cross-sectional study was done at the University of Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia, to evaluate the response to a tuberculin skin test among students in undergraduate health programs (medicine, odontology, nursing, and bacteriology) as compared to undergraduate students in nonhealth programs. The study included students from the beginning, middle, and end of the university's academic programs. The sample of 490 students included 273 from health programs and 217 from nonhealth programs. Participants were randomly selected using lists provided by the university registrar, for the second semester of 1998. The presence of a BCG vaccination scar was determined, and all the participants were also questioned about TB-related risk factors. Tuberculin skin test reactivity was evaluated by the size of induration 72 hours after intradermal injection of two tuberculin units of purified protein derivative RT 23. There were no differences in tuberculin reactivity between students from the health programs and from the nonhealth programs, irrespective of the academic level. However, there was a significantly higher proportion of positive skin tests among students with a BCG scar. These results suggest that undergraduate health students do not have extensive contact with TB patients or with clinical samples from such patients. Nevertheless, the results do not rule out TB as an occupational risk for health personnel. <![CDATA[<B>La hipocolesterolemia y la mortalidad por enfermedades no cardiovasculares</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892000000900012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Se realizó un estudio transversal con el fin de evaluar la respuesta a la tuberculina en estudiantes del área de la salud (medicina, odontología, enfermería y bacteriología) en comparación con estudiantes de otras áreas de la Universidad de Antioquia (Medellín, Colombia) en tres niveles, (inicial, intermedio y final) del programa académico. La muestra comprendió 490 estudiantes, 273 del área de la salud y 217 de las otras áreas; la selección se hizo de manera aleatoria con base en los listados del Departamento de Admisiones y Registros de la Universidad para el segundo semestre de 1998. Se determinó la presencia de cicatriz de vacunación BCG y factores de riesgo de tuberculosis. La tuberculina se evaluó 72 horas después de la aplicación intradérmica de 2 UT de PPD, RT-23. La respuesta a la tuberculina no mostró diferencias por nivel de estudios ni nivel socioeconómico; solo la presencia de cicatriz BCG estuvo significativamente asociada (P=0,007). Estos resultados indican que los estudiantes del área de la salud tienen un contacto reducido con pacientes con tuberculosis o sus muestras durante su formación, lo cual no descarta la tuberculosis como riesgo profesional para el personal de salud.<hr/>A cross-sectional study was done at the University of Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia, to evaluate the response to a tuberculin skin test among students in undergraduate health programs (medicine, odontology, nursing, and bacteriology) as compared to undergraduate students in nonhealth programs. The study included students from the beginning, middle, and end of the university's academic programs. The sample of 490 students included 273 from health programs and 217 from nonhealth programs. Participants were randomly selected using lists provided by the university registrar, for the second semester of 1998. The presence of a BCG vaccination scar was determined, and all the participants were also questioned about TB-related risk factors. Tuberculin skin test reactivity was evaluated by the size of induration 72 hours after intradermal injection of two tuberculin units of purified protein derivative RT 23. There were no differences in tuberculin reactivity between students from the health programs and from the nonhealth programs, irrespective of the academic level. However, there was a significantly higher proportion of positive skin tests among students with a BCG scar. These results suggest that undergraduate health students do not have extensive contact with TB patients or with clinical samples from such patients. Nevertheless, the results do not rule out TB as an occupational risk for health personnel. <![CDATA[<B>Políticas sobre medicamentos</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892000000900013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Se realizó un estudio transversal con el fin de evaluar la respuesta a la tuberculina en estudiantes del área de la salud (medicina, odontología, enfermería y bacteriología) en comparación con estudiantes de otras áreas de la Universidad de Antioquia (Medellín, Colombia) en tres niveles, (inicial, intermedio y final) del programa académico. La muestra comprendió 490 estudiantes, 273 del área de la salud y 217 de las otras áreas; la selección se hizo de manera aleatoria con base en los listados del Departamento de Admisiones y Registros de la Universidad para el segundo semestre de 1998. Se determinó la presencia de cicatriz de vacunación BCG y factores de riesgo de tuberculosis. La tuberculina se evaluó 72 horas después de la aplicación intradérmica de 2 UT de PPD, RT-23. La respuesta a la tuberculina no mostró diferencias por nivel de estudios ni nivel socioeconómico; solo la presencia de cicatriz BCG estuvo significativamente asociada (P=0,007). Estos resultados indican que los estudiantes del área de la salud tienen un contacto reducido con pacientes con tuberculosis o sus muestras durante su formación, lo cual no descarta la tuberculosis como riesgo profesional para el personal de salud.<hr/>A cross-sectional study was done at the University of Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia, to evaluate the response to a tuberculin skin test among students in undergraduate health programs (medicine, odontology, nursing, and bacteriology) as compared to undergraduate students in nonhealth programs. The study included students from the beginning, middle, and end of the university's academic programs. The sample of 490 students included 273 from health programs and 217 from nonhealth programs. Participants were randomly selected using lists provided by the university registrar, for the second semester of 1998. The presence of a BCG vaccination scar was determined, and all the participants were also questioned about TB-related risk factors. Tuberculin skin test reactivity was evaluated by the size of induration 72 hours after intradermal injection of two tuberculin units of purified protein derivative RT 23. There were no differences in tuberculin reactivity between students from the health programs and from the nonhealth programs, irrespective of the academic level. However, there was a significantly higher proportion of positive skin tests among students with a BCG scar. These results suggest that undergraduate health students do not have extensive contact with TB patients or with clinical samples from such patients. Nevertheless, the results do not rule out TB as an occupational risk for health personnel. <![CDATA[<B>Enmiendas a la rotulación</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892000000900014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Se realizó un estudio transversal con el fin de evaluar la respuesta a la tuberculina en estudiantes del área de la salud (medicina, odontología, enfermería y bacteriología) en comparación con estudiantes de otras áreas de la Universidad de Antioquia (Medellín, Colombia) en tres niveles, (inicial, intermedio y final) del programa académico. La muestra comprendió 490 estudiantes, 273 del área de la salud y 217 de las otras áreas; la selección se hizo de manera aleatoria con base en los listados del Departamento de Admisiones y Registros de la Universidad para el segundo semestre de 1998. Se determinó la presencia de cicatriz de vacunación BCG y factores de riesgo de tuberculosis. La tuberculina se evaluó 72 horas después de la aplicación intradérmica de 2 UT de PPD, RT-23. La respuesta a la tuberculina no mostró diferencias por nivel de estudios ni nivel socioeconómico; solo la presencia de cicatriz BCG estuvo significativamente asociada (P=0,007). Estos resultados indican que los estudiantes del área de la salud tienen un contacto reducido con pacientes con tuberculosis o sus muestras durante su formación, lo cual no descarta la tuberculosis como riesgo profesional para el personal de salud.<hr/>A cross-sectional study was done at the University of Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia, to evaluate the response to a tuberculin skin test among students in undergraduate health programs (medicine, odontology, nursing, and bacteriology) as compared to undergraduate students in nonhealth programs. The study included students from the beginning, middle, and end of the university's academic programs. The sample of 490 students included 273 from health programs and 217 from nonhealth programs. Participants were randomly selected using lists provided by the university registrar, for the second semester of 1998. The presence of a BCG vaccination scar was determined, and all the participants were also questioned about TB-related risk factors. Tuberculin skin test reactivity was evaluated by the size of induration 72 hours after intradermal injection of two tuberculin units of purified protein derivative RT 23. There were no differences in tuberculin reactivity between students from the health programs and from the nonhealth programs, irrespective of the academic level. However, there was a significantly higher proportion of positive skin tests among students with a BCG scar. These results suggest that undergraduate health students do not have extensive contact with TB patients or with clinical samples from such patients. Nevertheless, the results do not rule out TB as an occupational risk for health personnel. <![CDATA[<B>Uso racional</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892000000900015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Se realizó un estudio transversal con el fin de evaluar la respuesta a la tuberculina en estudiantes del área de la salud (medicina, odontología, enfermería y bacteriología) en comparación con estudiantes de otras áreas de la Universidad de Antioquia (Medellín, Colombia) en tres niveles, (inicial, intermedio y final) del programa académico. La muestra comprendió 490 estudiantes, 273 del área de la salud y 217 de las otras áreas; la selección se hizo de manera aleatoria con base en los listados del Departamento de Admisiones y Registros de la Universidad para el segundo semestre de 1998. Se determinó la presencia de cicatriz de vacunación BCG y factores de riesgo de tuberculosis. La tuberculina se evaluó 72 horas después de la aplicación intradérmica de 2 UT de PPD, RT-23. La respuesta a la tuberculina no mostró diferencias por nivel de estudios ni nivel socioeconómico; solo la presencia de cicatriz BCG estuvo significativamente asociada (P=0,007). Estos resultados indican que los estudiantes del área de la salud tienen un contacto reducido con pacientes con tuberculosis o sus muestras durante su formación, lo cual no descarta la tuberculosis como riesgo profesional para el personal de salud.<hr/>A cross-sectional study was done at the University of Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia, to evaluate the response to a tuberculin skin test among students in undergraduate health programs (medicine, odontology, nursing, and bacteriology) as compared to undergraduate students in nonhealth programs. The study included students from the beginning, middle, and end of the university's academic programs. The sample of 490 students included 273 from health programs and 217 from nonhealth programs. Participants were randomly selected using lists provided by the university registrar, for the second semester of 1998. The presence of a BCG vaccination scar was determined, and all the participants were also questioned about TB-related risk factors. Tuberculin skin test reactivity was evaluated by the size of induration 72 hours after intradermal injection of two tuberculin units of purified protein derivative RT 23. There were no differences in tuberculin reactivity between students from the health programs and from the nonhealth programs, irrespective of the academic level. However, there was a significantly higher proportion of positive skin tests among students with a BCG scar. These results suggest that undergraduate health students do not have extensive contact with TB patients or with clinical samples from such patients. Nevertheless, the results do not rule out TB as an occupational risk for health personnel. <![CDATA[<B>Retiros del mercado</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892000000900016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Se realizó un estudio transversal con el fin de evaluar la respuesta a la tuberculina en estudiantes del área de la salud (medicina, odontología, enfermería y bacteriología) en comparación con estudiantes de otras áreas de la Universidad de Antioquia (Medellín, Colombia) en tres niveles, (inicial, intermedio y final) del programa académico. La muestra comprendió 490 estudiantes, 273 del área de la salud y 217 de las otras áreas; la selección se hizo de manera aleatoria con base en los listados del Departamento de Admisiones y Registros de la Universidad para el segundo semestre de 1998. Se determinó la presencia de cicatriz de vacunación BCG y factores de riesgo de tuberculosis. La tuberculina se evaluó 72 horas después de la aplicación intradérmica de 2 UT de PPD, RT-23. La respuesta a la tuberculina no mostró diferencias por nivel de estudios ni nivel socioeconómico; solo la presencia de cicatriz BCG estuvo significativamente asociada (P=0,007). Estos resultados indican que los estudiantes del área de la salud tienen un contacto reducido con pacientes con tuberculosis o sus muestras durante su formación, lo cual no descarta la tuberculosis como riesgo profesional para el personal de salud.<hr/>A cross-sectional study was done at the University of Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia, to evaluate the response to a tuberculin skin test among students in undergraduate health programs (medicine, odontology, nursing, and bacteriology) as compared to undergraduate students in nonhealth programs. The study included students from the beginning, middle, and end of the university's academic programs. The sample of 490 students included 273 from health programs and 217 from nonhealth programs. Participants were randomly selected using lists provided by the university registrar, for the second semester of 1998. The presence of a BCG vaccination scar was determined, and all the participants were also questioned about TB-related risk factors. Tuberculin skin test reactivity was evaluated by the size of induration 72 hours after intradermal injection of two tuberculin units of purified protein derivative RT 23. There were no differences in tuberculin reactivity between students from the health programs and from the nonhealth programs, irrespective of the academic level. However, there was a significantly higher proportion of positive skin tests among students with a BCG scar. These results suggest that undergraduate health students do not have extensive contact with TB patients or with clinical samples from such patients. Nevertheless, the results do not rule out TB as an occupational risk for health personnel. <![CDATA[<B>Reacciones adversas</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892000000900017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Se realizó un estudio transversal con el fin de evaluar la respuesta a la tuberculina en estudiantes del área de la salud (medicina, odontología, enfermería y bacteriología) en comparación con estudiantes de otras áreas de la Universidad de Antioquia (Medellín, Colombia) en tres niveles, (inicial, intermedio y final) del programa académico. La muestra comprendió 490 estudiantes, 273 del área de la salud y 217 de las otras áreas; la selección se hizo de manera aleatoria con base en los listados del Departamento de Admisiones y Registros de la Universidad para el segundo semestre de 1998. Se determinó la presencia de cicatriz de vacunación BCG y factores de riesgo de tuberculosis. La tuberculina se evaluó 72 horas después de la aplicación intradérmica de 2 UT de PPD, RT-23. La respuesta a la tuberculina no mostró diferencias por nivel de estudios ni nivel socioeconómico; solo la presencia de cicatriz BCG estuvo significativamente asociada (P=0,007). Estos resultados indican que los estudiantes del área de la salud tienen un contacto reducido con pacientes con tuberculosis o sus muestras durante su formación, lo cual no descarta la tuberculosis como riesgo profesional para el personal de salud.<hr/>A cross-sectional study was done at the University of Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia, to evaluate the response to a tuberculin skin test among students in undergraduate health programs (medicine, odontology, nursing, and bacteriology) as compared to undergraduate students in nonhealth programs. The study included students from the beginning, middle, and end of the university's academic programs. The sample of 490 students included 273 from health programs and 217 from nonhealth programs. Participants were randomly selected using lists provided by the university registrar, for the second semester of 1998. The presence of a BCG vaccination scar was determined, and all the participants were also questioned about TB-related risk factors. Tuberculin skin test reactivity was evaluated by the size of induration 72 hours after intradermal injection of two tuberculin units of purified protein derivative RT 23. There were no differences in tuberculin reactivity between students from the health programs and from the nonhealth programs, irrespective of the academic level. However, there was a significantly higher proportion of positive skin tests among students with a BCG scar. These results suggest that undergraduate health students do not have extensive contact with TB patients or with clinical samples from such patients. Nevertheless, the results do not rule out TB as an occupational risk for health personnel. <![CDATA[<B>Decisiones diversas</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892000000900018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Se realizó un estudio transversal con el fin de evaluar la respuesta a la tuberculina en estudiantes del área de la salud (medicina, odontología, enfermería y bacteriología) en comparación con estudiantes de otras áreas de la Universidad de Antioquia (Medellín, Colombia) en tres niveles, (inicial, intermedio y final) del programa académico. La muestra comprendió 490 estudiantes, 273 del área de la salud y 217 de las otras áreas; la selección se hizo de manera aleatoria con base en los listados del Departamento de Admisiones y Registros de la Universidad para el segundo semestre de 1998. Se determinó la presencia de cicatriz de vacunación BCG y factores de riesgo de tuberculosis. La tuberculina se evaluó 72 horas después de la aplicación intradérmica de 2 UT de PPD, RT-23. La respuesta a la tuberculina no mostró diferencias por nivel de estudios ni nivel socioeconómico; solo la presencia de cicatriz BCG estuvo significativamente asociada (P=0,007). Estos resultados indican que los estudiantes del área de la salud tienen un contacto reducido con pacientes con tuberculosis o sus muestras durante su formación, lo cual no descarta la tuberculosis como riesgo profesional para el personal de salud.<hr/>A cross-sectional study was done at the University of Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia, to evaluate the response to a tuberculin skin test among students in undergraduate health programs (medicine, odontology, nursing, and bacteriology) as compared to undergraduate students in nonhealth programs. The study included students from the beginning, middle, and end of the university's academic programs. The sample of 490 students included 273 from health programs and 217 from nonhealth programs. Participants were randomly selected using lists provided by the university registrar, for the second semester of 1998. The presence of a BCG vaccination scar was determined, and all the participants were also questioned about TB-related risk factors. Tuberculin skin test reactivity was evaluated by the size of induration 72 hours after intradermal injection of two tuberculin units of purified protein derivative RT 23. There were no differences in tuberculin reactivity between students from the health programs and from the nonhealth programs, irrespective of the academic level. However, there was a significantly higher proportion of positive skin tests among students with a BCG scar. These results suggest that undergraduate health students do not have extensive contact with TB patients or with clinical samples from such patients. Nevertheless, the results do not rule out TB as an occupational risk for health personnel. <![CDATA[<B>The next generation of HIV surveillance systems</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892000000900019&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Se realizó un estudio transversal con el fin de evaluar la respuesta a la tuberculina en estudiantes del área de la salud (medicina, odontología, enfermería y bacteriología) en comparación con estudiantes de otras áreas de la Universidad de Antioquia (Medellín, Colombia) en tres niveles, (inicial, intermedio y final) del programa académico. La muestra comprendió 490 estudiantes, 273 del área de la salud y 217 de las otras áreas; la selección se hizo de manera aleatoria con base en los listados del Departamento de Admisiones y Registros de la Universidad para el segundo semestre de 1998. Se determinó la presencia de cicatriz de vacunación BCG y factores de riesgo de tuberculosis. La tuberculina se evaluó 72 horas después de la aplicación intradérmica de 2 UT de PPD, RT-23. La respuesta a la tuberculina no mostró diferencias por nivel de estudios ni nivel socioeconómico; solo la presencia de cicatriz BCG estuvo significativamente asociada (P=0,007). Estos resultados indican que los estudiantes del área de la salud tienen un contacto reducido con pacientes con tuberculosis o sus muestras durante su formación, lo cual no descarta la tuberculosis como riesgo profesional para el personal de salud.<hr/>A cross-sectional study was done at the University of Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia, to evaluate the response to a tuberculin skin test among students in undergraduate health programs (medicine, odontology, nursing, and bacteriology) as compared to undergraduate students in nonhealth programs. The study included students from the beginning, middle, and end of the university's academic programs. The sample of 490 students included 273 from health programs and 217 from nonhealth programs. Participants were randomly selected using lists provided by the university registrar, for the second semester of 1998. The presence of a BCG vaccination scar was determined, and all the participants were also questioned about TB-related risk factors. Tuberculin skin test reactivity was evaluated by the size of induration 72 hours after intradermal injection of two tuberculin units of purified protein derivative RT 23. There were no differences in tuberculin reactivity between students from the health programs and from the nonhealth programs, irrespective of the academic level. However, there was a significantly higher proportion of positive skin tests among students with a BCG scar. These results suggest that undergraduate health students do not have extensive contact with TB patients or with clinical samples from such patients. Nevertheless, the results do not rule out TB as an occupational risk for health personnel.