Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública]]> http://www.scielosp.org/rss.php?pid=1020-498920040007&lang=en vol. 16 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielosp.org/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielosp.org <![CDATA[<B>Risk factors for childbearing during adolescence in a population-based birth cohort in southern Brazil</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892004000700001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: To use a case-control study to analyze risk factors associated with teenage childbearing among adolescents who were in a birth cohort study that began in 1982 in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: Adolescent mothers in Pelotas who gave birth between January 1995 and March 2001 and who had been born in 1982 were identified through the local birth information system. These subjects from the 1982 birth cohort were compared to adolescents from the same cohort who had not given birth before March 2001. Standardized interviews were used in 2001 to obtain information about socioeconomic, maternal reproductive, demographic, and lifestyle characteristics. This information was combined with data obtained in earlier phases of this 1982 birth cohort study. Unconditional logistic regression was used to analyze the risk factors associated with childbearing during adolescence. RESULTS: A total of 420 parous adolescents from the 1982 birth cohort were identified and then compared with 408 cohort adolescents who had not given birth by March 2001. Higher family income in 1982 and more parental schooling in 1982 were inversely related to childbearing among the birth cohort adolescents. Cohort girls whose mothers were under age 20 when they gave birth in 1982 had a higher risk of becoming pregnant while still an adolescent. Cohort girls who, during childhood, lived with siblings from different fathers were twice as likely to become an adolescent mother. Compared to cohort adolescents who had not failed during the first four years of school, those girls who had done so had twice the risk of giving birth during adolescence. Among the cohort girls a positive association was found between younger age at first intercourse and childbearing in adolescence. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the educational level of the adolescent mothers must be considered in planning policies that attempt to disrupt successive cycles of socioeconomic deprivation. Early interventions to improve sex education and to increase the motivation of young girls to achieve higher levels of education are needed. The interventions should aim for a reduction in the risk of long-term poverty and poorer educational achievements of teenage mothers and their children.<hr/>OBJETIVO: Utilizar un estudio de casos y testigos para analizar los factores de riesgo asociados con ser madre adolescente en un grupo de jóvenes que participaron en un estudio de cohorte iniciado en 1982 en la ciudad de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Por medio del sistema local de datos de natalidad, se identificó a todas las madres adolescentes en Pelotas que habían dado a luz entre enero de 1995 y marzo de 2001 y que habían nacido en 1982. Estas mujeres de la cohorte de 1982 se compararon con adolescentes de su misma cohorte que no habían dado a luz antes de marzo de 2001. En 2001 se aplicaron entrevistas estandarizadas para recoger información sobre las características socioeconómicas, reproductivas, demográficas y de estilo de vida de las mujeres. Dicha información se combinó con datos obtenidos en fases más tempranas del estudio de la cohorte de 1982. Se empleó un modelo de regresión logística incondicionada para analizar los factores de riesgo asociados con dar a luz durante la adolescencia. RESULTADOS: Un total de 420 adolescentes parturientas de la cohorte de 1982 fueron identificadas y comparadas con 408 adolescentes de la misma cohorte que no habían dado a luz antes de marzo de 2001. Se observó entre las adolescentes de la cohorte que tener un ingreso familiar más alto y padres con una mayor escolaridad se asociaban inversamente con dar a luz. Las jóvenes de la cohorte cuyas madres no habían cumplido los 20 años de edad cuando dieron a luz en 1982 mostraron un riesgo mayor de ser madres adolescentes. Las jóvenes de la cohorte que durante la niñez habían vivido con hermanos que eran hijos de distintos padres mostraron un riesgo doble de ser madres adolescentes. Cuando se compararon con adolescentes que no habían suspendido las clases en los primeros cuatro años de asistir a la escuela, las que sí las habían suspendido tuvieron el doble del riesgo de dar a luz durante la adolescencia. En las jóvenes pertenecientes a la cohorte el haber tenido la primera relación sexual a una edad más temprana se asoció directamente con dar a luz en la adolescencia. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados del estudio indican que la escolaridad de las madres adolescentes debe tomarse en cuenta a la hora de planificar políticas orientadas a interrumpir ciclos sucesivos de privación económica. Hacen falta intervenciones tempranas para mejorar la educación sexual y hacer que las jovencitas tengan mayores motivaciones para alcanzar una mayor escolaridad. Las intervenciones deben encaminarse a reducir el riesgo de que las madres adolescentes y sus hijos acaben viviendo en la pobreza y sin recibir una educación adecuada. <![CDATA[<B>Tiredness and sleepiness in bus drivers and road accidents in Peru</B>: <B>a quantitative study</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892004000700002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Evaluar la relación del cansancio y la somnolencia en los conductores de ómnibus con los accidentes de carretera. La información obtenida de diversos países atribuye a la somnolencia del conductor una parte importante en la génesis de los accidentes de carretera. No obstante, la información al respecto es escasa en el caso del Perú. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio transversal, de índole observacional y comparativa, basado en una encuesta prevalidada y de aplicación supervisada, entre 238 conductores de ómnibus que circulan por la carretera Panamericana Norte del Perú. Para determinar la relación entre variables se emplearon la prueba de ji al cuadrado y el índice de Pearson, con un valor de significación de P < 0,05. Variables de análisis:cansancio, somnolencia, horas de conducción por día, horas de sueño por día, índice de masa corporal, ronquido, pausas respiratorias y el antecedente de haber tenido o estar a punto de tener un accidente durante la conducción. RESULTADOS: De los 238 conductores, todos ellos varones, 45% refirieron haber estado a punto de tener un accidente o haberlo sufrido durante la conducción, 55% dormían menos de 6 horas al día, 31% habían dormido menos de 6 horas en las últimas 24, y 80% acostumbraban conducir más de 5 horas sin descanso. Señalaron cansancio durante la conducción 56% y, de estos, 65% lo experimentaban durante la madrugada. Setenta y seis (32%) conductores reconocieron que pestañeaban durante la conducción. Ciento noventa y cuatro (81%) siempre dormían en el maletero, estuviera el ómnibus en ruta o en la terminal. Maniobras para evitar dormirse: mojarse la cara con agua, comer fruta, abrir ventana de la cabina, beber café, escuchar música, fumar, masticar (chacchar) coca y beber alcohol con hoja de coca. En opinión de 55% de los conductores, la primera causa de accidentes de carretera es el cansancio. Los accidentes durante la conducción, virtuales o consumados, ocurrieron predominantemente entre las 00:00 y las 06:00 horas. Este antecedente mostró firme asociación (P< 0,0005) con el pestañeo y el cansancio. CONCLUSIONES: La somnolencia y el cansancio durante la conducción fueron frecuentes. Su origen puede ser multifactorial: privación aguda y crónica del sueño, rotación desordenada de horarios y trastornos del sueño de origen ambiental. Los resultados respaldan la hipótesis de que hay una relación entre la fatiga y somnolencia de los conductores y los accidentes en carreteras.<hr/>OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship that tiredness and sleepiness in bus drivers have to road accidents in Peru. Information from various countries indicates that driver sleepiness plays an important role in road accidents. However, there is only limited information on this subject in Peru. METHODS: Using a supervised, pretested survey, a cross-sectional observational and comparative study was carried out with 238 bus drivers who drive on the Northern Pan American Highway of Peru. To determine the relationship between variables the chi-square test was used, along with the Pearson correlation coefficient. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. The variables analyzed were: tiredness, sleepiness, hours of driving per day, daily hours of sleep, body mass index, snoring, sleep apnea, and either having had or almost having had an accident while driving. RESULTS: Of the 238 drivers, all of them were men, 45% said they had had or nearly had had an accident while driving, 55% slept less than 6 hours per day, 31% had slept less than 6 hours in the 24 hours before answering the survey, and 80% were in the habit of driving more than 5 hours without stopping. Of the drivers, 56% of them reported being tired at least some of the time while driving; of this group, 65% of them reported being tired during the early morning. Seventy-six drivers (32%) said that while they were driving their eyes had fallen shut. In terms of where they slept, 194 of the drivers (81%) said they always slept in the lower luggage compartment of the bus while another driver was driving the bus or when the bus was parked in the bus terminal. The steps that drivers took to avoid falling asleep while driving included: wetting the face with water, eating fruit, opening the window of the driver's compartment, drinking coffee, listening to music, smoking, chewing coca leaves, and drinking alcohol mixed with coca leaves. In the opinion of 55% of the drivers, the leading cause of road accidents is tiredness. Accidents and near-accidents while driving occurred mainly between midnight and 6 a.m. Having an accident or a near-accident was strongly associated with tiredness and with having the eyes drop shut while driving (P < 0.0005). CONCLUSIONS: Tiredness and sleepiness while driving were common among the bus drivers, with various possible causes: acute and chronic sleep deprivation, irregular schedule changes, and sleep disorders due to the drivers' working conditions. Our results support the hypothesis that fatigue and sleepiness among bus drivers are related to road accidents. <![CDATA[<B>Foremilk and hindmilk retinol levels</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892004000700003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Determinar os níveis de retinol no leite materno ao início e ao final da mamada. MÉTODOS: Em 2003, foram entrevistadas 30 nutrizes atendidas na Maternidade Escola Januário Cicco, Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil, entre 24 horas e 15 dias após o parto. A coleta de leite foi realizada no período da tarde, por expressão manual de uma mama reservada 2 horas antes, sendo retirados 4 mL de leite (2 mL ao início e 2 mL ao fim da mamada). O retinol foi determinado por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Para a análise estatística utilizou-se o teste t de Student. RESULTADOS: As concentrações médias de retinol nas amostras de leite coletadas ao início e ao fim de uma mesma mamada foram 69,3 &plusmn; 41,4 µg/100 mL e 111,6 &plusmn; 79,2 µg/100mL, respectivamente, e foram estatisticamente diferentes (P = 0,012). CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem que o leite ao final da mamada proporciona maior ingestão de vitamina A. Assim, é importante orientar as mães a não interromperem as mamadas e a não limitarem a expressão manual apenas ao leite inicial. Além disso, é importante padronizar o momento da coleta de leite para permitir a comparação entre resultados de diferentes estudos sobre esse tema.<hr/>OBJECTIVE: To determine retinol levels in breast milk at the beginning and at the end of a feeding. METHODS: In 2003, 30 breastfeeding women receiving care at the Januário Cicco Maternity School, in the city of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, were interviewed between 24 hours and 15 days after delivery. A four mL sample of breast milk was expressed manually (2 mL at the beginning and 2 mL at the end of the feeding) in the afternoon, two hours after the preceding feeding. Retinol levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Student's t test was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The mean retinol concentrations in the breast milk samples collected at the beginning and at the end of the same feeding were 69.3 &plusmn; 41.4 µg/100 mL and 111.6 &plusmn; 79.2 µg/100 mL, respectively; the mean concentrations were statistically different (P = 0.012). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that hindmilk provides a higher intake of vitamin A. Therefore, it is important to guide mothers to not limit the baby's time at the breast and to avoid expressing only foremilk. In addition, it is important to standardize the time of breast milk collection in order to allow comparisons between the results of different studies on this topic. <![CDATA[<B>Tuberculosis along the United States-Mexico border, 1993-2001</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892004000700004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVES: Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading public health problem and a recognized priority for the federal Governments of both Mexico and the United States of America. The objectives of this research, primarily for the four states in the United States that are along the border with Mexico, were to: (1) describe the epidemiological situation of TB, (2) identify TB risk factors, and (3) discuss tuberculosis program strategies. METHODS: We analyzed tuberculosis case reports collected from 1993 through 2001 by the tuberculosis surveillance system of the United States. We used those data to compare TB cases mainly among three groups: (1) Mexican-born persons in the four United States border states (Arizona, California, New Mexico, and Texas), (2) persons in those four border states who had been born in the United States, and (3) Mexican-born persons in the 46 other states of the United States, which do not border Mexico. RESULTS: For the period from 1993 through 2001, of the 16 223 TB cases reported for Mexican-born persons in the United States, 12 450 of them (76.7%) were reported by Arizona, California, New Mexico, and Texas. In those four border states overall in 2001, tuberculosis case rates for Mexican-born persons were 5.0 times as high as the rates for persons born in the United States; those four states have 23 counties that directly border on Mexico, and the ratio in those counties was 5.8. HIV seropositivity, drug and alcohol use, unemployment, and incarceration were significantly less likely to be reported in Mexican-born TB patients from the four border states and the nonborder states than in patients born in the United States from the four border states (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that among pulmonary tuberculosis patients who were 18-64 years of age and residing in the four border states, the Mexican-born patients were 3.6 times as likely as the United States-born patients were to have resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampin (i.e., to have multidrug-resistant TB) and twice as likely to have isoniazid resistance. Mexican-born TB patients from the four border states and the nonborder states were significantly more likely to have moved or to be lost to follow-up than were the TB patients born in the United States from the four border states (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Increased collaborative tuberculosis control efforts by the federal Governments of both Mexico and the United States along the border that they share are needed if tuberculosis is to be eliminated in the United States.<hr/>OBJETIVOS: La tuberculosis es un problema de salud pública importante y es una prioridad reconocida por los gobiernos federales de México y Estados Unidos de América. Los objetivos de la presente investigación fueron los siguientes, atendiendo específicamente a los cuatro estados de los Estados Unidos que tienen frontera con México: 1) describir la situación epidemiológica de la tuberculosis, 2) identificar los factores de riesgo de contraer la enfermedad y 3) examinar las estrategias aplicadas en los programas antituberculosos. MÉTODOS: Analizamos las notificaciones de casos de tuberculosis recogidas entre 1993 y 2001 por el sistema estadounidense para la vigilancia de la tuberculosis. Con esos datos se compararon los casos de tuberculosis detectados en tres grupos principalmente: 1) personas nacidas en México que vivían en uno de los cuatro estados fronterizos de Estados Unidos (Arizona, California, Nuevo México y Texas); 2) residentes de esos cuatro estados que habían nacido en los Estados Unidos, y 3) personas nacidas en México con residencia en cualquiera de los otros 46 estados de Estados Unidos que no tienen frontera con México. RESULTADOS: Durante el período de 1993 a 2001, 12 450 (76,7%) de los 16 223 casos de tuberculosis en residentes de Estados Unidos nacidos en México se notificaron en Arizona, California, Nuevo México y Texas. En esos cuatro estados en general, la incidencia de tuberculosis en 2001 en personas nacidas en México fue 5,0 veces mayor que en personas nacidas en Estados Unidos. En dichos estados hay 23 condados que tienen frontera con México, y en ellos la razón observada fue de 5,8. Las probabilidades de que se notificaran seropositividad a VIH, abuso de alcohol, desempleo y encarcelamiento fueron menores, en grado significativo, entre pacientes tuberculosos nacidos en México con residencian en los cuatro estados fronterizos y en los otros estados que entre pacientes nacidos en Estados Unidos con residencia en los cuatro estados fronterizos (P < 0,001). Según el análisis multifactorial, en pacientes tuberculosos entre las edades de 18 y 64 años que vivían en los cuatro estados fronterizos las probabilidades de tener resistencia por lo menos a la isoniacida y la rifampicina (es decir, multirresistencia medicamentosa) eran 3,6 mayores cuando los pacientes habían nacido en México que cuando habían nacido en Estados Unidos. Asimismo, las probabilidades de tener resistencia a la isoniacida fueron dos veces mayores entre los pacientes nacidos en México que entre los nacidos en Estados Unidos. Los pacientes tuberculosos nacidos en México con residencia en los cuatro estados fronterizos y en los demás estados mostraron mayores probabilidades, en grado significativo, de haberse trasladado de lugar o de haber desaparecido durante el seguimiento que los pacientes tuberculosos nacidos en los Estados Unidos con residencia en los cuatro estados fronterizos (P < 0,001). CONCLUSIONES: Para poder eliminar la tuberculosis de los Estados Unidos, hace falta una mayor colaboración entre los gobiernos federales de este país y de México en lo que respecta a iniciativas para controlar la tuberculosis a lo largo de la frontera que comparten. <![CDATA[<B>Impaired glucose regulation in adults in Jamaica</B>: <B>who should have the oral glucose tolerance test?</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892004000700005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: To compare the 1999 World Health Organization (WHO) fasting plasma glucose (FPG) criteria and the WHO 2-hour post-challenge glucose (2hPG) criteria during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in identifying adults in Jamaica with hyperglycemia. As the OGTT is not commonly used in clinical practice, factors associated with the failure of the FPG criteria to detect persons with impaired 2hPG were investigated. METHODS: A random sample of 2 096 adults, 25-74 years old, living in the town of Spanish Town, Jamaica, was evaluated for diabetes. After excluding 215 individuals for reasons such as missing data, the remaining 1 881 persons were composed of 187 who were previously known to have diabetes and 1 694 who were screened for diabetes with both FPG and 2hPG. RESULTS: The FPG criteria detected 83 cases of diabetes, compared to 72 by the 2hPG criteria. The kappa statistic comparing the two criteria was 0.31 (95% confidence interval: 0.28- 0.34), indicating fair agreement. There were 261 cases of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 92 cases of impaired fasting glucose (IFG). In those 92 with IFG, an OGTT would identify 34 cases of IGT and 14 cases of diabetes. Of those classified as normoglycemic by FPG criteria, 14% of them had IGT or diabetes by 2hPG criteria. The factors predicting the likelihood of nondetection of impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes by FPG were age, body mass index, central obesity, systolic blood pressure, and female sex. By receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, an FPG of 5.1 mmol/L would predict a 2hPG > 7.8 mmol/L. CONCLUSIONS: A few individuals classified as normal on FPG will have IGT or diabetes, and an OGTT will be needed to identify them. The yield of IGT detected by screening in Jamaica can be improved by lowering the threshold for IFG or by using clinical information to identify high-risk individuals.<hr/>OBJETIVO: Comparar los criterios publicados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) en 1999 acerca del uso de la prueba de glucemia en ayunas (PGA) y de la prueba de tolerancia a una dosis oral de glucosa con valoración a las dos horas (PTG2h) para identificar a adultos hiperglucémicos en Jamaica. Como la PTG2h no se administra normalmente en un contexto clínico, se investigaron los factores asociados con la inutilidad de la PGA para detectar a personas con hiperglucemia según la PTG2h. MÉTODOS: Se examinó una muestra aleatoria de 2 096 adultos de 25 a 47 años de edad que vivían en la ciudad de Spanish Town, Jamaica, para determinar la presencia de diabetes. Una vez que se eliminó a 215 personas por diversos motivos, entre ellos la ausencia de datos, quedaron 1 881 personas entre las cuales se encontraban 187 que se sabía de antemano que tenían diabetes y otras 1 694 que fueron sometidas tanto a la PGA como a la PTG2h. RESULTADOS: La PGA permitió detectar 83 casos de diabetes, mientras que la PTG2h permitió detectar 72. El estadístico kappa de comparación entre los dos criterios de valoración fue de 0,31 (intervalo de confianza de 95%: 0,28-0,34), valor que revela una concordancia moderada. Se observaron 261 casos de intolerancia a la glucosa tras la PTG2h y 92 casos de hiperglucemia en ayunas. En estas últimas 92 personas, la PTG2h sirvió para identificar 34 casos de intolerancia a la glucosa y 14 casos de diabetes. De las personas que se mostraron normoglucémicas según la PGA, 14% tenían intolerancia a la glucosa o diabetes, según la PTG2h. Algunos factores tuvieron valor pronóstico en relación con la falta de detección de la intolerancia a la glucosa o la diabetes. Estos fueron la edad, el índice de masa corporal, la concentración de la obesidad en el tronco y el abdomen, la tensión sistólica y el sexo femenino. De acuerdo con la curva de eficacia diagnóstica, una glucemia en ayunas de 5,1 mmol/L tendría valor pronóstico con respecto a la presencia de una glucemia de 7,8 mmol/L según la PTG2h. CONCLUSIONES: Algunas personas cuya glucemia en ayunas está dentro de lo normal tienen intolerancia a la glucosa o diabetes; por lo tanto, para identificarlas es necesario hacer la PTG2h. Se puede mejorar la detección de casos de intolerancia a la glucosa en Jamaica si se reduce el umbral de normalidad para la PGA o si se toman en cuenta los datos clínicos para identificar a las personas en alto riesgo. <![CDATA[<B>Violence and social representation in teenagers in Brazil</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892004000700006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Investigar a associação entre a representação que os adolescentes têm de si e a violência física severa, psicológica e sexual que sofrem de pessoas que lhes são importantes, sobretudo os pais; e analisar a associação entre a vitimização na família e em outros espaços sociais. MÉTODO: Inquérito epidemiológico com 1 685 estudantes selecionados aleatoriamente nas escolas públicas e particulares do Município de São Gonçalo (RJ), Brasil, em 2002. Para aferir cada uma das formas de violência foram usadas escalas de avaliação de táticas para lidar com conflito, de abuso e trauma infantil e de violência psicológica. RESULTADOS: Constatou-se que 14,6% dos estudantes sofriam violência física severa de pai ou mãe; 11,8% testemunharam ou vivenciaram violência sexual na família; 48,0% relataram sofrer violência psicológica de pessoas significativas. Os adolescentes que sofrem essas formas de violência são mais freqüentemente vítimas de violência na comunidade e na escola, relatando-se também mais transgressores da lei. Em geral, possuem uma representação positiva de si próprios, embora mencionem atributos negativos com maior freqüência. CONCLUSÃO: A representação social predominantemente positiva entre jovens necessita ser estimulada nas atividades de promoção à saúde. A constatação de que os índices de violência estão associados às várias esferas de atuação dos adolescentes indica que a resolução do problema depende de estratégias que englobem todas essas esferas.<hr/>OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between the self-representation of teenagers and the severe physical, psychological, and sexual violence inflicted on them by close family relations, especially their parents, and to analyze the association between victimization in the family and victimization in other social spaces. METHOD: An epidemiological survey was carried out in 2002 with 1 685 adolescents chosen at random from public and private schools in the municipality of São Gonçalo, which is in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. To measure each form of violence, we used scales of tactics for dealing with conflict, of child abuse and trauma, and of psychological violence. RESULTS: We found that 14.6% of the students had been physically abused by the father or the mother and that 11.8% had witnessed sexual abuse of another family member or they themselves had been sexually abused. In addition, 48.0% of the students reported having been psychologically abused by a close relation. In comparison to students who had not been abused, the victims of family abuse were more often also victims of community and school violence, and they also more frequently reported having broken the law. Overall, the adolescents surveyed had a positive self-representation, but the adolescents who had been abused mentioned negative self-attributes more frequently than did the teenagers who had not been abused. CONCLUSIONS: The predominantly positive social representation of teenagers must be supported by health promotion initiatives. The finding of an association between indices of violence and the teenager's various spheres of action indicates that resolving this problem will require strategies that target all these spheres. <![CDATA[<B>Políticas editoriales aprobadas por la Junta Directiva del Consejo de Editores Científicos</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892004000700007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Investigar a associação entre a representação que os adolescentes têm de si e a violência física severa, psicológica e sexual que sofrem de pessoas que lhes são importantes, sobretudo os pais; e analisar a associação entre a vitimização na família e em outros espaços sociais. MÉTODO: Inquérito epidemiológico com 1 685 estudantes selecionados aleatoriamente nas escolas públicas e particulares do Município de São Gonçalo (RJ), Brasil, em 2002. Para aferir cada uma das formas de violência foram usadas escalas de avaliação de táticas para lidar com conflito, de abuso e trauma infantil e de violência psicológica. RESULTADOS: Constatou-se que 14,6% dos estudantes sofriam violência física severa de pai ou mãe; 11,8% testemunharam ou vivenciaram violência sexual na família; 48,0% relataram sofrer violência psicológica de pessoas significativas. Os adolescentes que sofrem essas formas de violência são mais freqüentemente vítimas de violência na comunidade e na escola, relatando-se também mais transgressores da lei. Em geral, possuem uma representação positiva de si próprios, embora mencionem atributos negativos com maior freqüência. CONCLUSÃO: A representação social predominantemente positiva entre jovens necessita ser estimulada nas atividades de promoção à saúde. A constatação de que os índices de violência estão associados às várias esferas de atuação dos adolescentes indica que a resolução do problema depende de estratégias que englobem todas essas esferas.<hr/>OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between the self-representation of teenagers and the severe physical, psychological, and sexual violence inflicted on them by close family relations, especially their parents, and to analyze the association between victimization in the family and victimization in other social spaces. METHOD: An epidemiological survey was carried out in 2002 with 1 685 adolescents chosen at random from public and private schools in the municipality of São Gonçalo, which is in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. To measure each form of violence, we used scales of tactics for dealing with conflict, of child abuse and trauma, and of psychological violence. RESULTS: We found that 14.6% of the students had been physically abused by the father or the mother and that 11.8% had witnessed sexual abuse of another family member or they themselves had been sexually abused. In addition, 48.0% of the students reported having been psychologically abused by a close relation. In comparison to students who had not been abused, the victims of family abuse were more often also victims of community and school violence, and they also more frequently reported having broken the law. Overall, the adolescents surveyed had a positive self-representation, but the adolescents who had been abused mentioned negative self-attributes more frequently than did the teenagers who had not been abused. CONCLUSIONS: The predominantly positive social representation of teenagers must be supported by health promotion initiatives. The finding of an association between indices of violence and the teenager's various spheres of action indicates that resolving this problem will require strategies that target all these spheres. <![CDATA[<B>Efecto de la dieta y otros factores ambientales sobre el riesgo de morir de cáncer de próstata</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892004000700008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Investigar a associação entre a representação que os adolescentes têm de si e a violência física severa, psicológica e sexual que sofrem de pessoas que lhes são importantes, sobretudo os pais; e analisar a associação entre a vitimização na família e em outros espaços sociais. MÉTODO: Inquérito epidemiológico com 1 685 estudantes selecionados aleatoriamente nas escolas públicas e particulares do Município de São Gonçalo (RJ), Brasil, em 2002. Para aferir cada uma das formas de violência foram usadas escalas de avaliação de táticas para lidar com conflito, de abuso e trauma infantil e de violência psicológica. RESULTADOS: Constatou-se que 14,6% dos estudantes sofriam violência física severa de pai ou mãe; 11,8% testemunharam ou vivenciaram violência sexual na família; 48,0% relataram sofrer violência psicológica de pessoas significativas. Os adolescentes que sofrem essas formas de violência são mais freqüentemente vítimas de violência na comunidade e na escola, relatando-se também mais transgressores da lei. Em geral, possuem uma representação positiva de si próprios, embora mencionem atributos negativos com maior freqüência. CONCLUSÃO: A representação social predominantemente positiva entre jovens necessita ser estimulada nas atividades de promoção à saúde. A constatação de que os índices de violência estão associados às várias esferas de atuação dos adolescentes indica que a resolução do problema depende de estratégias que englobem todas essas esferas.<hr/>OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between the self-representation of teenagers and the severe physical, psychological, and sexual violence inflicted on them by close family relations, especially their parents, and to analyze the association between victimization in the family and victimization in other social spaces. METHOD: An epidemiological survey was carried out in 2002 with 1 685 adolescents chosen at random from public and private schools in the municipality of São Gonçalo, which is in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. To measure each form of violence, we used scales of tactics for dealing with conflict, of child abuse and trauma, and of psychological violence. RESULTS: We found that 14.6% of the students had been physically abused by the father or the mother and that 11.8% had witnessed sexual abuse of another family member or they themselves had been sexually abused. In addition, 48.0% of the students reported having been psychologically abused by a close relation. In comparison to students who had not been abused, the victims of family abuse were more often also victims of community and school violence, and they also more frequently reported having broken the law. Overall, the adolescents surveyed had a positive self-representation, but the adolescents who had been abused mentioned negative self-attributes more frequently than did the teenagers who had not been abused. CONCLUSIONS: The predominantly positive social representation of teenagers must be supported by health promotion initiatives. The finding of an association between indices of violence and the teenager's various spheres of action indicates that resolving this problem will require strategies that target all these spheres. <![CDATA[<B>Asociación entre el tabaquismo y el glaucoma primario de ángulo abierto</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892004000700009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Investigar a associação entre a representação que os adolescentes têm de si e a violência física severa, psicológica e sexual que sofrem de pessoas que lhes são importantes, sobretudo os pais; e analisar a associação entre a vitimização na família e em outros espaços sociais. MÉTODO: Inquérito epidemiológico com 1 685 estudantes selecionados aleatoriamente nas escolas públicas e particulares do Município de São Gonçalo (RJ), Brasil, em 2002. Para aferir cada uma das formas de violência foram usadas escalas de avaliação de táticas para lidar com conflito, de abuso e trauma infantil e de violência psicológica. RESULTADOS: Constatou-se que 14,6% dos estudantes sofriam violência física severa de pai ou mãe; 11,8% testemunharam ou vivenciaram violência sexual na família; 48,0% relataram sofrer violência psicológica de pessoas significativas. Os adolescentes que sofrem essas formas de violência são mais freqüentemente vítimas de violência na comunidade e na escola, relatando-se também mais transgressores da lei. Em geral, possuem uma representação positiva de si próprios, embora mencionem atributos negativos com maior freqüência. CONCLUSÃO: A representação social predominantemente positiva entre jovens necessita ser estimulada nas atividades de promoção à saúde. A constatação de que os índices de violência estão associados às várias esferas de atuação dos adolescentes indica que a resolução do problema depende de estratégias que englobem todas essas esferas.<hr/>OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between the self-representation of teenagers and the severe physical, psychological, and sexual violence inflicted on them by close family relations, especially their parents, and to analyze the association between victimization in the family and victimization in other social spaces. METHOD: An epidemiological survey was carried out in 2002 with 1 685 adolescents chosen at random from public and private schools in the municipality of São Gonçalo, which is in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. To measure each form of violence, we used scales of tactics for dealing with conflict, of child abuse and trauma, and of psychological violence. RESULTS: We found that 14.6% of the students had been physically abused by the father or the mother and that 11.8% had witnessed sexual abuse of another family member or they themselves had been sexually abused. In addition, 48.0% of the students reported having been psychologically abused by a close relation. In comparison to students who had not been abused, the victims of family abuse were more often also victims of community and school violence, and they also more frequently reported having broken the law. Overall, the adolescents surveyed had a positive self-representation, but the adolescents who had been abused mentioned negative self-attributes more frequently than did the teenagers who had not been abused. CONCLUSIONS: The predominantly positive social representation of teenagers must be supported by health promotion initiatives. The finding of an association between indices of violence and the teenager's various spheres of action indicates that resolving this problem will require strategies that target all these spheres. <![CDATA[<B>Características de la infección invasora por <I>Haemophilus influenzae</I> tipo b en Paraguay</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892004000700010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Investigar a associação entre a representação que os adolescentes têm de si e a violência física severa, psicológica e sexual que sofrem de pessoas que lhes são importantes, sobretudo os pais; e analisar a associação entre a vitimização na família e em outros espaços sociais. MÉTODO: Inquérito epidemiológico com 1 685 estudantes selecionados aleatoriamente nas escolas públicas e particulares do Município de São Gonçalo (RJ), Brasil, em 2002. Para aferir cada uma das formas de violência foram usadas escalas de avaliação de táticas para lidar com conflito, de abuso e trauma infantil e de violência psicológica. RESULTADOS: Constatou-se que 14,6% dos estudantes sofriam violência física severa de pai ou mãe; 11,8% testemunharam ou vivenciaram violência sexual na família; 48,0% relataram sofrer violência psicológica de pessoas significativas. Os adolescentes que sofrem essas formas de violência são mais freqüentemente vítimas de violência na comunidade e na escola, relatando-se também mais transgressores da lei. Em geral, possuem uma representação positiva de si próprios, embora mencionem atributos negativos com maior freqüência. CONCLUSÃO: A representação social predominantemente positiva entre jovens necessita ser estimulada nas atividades de promoção à saúde. A constatação de que os índices de violência estão associados às várias esferas de atuação dos adolescentes indica que a resolução do problema depende de estratégias que englobem todas essas esferas.<hr/>OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between the self-representation of teenagers and the severe physical, psychological, and sexual violence inflicted on them by close family relations, especially their parents, and to analyze the association between victimization in the family and victimization in other social spaces. METHOD: An epidemiological survey was carried out in 2002 with 1 685 adolescents chosen at random from public and private schools in the municipality of São Gonçalo, which is in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. To measure each form of violence, we used scales of tactics for dealing with conflict, of child abuse and trauma, and of psychological violence. RESULTS: We found that 14.6% of the students had been physically abused by the father or the mother and that 11.8% had witnessed sexual abuse of another family member or they themselves had been sexually abused. In addition, 48.0% of the students reported having been psychologically abused by a close relation. In comparison to students who had not been abused, the victims of family abuse were more often also victims of community and school violence, and they also more frequently reported having broken the law. Overall, the adolescents surveyed had a positive self-representation, but the adolescents who had been abused mentioned negative self-attributes more frequently than did the teenagers who had not been abused. CONCLUSIONS: The predominantly positive social representation of teenagers must be supported by health promotion initiatives. The finding of an association between indices of violence and the teenager's various spheres of action indicates that resolving this problem will require strategies that target all these spheres. <![CDATA[<B>Validación cultural de instrumentos para el diagnóstico de la demencia en países en desarrollo</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892004000700011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Investigar a associação entre a representação que os adolescentes têm de si e a violência física severa, psicológica e sexual que sofrem de pessoas que lhes são importantes, sobretudo os pais; e analisar a associação entre a vitimização na família e em outros espaços sociais. MÉTODO: Inquérito epidemiológico com 1 685 estudantes selecionados aleatoriamente nas escolas públicas e particulares do Município de São Gonçalo (RJ), Brasil, em 2002. Para aferir cada uma das formas de violência foram usadas escalas de avaliação de táticas para lidar com conflito, de abuso e trauma infantil e de violência psicológica. RESULTADOS: Constatou-se que 14,6% dos estudantes sofriam violência física severa de pai ou mãe; 11,8% testemunharam ou vivenciaram violência sexual na família; 48,0% relataram sofrer violência psicológica de pessoas significativas. Os adolescentes que sofrem essas formas de violência são mais freqüentemente vítimas de violência na comunidade e na escola, relatando-se também mais transgressores da lei. Em geral, possuem uma representação positiva de si próprios, embora mencionem atributos negativos com maior freqüência. CONCLUSÃO: A representação social predominantemente positiva entre jovens necessita ser estimulada nas atividades de promoção à saúde. A constatação de que os índices de violência estão associados às várias esferas de atuação dos adolescentes indica que a resolução do problema depende de estratégias que englobem todas essas esferas.<hr/>OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between the self-representation of teenagers and the severe physical, psychological, and sexual violence inflicted on them by close family relations, especially their parents, and to analyze the association between victimization in the family and victimization in other social spaces. METHOD: An epidemiological survey was carried out in 2002 with 1 685 adolescents chosen at random from public and private schools in the municipality of São Gonçalo, which is in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. To measure each form of violence, we used scales of tactics for dealing with conflict, of child abuse and trauma, and of psychological violence. RESULTS: We found that 14.6% of the students had been physically abused by the father or the mother and that 11.8% had witnessed sexual abuse of another family member or they themselves had been sexually abused. In addition, 48.0% of the students reported having been psychologically abused by a close relation. In comparison to students who had not been abused, the victims of family abuse were more often also victims of community and school violence, and they also more frequently reported having broken the law. Overall, the adolescents surveyed had a positive self-representation, but the adolescents who had been abused mentioned negative self-attributes more frequently than did the teenagers who had not been abused. CONCLUSIONS: The predominantly positive social representation of teenagers must be supported by health promotion initiatives. The finding of an association between indices of violence and the teenager's various spheres of action indicates that resolving this problem will require strategies that target all these spheres. <![CDATA[<B>La inmunidad provoca el aumento de la virulencia en un modelo experimental de malaria</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892004000700012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Investigar a associação entre a representação que os adolescentes têm de si e a violência física severa, psicológica e sexual que sofrem de pessoas que lhes são importantes, sobretudo os pais; e analisar a associação entre a vitimização na família e em outros espaços sociais. MÉTODO: Inquérito epidemiológico com 1 685 estudantes selecionados aleatoriamente nas escolas públicas e particulares do Município de São Gonçalo (RJ), Brasil, em 2002. Para aferir cada uma das formas de violência foram usadas escalas de avaliação de táticas para lidar com conflito, de abuso e trauma infantil e de violência psicológica. RESULTADOS: Constatou-se que 14,6% dos estudantes sofriam violência física severa de pai ou mãe; 11,8% testemunharam ou vivenciaram violência sexual na família; 48,0% relataram sofrer violência psicológica de pessoas significativas. Os adolescentes que sofrem essas formas de violência são mais freqüentemente vítimas de violência na comunidade e na escola, relatando-se também mais transgressores da lei. Em geral, possuem uma representação positiva de si próprios, embora mencionem atributos negativos com maior freqüência. CONCLUSÃO: A representação social predominantemente positiva entre jovens necessita ser estimulada nas atividades de promoção à saúde. A constatação de que os índices de violência estão associados às várias esferas de atuação dos adolescentes indica que a resolução do problema depende de estratégias que englobem todas essas esferas.<hr/>OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between the self-representation of teenagers and the severe physical, psychological, and sexual violence inflicted on them by close family relations, especially their parents, and to analyze the association between victimization in the family and victimization in other social spaces. METHOD: An epidemiological survey was carried out in 2002 with 1 685 adolescents chosen at random from public and private schools in the municipality of São Gonçalo, which is in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. To measure each form of violence, we used scales of tactics for dealing with conflict, of child abuse and trauma, and of psychological violence. RESULTS: We found that 14.6% of the students had been physically abused by the father or the mother and that 11.8% had witnessed sexual abuse of another family member or they themselves had been sexually abused. In addition, 48.0% of the students reported having been psychologically abused by a close relation. In comparison to students who had not been abused, the victims of family abuse were more often also victims of community and school violence, and they also more frequently reported having broken the law. Overall, the adolescents surveyed had a positive self-representation, but the adolescents who had been abused mentioned negative self-attributes more frequently than did the teenagers who had not been abused. CONCLUSIONS: The predominantly positive social representation of teenagers must be supported by health promotion initiatives. The finding of an association between indices of violence and the teenager's various spheres of action indicates that resolving this problem will require strategies that target all these spheres. <![CDATA[<B>Multiple drug resistance</B>: <B>a threat for tuberculosis control</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892004000700013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) was reported soon after the introduction of streptomycin, although it did not receive major attention until recently. It was not considered a major issue in the industrialized world until outbreaks of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) were reported among HIV infected people. Administration of standard short-course chemotherapy (SSCC) with first-line drugs under directly observed therapy (DOT) is the cornerstone of modern TB control. Unfortunately, data available on the treatment outcome of MDR-TB cases under routine programmatic conditions suggest that patients with MDR-TB respond poorly to SSCC with first-line drugs. Since 1994, the World Health Organization and the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD) have conducted anti-TB drug resistance surveys through a network of subregional laboratories and researchers. Drug resistance was present in almost all settings surveyed, and prevalence varied widely across regions. High prevalence of MDR-TB is widespread in the Russian Federation and areas of the former Soviet Union (Estonia, Kazakhstan, Latvia, and Lithuania) as well as Israel, Liaoning and Henan Provinces in China, and Ecuador. The Global Project has surveyed areas representing over one third of notified TB cases. However, enormous gaps still exist in the most crucial areas. The most effective strategy to prevent the emergence of drug resistance is through implementation of the directly observed treatment short (DOTS) strategy. Effective implementation of the DOTS strategy saves lives through decreased TB transmission, decreased risk of emergence of drug- resistance, and decreased risk for individual TB patients of treatment failure, TB relapse, and death. The World Bank recognizes the DOTS strategy as one of the most cost-effective health interventions, and recommends that effective TB treatment be a part of the essential clinical services package available in primary health care settings. Governments are responsible for ensuring the provision of effective TB control through the DOTS strategy. WHO and its international partners have formed the DOTS-Plus Working Group, which is attempting to determine the best possible strategy to manage MDR-TB. One of the goals of DOTS-Plus is to increase access to expensive second-line anti-TB drugs for WHO-approved TB control programmes in low- and middle-income countries.