Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública]]> http://www.scielosp.org/rss.php?pid=1020-498920080005&lang=en vol. 23 num. 5 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielosp.org/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielosp.org <![CDATA[<b>Factors associated with untreated hypertension among older adults</b>: <b>results of the Mexican health and aging study, 2001</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892008000500001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Determinar los factores asociados con la falta de adhesión al tratamiento de la hipertensión arterial (HTA) diagnosticada en una muestra representativa de adultos mayores mexicanos que viven en la comunidad. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal con 2 029 personas de 65 años o más con diagnóstico de HTA, participantes en el Estudio Nacional sobre Salud y Envejecimiento en México realizado en el verano de 2001. La encuesta recabó información sobre algunas características sociodemográficas (edad, sexo, escolaridad, si vivía solo y si realizaba algún trabajo remunerado, entre otras), las enfermedades crónicas, los síntomas depresivos, el deterioro cognoscitivo, el índice de masa corporal, el tabaquismo, el consumo de bebidas alcohólicas y las dificultades para realizar actividades básicas (ABVD) e instrumentales (AIVD) de la vida diaria, entre otras. Se evaluó la asociación entre las variables estudiadas y el autoinforme de hipertensión arterial no tratada (HTNT) mediante análisis de regresión logística simple y multifactorial. RESULTADOS: De los 2 029 participantes, 437 (21,5%) declararon no seguir tratamiento alguno para controlar la HTA, 1 584 (78,1%) afirmaron seguir un tratamiento y 8 (0,4%) no respondieron a esa pregunta. El análisis multifactorial ajustado por posibles variables confusoras (edad, sexo, síntomas depresivos y deterioro cognoscitivo) mostró que solo la baja escolaridad (razón de posibilidades [odds ratio, OR] ajustada = 1,70; intervalo de confianza de 95% [IC95%]: 1,10 a 2,64; P = 0,02 para la escolaridad de 1 a 6 años y OR ajustada = 3,32; IC95%: 2,10 a 5,24; P < 0,01 para los no escolarizados), consumir bebidas alcohólicas (OR ajustada = 1,52; IC95%: 1,14 a 2,03; P = 0,01) y padecer de incontinencia urinaria (OR ajustada = 1,61; IC95%: 1,15 a 2,26; P < 0,01) resultaron asociadas independientemente con la HTNT. CONCLUSIONES: La HTNT es un problema frecuente e importante en los adultos mayores en México. Para lograr una mejor adhesión, los médicos deben tomar en cuenta la presencia de incontinencia urinaria, el consumo de bebidas alcohólicas y la baja escolaridad de los pacientes al prescribir o modificar el tratamiento antihipertensivo.<hr/>OBJECTIVE: To determine factors associated with failure to adhere to treatment for diagnosed hypertension among a representative sample of older Mexican adults living in the community. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 2 029 individuals 65 years of age or older with diagnosed hypertension who participated in the Mexican Health and Aging Study, carried out during the summer of 2001. The survey collected information on several demographics (age, sex, schooling, whether living alone, and employment status, among others), any chronic illnesses, symptoms of depression, cognitive deterioration, body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, and difficulty performing basic and instrumental activities of daily living. Simple and multifactorial logistical regression analyses were used to evaluate the association among the study variables and self-reported untreated high blood pressure. RESULTS: Of the 2 029 participants, 437 (21.5%) reported not following any treatment whatsoever for controlling their hypertension; 1 584 (78.1%) affirmed they were complying with treatment; and 8 (0.4%) did not respond to this question. The multifactorial analysis adjusted for confounding variables (age, sex, symptoms of depression, and cognitive deterioration) showed that only a low number of years of schooling (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.70; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.10-2.64; P = 0.02 for 1-6 years of schooling and adjusted OR = 3.32; 95%CI: 2.10-5.24; P < 0.01 for no schooling), alcohol consumption (adjusted OR = 1.52; 95%CI: 1.14-2.03; P = 0.01), and urinary incontinence (adjusted OR = 1.61; 95%CI: 1.15-2.26; P < 0.01) were independently associated with hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: Hypertension is a common and important issue among older adults in Mexico. To obtain better medication compliance, doctors prescribing or modifying hypertension treatment should taken into account whether or not the patient suffers from urinary incontinence, consumes alcohol, and/or has a low level of schooling. <![CDATA[<b>Universal vaccination of children against hepatitis a in Chile</b>: <b>a cost-effectiveness study</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892008000500002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the healthcare and economic impact of routine hepatitis A vaccination of toddlers in Chile. METHODS: We used a dynamic model of hepatitis A infection to evaluate the impact of a two-dose vaccination program, administered at ages 12 and 18 months. The model incorporated the changing epidemiology of hepatitis A in Chile and the development of vaccine-induced herd immunity. Our analysis was conducted from the public payer perspective, and an estimation of the societal perspective was performed. Costs are expressed in 2005 U.S. dollars. RESULTS: Vaccination of toddlers rapidly reduced the healthcare burden of hepatitis A. In the base case (95% vaccination coverage, 100-year time horizon, 1% annual decrease in force of infection), the average number of infections fell by 76.6% annually, and associated deaths fell by 59.7%. Even at 50% coverage, the program reduced infection rates substantially. Routine vaccination of toddlers had economic as well as health benefits, saving $4 984 per life-year gained (base case scenario). The program became cost saving after 6 years, and its overall cost-effectiveness per life-year gained was largely unaffected by changes in disease-related costs, herd immunity, coverage rate, and annual decrease in force of infection. CONCLUSIONS: Routine vaccination of toddlers will reduce the rates of symptomatic hepatitis A and associated mortality. The two-dose schedule evaluated here will be less expensive than disease-related costs in the absence of vaccination from the sixth year of its implementation. These findings support the establishment of a routine vaccination program for toddlers in Chile.<hr/>OBJETIVO: Evaluar el impacto sanitario y económico de la vacunación sistemática de infantes contra la hepatitis A en Chile. MÉTODOS: Se empleó un modelo dinámico de hepatitis A para evaluar el impacto de un programa de vacunación de dos dosis administradas a los 12 y 18 meses. El modelo incorporó la epidemiología cambiante de la hepatitis A en Chile y la aparición de la inmunidad de grupo inducida por la vacuna. El análisis se realizó desde la perspectiva del financiador público y se hizo un estimado desde la perspectiva de la sociedad. Los costos se expresaron en dólares estadounidenses del año 2005. RESULTADOS: La vacunación de los infantes redujo rápidamente la carga de la hepatitis A para los servicios de salud. En la variante de base (cobertura de la vacunación: 95%; horizonte temporal: 100 años; reducción anual de la virulencia de la infección: 1%), el número promedio de casos se redujo anualmente en 76% y el número de muertes asociadas disminuyó en 59,7%. Incluso con una cobertura de vacunación de 50%, el programa redujo notablemente la tasa de infección. La vacunación sistemática de los infantes presentó beneficios económicos y sanitarios y ahorró US$ 4 984,00 por año de vida ganado (en el escenario base). El programa generó ahorros a partir del sexto año y la efectividad general en función del costo por año de vida ganado no se afectó por cambios en los costos relacionados con la enfermedad, la inmunidad de grupo, la cobertura de vacunación o la reducción anual de la virulencia de la infección. CONCLUSIONES: La vacunación sistemática de los infantes reduciría la tasa de hepatitis A sintomática y la mortalidad asociada. A partir del sexto año del programa, los costos de aplicar el esquema evaluado de dos dosis serían menores que los relacionados con la enfermedad si no se aplicara la vacuna. Estos resultados apoyan la implantación de programas de vacunación sistemática de infantes contra la hepatitis A en Chile. <![CDATA[<b>Paracoccidioidomycosis-related mortality trend, state of São Paulo, Brazil</b>: <b>a study using multiple causes of death</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892008000500003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Estudar a mortalidade relacionada à paracoccidioidomicose informada em qualquer linha ou parte do atestado médico da declaração de óbito. MÉTODOS: Os dados provieram dos bancos de causas múltiplas de morte da Fundação Sistema Estadual de Análise de Dados (SEADE) de São Paulo entre 1985 e 2005. Foram calculados os coeficientes padronizados de mortalidade relacionada à paracoccidioidomicose como causa básica, como causa associada e pelo total de suas menções. RESULTADOS: No período de 21 anos ocorreram 1 950 óbitos, sendo a paracoccidioidomicose a causa básica de morte em 1 164 (59,7%) e uma causa associada de morte em 786 (40,3%). Entre 1985 e 2005 observou-se um declínio do coeficiente de mortalidade pela causa básica de 59,8% e pela causa associada, de 53,0%. O maior número de óbitos ocorreu entre os homens, nas idades mais avançadas, entre lavradores, com tendência de aumento nos meses de inverno. As principais causas associadas da paracoccidioidomicose como causa básica foram a fibrose pulmonar, as doenças crônicas das vias aéreas inferiores e as pneumonias. As neoplasias malignas e a AIDS foram as principais causas básicas estando a paracoccidioidomicose como causa associada. Verificou-se a necessidade de adequar as tabelas de decisão para o processamento automático de causas de morte nos atestados de óbito com a menção de paracoccidioidomicose. CONCLUSÕES: A metodologia das causas múltiplas de morte, conjugada com a metodologia tradicional da causa básica, abre novas perspectivas para a pesquisa que visa a ampliar o conhecimento sobre a história natural da paracoccidioidomicose.<hr/>OBJECTIVE: To investigate mortality in which paracoccidioidomycosis appears on any line or part of the death certificate. METHODS: Mortality data for 1985-2005 were obtained from the multiple cause-of-death database maintained by the São Paulo State Data Analysis System (SEADE). Standardized mortality coefficients were calculated for paracoccidioidomycosis as the underlying cause-of-death and as an associated cause-of-death, as well as for the total number of times paracoccidioidomycosis was mentioned on the death certificates. RESULTS: During this 21-year period, there were 1 950 deaths related to paracoccidioidomycosis; the disease was the underlying cause-of-death in 1 164 cases (59.69%) and an associated cause-of-death in 786 (40.31%). Between 1985 and 2005 records show a 59.8% decline in the mortality coefficient due to paracoccidioidomycosis as the underlying cause and a 53.0% decline in the mortality as associated cause. The largest number of deaths occurred among men, in the older age groups, and among rural workers, with an upward trend in winter months. The main causes associated with paracoccidioidomycosis as the underlying cause-of-death were pulmonary fibrosis, chronic lower respiratory tract diseases, and pneumonias. Malignant neoplasms and AIDS were the main underlying causes when paracoccidioidomycosis was an associated cause-of-death. The decision tables had to be adapted for the automated processing of causes of death in death certificates where paracoccidioidomycosis was mentioned. CONCLUSIONS: Using the multiple cause-of-death method together with the traditional underlying cause-of-death approach provides a new angle on research aimed at broadening our understanding of the natural history of paracoccidioidomycosis. <![CDATA[<b>Severity of alcohol use and problem behaviors among school-based youths in Puerto Rico</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892008000500004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: The present study sought to: (a) categorize youths into groups based on their level of alcohol use and number of symptoms of alcohol abuse and dependence defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), and (b) examine whether these categories were associated with other problem behaviors in which youths engage (marijuana use, sexual intercourse, and having been arrested or having trouble with the law). METHODS: The study is based on a cross-sectional survey administered to 972 school-based youths from one middle school and one high school in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Youths were categorized based on their alcohol use and alcohol problems. These categories were then examined for associations with lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and having been arrested or having had trouble with the law in the past year. The original eight categories of alcohol use were collapsed into six categories based on the results. RESULTS: For virtually every group characterized by higher severity of alcohol use and alcohol problems, researchers found an increasing prevalence of marijuana use in their lifetimes, increasing odds of sexual intercourse in their lifetimes, and having had trouble with the law in the past year. CONCLUSIONS: Knowing about variations in alcohol use and alcohol problems may be instrumental in measuring the degree to which youths may also be engaging in a range of other elevated risk behaviors and a progression to more serious forms of alcohol and drug use.<hr/>OBJETIVOS: Se buscó: a) categorizar a los jóvenes según su nivel de consumo de alcohol y el número de síntomas de abuso y dependencia del alcohol definidos en el Manual diagnóstico y estadístico de los trastornos mentales (DSM-IV); y b) analizar si esas categorías están asociadas con otros comportamientos problemáticos de los jóvenes (consumo de marihuana, relaciones sexuales y arrestos o problemas con la ley). MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal basado en una encuesta aplicada a 972 jóvenes que asistían a una escuela secundaria y una preparatoria en San Juan, Puerto Rico. Los jóvenes se categorizaron según el consumo de bebidas alcohólicas y los problemas del alcoholismo. Se buscaron asociaciones entre esas categorías y el consumo de marihuana y las relaciones sexuales -ambas en toda la vida-, así como con los arrestos o problemas con la ley en el año anterior a la encuesta. A partir de los resultados, las ocho categorías iniciales según el consumo de alcohol se reagruparon en seis. RESULTADOS: Prácticamente en todos los grupos caracterizados por un mayor consumo de bebidas alcohólicas y mayores problemas del alcoholismo se observó un aumento en la prevalencia de consumo de marihuana y la probabilidad de haber tenido relaciones sexuales, ambas en toda la vida, así como de haber tenido problemas con la ley durante el año anterior. CONCLUSIONES: Conocer las variaciones en el consumo de bebidas alcohólicas y los problemas del alcoholismo puede servir para medir el grado en que los jóvenes pueden involucrarse en diversos comportamientos de mayor riesgo y avanzar a formas más peligrosas de consumo de alcohol y drogas. <![CDATA[<b>Risk factors for symptoms of allergic rhinitis in adolescents in Castellón, Spain</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892008000500005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVOS: Estimar factores de riesgo de síntomas de rinitis alérgica en adolescentes de Castellón, España. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal de base poblacional a partir de la fase III del ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood) llevado a cabo en 2002 entre adolescentes de 13 a 14 años. Se utilizó el cuestionario ISAAC para definir los casos de rinitis alérgica. Se estimaron razones de posibilidades (RP) y sus intervalos de confianza de 95% (IC95%) mediante modelos de regresión logística. RESULTADOS: La participación fue de 66,8% (3 995 adolescentes de un total de 5 981). La prevalencia de síntomas de rinoconjuntivitis en los últimos 12 meses fue de 16,5%, y la prevalencia de alergia nasal alguna vez, de 7,4%. Con la regresión logística, la rinoconjuntivitis se asoció a la mujer (RP=1,63; IC95%:1,33-2,00); fumar la madre en casa (RP=1,32; IC95%:1,08-1,63); historia de sinusitis (RP=2,02; IC95%:1,51-2,70), y circulación constante de camiones por la calle de residencia (RP=1,58; IC95%:1,02-2,44). De igual manera, la alergia nasal se asoció con la historia familiar de rinitis alérgica (RP=2,62; IC95%:1,90-3,63); historia de sinusitis (RP=2,65; IC95%:1,77-3,96), historia de bronquitis (RP=1,68; IC95%:1,19-2,36), y clase social, con descensos progresivos al comparar las clases superiores e inferiores. CONCLUSIONES: Diferentes factores de riesgo medioambientales se asociaron con el hecho de sufrir síntomas de alergia nasal; se sugiere la importancia de adecuar medidas preventivas específicas.<hr/>OBJECTIVES: To estimate the risk factor for symptoms of allergic rhinitis in adolescents in Castellón, Spain. METHODS: A cross-sectional population based study of Phase III of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) conducted in 2002 among adolescents from 13-14 years of age. The ISAAC questionnaire was used to define cases of allergic rhinitis. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratio (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). RESULTS: Participation was 66.8% (3 995 adolescents of the 5 981 total). The prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms in the last 12 months was 16.5% and the prevalence of nasal allergy at some point was 7.4%. Logistic regression showed that rhinoconjunctivitis was associated with being female (OR = 1.63; 95%CI: 1.33-2.00); a mother who smokes in the home (OR = 1.32; 95%CI: 1.08-1.63); a history of sinusitis (OR = 2.02; 95%CI: 1.51-2.70); and living on a street with heavy truck traffic (OR = 1.58; 95%CI: 1.02-2.44). Likewise, nasal allergy was associated with a family history of allergic rhinitis (OR = 2.62; 95%CI: 1.90-3.63); a history of sinusitis (OR = 2.65; 95% CI: 1.77-3.96); a history of bronchitis (OR = 1.68; 95%CI: 1.19-2.36); and social class, with a steady decline when comparing higher classes to lower classes. CONCLUSIONS: Various environmental risk factors were associated with the symptoms of nasal allergies, which points to the importance of implementing specific preventive measures. <![CDATA[<b>HIV risk behaviors of Latin American and Caribbean men who have sex with men in Miami, Florida, USA</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892008000500006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to describe the sexual practices, drug use behaviors, psychosocial factors, and predictors of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in a sample of Hispanic men who have sex with men (MSM) born in Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries who currently reside in Miami-Dade County, Florida. METHODS: Hispanic MSM (N = 566) recruited from community and Internet venues completed a computer-assisted self-interview assessing sociodemographic factors, drug use, sexual behaviors, and psychosocial factors. We focused on the 470 men who were born in LAC countries, including Puerto Rico. We first examined separately, by country of origin, the sexual practices, drug use behaviors, and psychosocial factors of the sample. We then collapsed the groups and examined the factors associated with UAI in the previous 6 months for the entire sample of Hispanic MSM from LAC countries. RESULTS: In the previous 6 months, 44% of the sample engaged in UAI, and 41% used club drugs. At the multivariate level, psychological distress, higher number of sexual partners, club drug use, HIV-positive status at the time of immigration, and greater orientation to American culture were significantly associated with UAI in the previous 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: Many MSM born in LAC countries engage in HIV-related risk behaviors in the AIDS epicenter of Miami-Dade County, Florida. Culturally appropriate interventions should address these risk behaviors in this underserved population.<hr/>OBJETIVO: Describir las prácticas sexuales, el consumo de drogas y los factores psicosociales y de predicción del coito anal sin protección (CASP), en una muestra de hombres nacidos en América Latina y el Caribe (ALC) residentes actualmente en el Condado de Miami-Dade, Florida, que tienen sexo con hombres. MÉTODOS: En total, 566 hispanos que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH), captados en la comunidad y sitios de Internet, completaron una encuesta autoaplicada por computadora que abordaba los factores socioeconómicos, el consumo de drogas, el comportamiento sexual y los factores psicológicos. El estudio se centró en 470 hombres nacidos en ALC, incluido Puerto Rico. La muestra se analizó por país de origen, prácticas sexuales, consumo de drogas y factores psicológicos. Luego se unieron los grupos y se analizaron los factores asociados con el CASP en los 6 meses previos en toda la muestra. RESULTADOS: En los 6 meses previos, 44% de la muestra tuvo CASP y 41% consumió drogas de las llamadas recreativas. Según el análisis multifactorial, los factores asociados significativamente con el CASP en los 6 meses previos fueron: los problemas psicológicos, el mayor número de parejas sexuales, el consumo de drogas recreacionales, la positividad al VIH en el momento en que inmigró y el mayor grado de orientación hacia la cultura estadounidense. CONCLUSIONES: Muchos HSH nacidos en ALC incurren en comportamientos de riesgo de infección por el VIH en el epicentro de sida del Condado de Miami-Dade, Florida. Se deben aplicar intervenciones culturalmente apropiadas para combatir estos comportamientos de riesgo en la población marginada estudiada. <![CDATA[<b>Underlying cause-of-death mortality statistics</b>: <b>considering the reliability of data</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892008000500007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en As estatísticas de mortalidade são usadas em epidemiologia e saúde pública como indicador de nível de saúde, em avaliações de programas de saúde e em estudos populacionais visando a comparar tendências temporais e diferenças geográficas. Uma das variáveis utilizadas nesse tipo de análise é a causa básica da morte. Entretanto, existem críticas quanto à qualidade das estatísticas baseadas nas causas de morte declaradas pelos médicos nos atestados de óbito. O objetivo deste artigo é refletir sobre a fidedignidade das causas de morte declaradas pelos médicos nos atestados de óbito, com base em estudos realizados segundo diferentes metodologias, e comentar a validade das estatísticas de mortalidade segundo causas.<hr/>Mortality statistics are used in epidemiology and public health as an indicator of health status, to evaluate health programs, and in population studies to compare trends and spatial differences. One of the variables used in this type of analysis is the underlying cause-of-death. However, the quality of cause-of-death statistics based on the information recorded by physicians in death certificates has been criticized. The aim of this paper is to discuss the reliability of cause-of-death data recorded by physicians in death certificates, based on studies carried out according to various methodologies, and to comment on the validity of using such underlying cause-of-death statistics. <![CDATA[<b><i>Trypanosoma cruzi</i> I</b>: <b>único tipo del parásito tripanosómico circulante en Panamá</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892008000500008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en As estatísticas de mortalidade são usadas em epidemiologia e saúde pública como indicador de nível de saúde, em avaliações de programas de saúde e em estudos populacionais visando a comparar tendências temporais e diferenças geográficas. Uma das variáveis utilizadas nesse tipo de análise é a causa básica da morte. Entretanto, existem críticas quanto à qualidade das estatísticas baseadas nas causas de morte declaradas pelos médicos nos atestados de óbito. O objetivo deste artigo é refletir sobre a fidedignidade das causas de morte declaradas pelos médicos nos atestados de óbito, com base em estudos realizados segundo diferentes metodologias, e comentar a validade das estatísticas de mortalidade segundo causas.<hr/>Mortality statistics are used in epidemiology and public health as an indicator of health status, to evaluate health programs, and in population studies to compare trends and spatial differences. One of the variables used in this type of analysis is the underlying cause-of-death. However, the quality of cause-of-death statistics based on the information recorded by physicians in death certificates has been criticized. The aim of this paper is to discuss the reliability of cause-of-death data recorded by physicians in death certificates, based on studies carried out according to various methodologies, and to comment on the validity of using such underlying cause-of-death statistics. <![CDATA[<b>Utilidad del tamizaje de la infección por clamidia en hombres</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892008000500009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en As estatísticas de mortalidade são usadas em epidemiologia e saúde pública como indicador de nível de saúde, em avaliações de programas de saúde e em estudos populacionais visando a comparar tendências temporais e diferenças geográficas. Uma das variáveis utilizadas nesse tipo de análise é a causa básica da morte. Entretanto, existem críticas quanto à qualidade das estatísticas baseadas nas causas de morte declaradas pelos médicos nos atestados de óbito. O objetivo deste artigo é refletir sobre a fidedignidade das causas de morte declaradas pelos médicos nos atestados de óbito, com base em estudos realizados segundo diferentes metodologias, e comentar a validade das estatísticas de mortalidade segundo causas.<hr/>Mortality statistics are used in epidemiology and public health as an indicator of health status, to evaluate health programs, and in population studies to compare trends and spatial differences. One of the variables used in this type of analysis is the underlying cause-of-death. However, the quality of cause-of-death statistics based on the information recorded by physicians in death certificates has been criticized. The aim of this paper is to discuss the reliability of cause-of-death data recorded by physicians in death certificates, based on studies carried out according to various methodologies, and to comment on the validity of using such underlying cause-of-death statistics. <![CDATA[<b>Determinantes del uso de los servicios de tamizaje de cáncer de mama en trabajadoras mexicanas</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892008000500010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en As estatísticas de mortalidade são usadas em epidemiologia e saúde pública como indicador de nível de saúde, em avaliações de programas de saúde e em estudos populacionais visando a comparar tendências temporais e diferenças geográficas. Uma das variáveis utilizadas nesse tipo de análise é a causa básica da morte. Entretanto, existem críticas quanto à qualidade das estatísticas baseadas nas causas de morte declaradas pelos médicos nos atestados de óbito. O objetivo deste artigo é refletir sobre a fidedignidade das causas de morte declaradas pelos médicos nos atestados de óbito, com base em estudos realizados segundo diferentes metodologias, e comentar a validade das estatísticas de mortalidade segundo causas.<hr/>Mortality statistics are used in epidemiology and public health as an indicator of health status, to evaluate health programs, and in population studies to compare trends and spatial differences. One of the variables used in this type of analysis is the underlying cause-of-death. However, the quality of cause-of-death statistics based on the information recorded by physicians in death certificates has been criticized. The aim of this paper is to discuss the reliability of cause-of-death data recorded by physicians in death certificates, based on studies carried out according to various methodologies, and to comment on the validity of using such underlying cause-of-death statistics. <![CDATA[<b>Lineamientos para evaluar la verosimilitud de las asociaciones genéticas</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892008000500011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en As estatísticas de mortalidade são usadas em epidemiologia e saúde pública como indicador de nível de saúde, em avaliações de programas de saúde e em estudos populacionais visando a comparar tendências temporais e diferenças geográficas. Uma das variáveis utilizadas nesse tipo de análise é a causa básica da morte. Entretanto, existem críticas quanto à qualidade das estatísticas baseadas nas causas de morte declaradas pelos médicos nos atestados de óbito. O objetivo deste artigo é refletir sobre a fidedignidade das causas de morte declaradas pelos médicos nos atestados de óbito, com base em estudos realizados segundo diferentes metodologias, e comentar a validade das estatísticas de mortalidade segundo causas.<hr/>Mortality statistics are used in epidemiology and public health as an indicator of health status, to evaluate health programs, and in population studies to compare trends and spatial differences. One of the variables used in this type of analysis is the underlying cause-of-death. However, the quality of cause-of-death statistics based on the information recorded by physicians in death certificates has been criticized. The aim of this paper is to discuss the reliability of cause-of-death data recorded by physicians in death certificates, based on studies carried out according to various methodologies, and to comment on the validity of using such underlying cause-of-death statistics. <![CDATA[<b>La manera de dar los resultados de la prueba de espirometría influye en la tasa de abandono del tabaquismo</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892008000500012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en As estatísticas de mortalidade são usadas em epidemiologia e saúde pública como indicador de nível de saúde, em avaliações de programas de saúde e em estudos populacionais visando a comparar tendências temporais e diferenças geográficas. Uma das variáveis utilizadas nesse tipo de análise é a causa básica da morte. Entretanto, existem críticas quanto à qualidade das estatísticas baseadas nas causas de morte declaradas pelos médicos nos atestados de óbito. O objetivo deste artigo é refletir sobre a fidedignidade das causas de morte declaradas pelos médicos nos atestados de óbito, com base em estudos realizados segundo diferentes metodologias, e comentar a validade das estatísticas de mortalidade segundo causas.<hr/>Mortality statistics are used in epidemiology and public health as an indicator of health status, to evaluate health programs, and in population studies to compare trends and spatial differences. One of the variables used in this type of analysis is the underlying cause-of-death. However, the quality of cause-of-death statistics based on the information recorded by physicians in death certificates has been criticized. The aim of this paper is to discuss the reliability of cause-of-death data recorded by physicians in death certificates, based on studies carried out according to various methodologies, and to comment on the validity of using such underlying cause-of-death statistics. <![CDATA[<b>How to implement Chile’s new anti-tobacco law within the university</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892008000500013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en On the 16th of May 2006, the Diario Oficial de la República de Chile (Official News of the Republic of Chile), published Law No. 20.105, which modified Law No. 19.419 regarding advertising and consumption of tobacco. Since it entered into force, different institutions and public spaces have had to enact its regulations. The purpose of this article is to share how the new anti-tobacco law is being implemented, with a health promotion angle, by the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile (UC). As such, we highlight key findings from a review of the literature on the subject and describe the implementation strategies developed and substantiated in theory as well as by how they address the concerns of the university community. The main accomplishments of the anti-tobacco implementation were: reaching a compromise between the university directorate and the student leaders, who in turn motivated the student body to participate during the large-scale roll-out of the new law; the participation of all of the UC stakeholders; utilizing the varied methods of mass communication; and lastly, providing an opportunity for reflection and analysis for those directly affected: the smokers. The challenge is to evaluate the strategies implemented in the incorporation of the new Chilean anti-tobacco law.