Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública]]> http://www.scielosp.org/rss.php?pid=1020-498920080009&lang=en vol. 24 num. 3 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielosp.org/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielosp.org <![CDATA[<b>Metabolic syndrome and risk factors associated with life style among adolescents in a city in Argentina, 2005</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892008000900001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVOS: Determinar la prevalencia de síndrome metabólico (SM) en adolescentes de una ciudad argentina y establecer su asociación con algunos factores de riesgo vinculados con el estilo de vida. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo transversal en una muestra representativa de 532 estudiantes de enseñanza secundaria de 11 a 20 años (promedio: 15,3 años; mujeres: 60,0%) de la ciudad de Posadas, Misiones, Argentina, entre julio y octubre de 2005. Se realizaron encuestas personales y sobre hábitos alimentarios, mediciones antropométricas, pruebas de sedentarismo, mediciones de la tensión arterial y pruebas de laboratorio. Se diagnosticó SM si se presentaban tres o más de las siguientes condiciones: glucemia > 110 mg/dL, triglicéridos > 110 mg/dL, colesterol de HDL < 40 mg/dL, tensión arterial sistólica o diastólica > percentil 90 y circunferencia de la cintura > percentil 90. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de SM fue de 4,5%; significativamente mayor en varones que en mujeres (7,5% frente a 2,5%; P = 0,006) y en el grupo de 15 a 20 años que en el de 11 a 14 años (6,3% frente a 2,5%; P = 0,037). De los adolescentes, 44,7% tenía uno o más componentes del SM. El riesgo de los adolescentes con obesidad de padecer SM fue elevado (OR = 119,73; IC95%: 27,6 a 519,41). Los hábitos alimentarios y la frecuencia de consumo de alimentos fueron similares en los estudiantes con SM y sin SM, pero los primeros consumían alimentos obesogénicos con mayor frecuencia. Del total de adolescentes de la muestra, 84,8% eran sedentarios (100% de los que tenían SM). CONCLUSIONES: En Posadas, unos 1 400 estudiantes padecerían de SM y alrededor de 13 000 tendrían al menos un componente del SM. Se necesitan programas conjuntos del Estado y la comunidad para modificar los hábitos alimentarios y aumentar la actividad física, principalmente en varones, el grupo de 15-20 años y los obesos, para revertir esta situación y reducir la morbimortalidad derivada del SM.<hr/>OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among adolescents in a city in Argentina and to establish its association with certain risk factors linked to life style. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 532 middle and high school students from 11-20 years of age (mean: 15.3 years; females: 60%) in the city of Posadas, province of Misiones, Argentina, from July-October 2005. Surveys were conducted of individuals' dietary habits, anthropometric measurements, sedentary levels, blood pressure readings, and laboratory results. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed if three or more of the following conditions were present: fasting glucose > 110 mg/dL; triglycerides > 110 mg/dL; HDL cholesterol < 40 mg/dL; arterial systolic or diastolic pressure > 90th percentile; and waist circumference > 90th percentile. RESULTS: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 4.5%; significantly higher among males than among females (7.5% vs. 2.5%; P = 0.006) and among the 15-20 year old age group than among the 11-14 year old group (6.3% vs. 2.5%; P = 0.037). Of the adolescents, 44.7% had one or more components of metabolic syndrome. The risk of metabolic syndrome among obese adolescents was elevated (odds ratio = 119.73; 95% confidence interval: 27.6-519.41). Dietary habits and frequency of food consumption were similar among students with and without metabolic syndrome; however, the first group consumed fattening foods more frequently. Of all the adolescents in the sample, 84.8% were sedentary (100% of those with metabolic syndrome). CONCLUSIONS: In the city of Posadas, some 1 400 students suffer from metabolic syndrome and about 13 000 have at least one metabolic syndrome component. Joint efforts by the state government and the community are needed to change dietary habits and increase physical activity, mainly among boys, those 15-20 years of age, and the obese, to reverse the situation and reduce the morbidity/mortality that results from metabolic syndrome. <![CDATA[<b>Impact of <i>Haemophilus influenzae</i> type b conjugate vaccine on bacterial meningitis in the Dominican Republic</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892008000900002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVES: Widespread use of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines has dramatically reduced the burden of Hib disease throughout the Americas. Few studies have evaluated the impact of Hib vaccination on non-culture-confirmed disease. This study analyzed trends in probable bacterial meningitis before and after the introduction of Hib vaccine in the Dominican Republic and estimated vaccine effectiveness against Hib meningitis. METHODS: Meningitis cases among children < 5 years of age were identified from admission records of the main pediatric hospital in Santo Domingo during 1998-2004. Laboratory criteria were used to classify meningitis cases with probable bacterial etiology; confirmed cases had positive bacterial culture or antigen detection in cerebrospinal fluid. Cumulative incidence rates of confirmed and probable bacterial meningitis were calculated for children living in the National District. Confirmed cases of Hib meningitis were enrolled in a case-control study with age- and neighborhood-matched control children to calculate vaccine effectiveness. RESULTS: Before vaccine introduction, annual rates of meningitis with probable bacterial etiology were 49 cases per 100 000 children < 5 years old; Hib accounted for 60% of confirmed bacterial cases. During 2002-2004, after vaccine introduction, annual rates of probable bacterial meningitis were 65% lower at 16 cases per 100 000, and Hib accounted for 26% of confirmed cases. Rates of Hib meningitis and probable bacterial meningitis with no determined etiology declined by 13 and 17 cases per 100 000, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Introduction of Hib vaccine substantially reduced the incidence of confirmed and probable bacterial meningitis in the Dominican Republic. The estimated impact of Hib vaccination was twice as great when non-culture-confirmed disease was included.<hr/>OBJETIVOS: El uso generalizado de la vacuna contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib) ha permitido reducir radicalmente la carga de enfermedad por Hib en las Américas. Pocos estudios han evaluado el impacto de la vacunación contra Hib sobre los casos no confirmados mediante cultivo. En este estudio se analizaron las tendencias en el número de casos probables de meningitis bacteriana antes y después de la introducción de la vacuna contra Hib en la República Dominicana y se estimó la eficacia de la vacuna contra la meningitis. MÉTODOS: Se identificaron los casos de meningitis en niños menores de 5 años a partir de los registros de ingreso del principal hospital pediátrico de Santo Domingo entre 1998 y 2004. Los casos de meningitis con probable etiología bacteriana se clasificaron según criterios de laboratorio; los casos confirmados contaban con cultivo bacteriano positivo o detección de antígenos específicos en el líquido cefalorraquídeo. Se calcularon las tasas de incidencia acumulada de casos confirmados y probables de meningitis en los niños que vivían en el Distrito Nacional. Los casos confirmados de meningitis por Hib se incorporaron a un estudio de casos y controles -pareados según la edad y el barrio de residencia- para calcular la eficacia de la vacuna. RESULTADOS: Antes de la introducción de la vacuna, la tasa anual de meningitis de posible etiología bacteriana era de 49 casos por 100 000 niños menores de 5 años; de los casos confirmados de origen bacteriano, 60% fue por Hib. En el período 2002-2004, después de la introducción de la vacuna, la tasa anual de meningitis de posible etiología bacteriana fue de 16 casos por 100 000, es decir 65% más baja, y 26% de los casos confirmados correspondieron a Hib. Las tasas de meningitis por Hib y de posible origen bacteriano de etiología desconocida se redujeron en 13 y 17 casos por 100 000, respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: La introducción de la vacuna contra Hib redujo sustancialmente la incidencia de casos de meningitis confirmados y probables en la República Dominicana. El impacto estimado de la vacunación contra Hib fue dos veces mayor cuando se consideraron los casos no confirmados mediante cultivo. <![CDATA[<b>Prevalence of lifestyle-related cardiovascular risk factors in Peru</b>: <b>the PREVENCION study</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892008000900003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of lifestyle-related cardiovascular risk factors in the adult population of Arequipa, the second largest city in Peru. METHODS: The prevalence and patterns of smoking, alcohol drinking, lack of physical activity, high-fat diet, and low fruit and vegetable intake were evaluated among 1 878 subjects (867 men and 1 011 women) in a population-based study. RESULTS: The age-standardized prevalence of current smoking, former smoking, and never smoking were 21.6%, 14.3%, and 64.1%, respectively. The prevalence of current smoking was significantly higher in men than women (31.1% vs. 12.1%; P < 0.01). The prevalence of current alcohol use was 37.7% and significantly higher in men than women (55.5% vs. 19.7%; P < 0.01). Similarly, the prevalence of binge drinking was 21.2%, and the percentage of men who binge drink (36.1%) was significantly higher than for women (6.4%; P < 0.01). The vast majority of alcohol drinkers reported a pattern of alcohol consumption mainly on weekends and holidays rather than regular drinking with meals during the week. The proportion of insufficiently active people was 57.6% and was significantly higher in women than men (63.3% vs. 51.9%; P < 0.01). Overall, 42.0% of adults reported consuming high-fat diets, 34.5% reported low fruit intake, and 33.3% reported low vegetable intake. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of lifestyle-related cardiovascular risk factors found in this Andean population is of concern. Preventive programs are urgently needed to deal with this growing problem.<hr/>OBJETIVOS: Estimar la prevalencia de factores de riesgo cardiovascular relacionados con el estilo de vida de adultos de Arequipa, la segunda mayor ciudad de Perú. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio de base poblacional para evaluar la prevalencia y los patrones de consumo de tabaco y bebidas alcohólicas, la falta de actividad física, la dieta rica en grasas y el bajo consumo de frutas y vegetales en 1 878 personas (867 hombres y 1 011 mujeres). RESULTADOS: Las prevalencias estandarizadas por la edad de los fumadores actuales, pasados y de los que nunca fumaron fueron 21,6%, 14,3% y 64,1%, respectivamente. La prevalencia de tabaquismo fue significativamente mayor en los hombres que en las mujeres (31,1% frente a 12,1%; P < 0,01). La prevalencia del consumo de bebidas alcohólicas fue de 37,7%, significativamente mayor en los hombres que en las mujeres (55,5% frente a 19,7%; P < 0,01). La prevalencia del consumo excesivo de alcohol fue de 21,1%, mayor en los hombres que en las mujeres (36,1% frente a 6,4%; P < 0,01). La gran mayoría de los bebedores presentó un patrón de consumo concentrado fundamentalmente en los fines de semana y los días feriados, más que el consumo habitual con las comidas en los días laborables. La proporción de personas con insuficiente actividad fue de 57,6%, significativamente mayor en las mujeres que en los hombres (63,3% frente a 51,9%; P < 0,01). En general, 42,0% de los adultos informaron consumir dietas ricas en grasas, 34,5% dijo tener un bajo consumo de frutas y 33,3% un bajo consumo de vegetales. CONCLUSIONES: La alta prevalencia de factores de riesgo cardiovascular relacionados con el estilo de vida encontrada en esta población de los Andes es preocupante. Se deben implementar urgentemente programas preventivos para resolver este creciente problema. <![CDATA[<b>Home care's contribution to alternative health care networks</b>: <b>deinstitutionalization and transformation of practices</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892008000900004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Identificar o estado da arte da atenção domiciliar no âmbito do sistema público de saúde no Brasil, analisar o seu potencial de inovação no sentido da integralidade e da humanização da atenção e indicar pistas para a sua ampliação. MÉTODOS: Sete experiências de cuidado domiciliar em cinco municípios brasileiros foram analisadas por meio de estudos de caso, com base em entrevistas com os cinco gestores municipais e os sete coordenadores dos serviços, com todos os componentes das equipes de atenção domiciliar e com os usuários e os familiares dos 27 casos selecionados. Todas as entrevistas foram gravadas e depois transcritas. Foram ainda analisados documentos produzidos pelos serviços (proposta política, relatórios de gestão, relatórios de avaliação, rotinas e protocolos de atenção), observados atendimentos (ao menos um de cada uma das equipes em todos os sete serviços) e analisados os casos traçadores. RESULTADOS: Foram identificados os seguintes tipos de atendimento domiciliar: cuidado paliativo, cuidado a pacientes com AIDS, cuidado a portadores de feridas e lesões de pele, acompanhamento de bebês prematuros, acompanhamento de acamados crônicos, antibioticoterapia endovenosa como complementação do tratamento para infecções agudas. São aspectos a destacar: a qualidade e a humanização da atenção, o trabalho em equipe, o desenvolvimento de vínculo e a responsabilização por parte dos trabalhadores e a participação efetiva dos cuidadores e das famílias na produção dos projetos terapêuticos. CONCLUSÃO: As iniciativas examinadas mostraram que a atenção domiciliar é possível até em ambientes economicamente precários e que pode contribuir efetivamente para a produção de integralidade e de continuidade do cuidado, devendo ser ampliada no âmbito do sistema público de saúde.<hr/>OBJECTIVE: To identify state-of-the-art home care within Brazil's public health system, evaluate its potential for improving the comprehensiveness and humanization of care, and identify areas for expanding this care modality. METHODS: Seven home care initiatives were examined and cases were analyzed through interviews with five municipal services managers, seven service coordinators, all home-care team members, and with the service recipients, as well as the family members of the 27 cases selected. All of the interviews were recorded and transcribed. We also analyzed documents created by the home care services (policy manuals, management reports, evaluation reports, and care protocols), observed each team providing care (at least once for each of the seven service types), and analyzed the selected cases. RESULTS: The following types of home care were identified: palliative, AIDS, skin lesions/wounds, premature infant, bedridden patient, and supplemental intravenous antibiotic therapy for acute infection. The following positive aspects should be highlighted: the quality and humanization of care, team work, the bond developed with patients and family, the sense of responsibility taken on by the health workers, and the effective participation of caretakers and families in carrying out therapy plans. CONCLUSION: The initiatives examined show that home care is possible even in economically disadvantaged environments and that it may effectively contribute to providing integrated and continued care. Home care should be expanded in the context of the public health system. <![CDATA[<b>Impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction on hospital admissions for severe acute gastroenteritis at the Children's Hospital in Panama City</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892008000900005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVOS: Determinar si la introducción de la vacunación infantil contra el rotavirus en Panamá permitió reducir la tasa de hospitalización por gastroenteritis en niños menores de 5 años. MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional de corte transversal en dos períodos: del 1 de enero al 31 de agosto de 2005 (antes de la introducción de la vacunación contra el rotavirus) y del 1 de enero al 31 de agosto de 2007 (un año después de la introducción). Se estudiaron todos los niños y niñas entre 2 meses y 5 años de edad hospitalizados con diagnóstico de gastroenteritis aguda grave en la sala de corta estancia de gastroenteritis del Hospital del Niño, en Ciudad de Panamá, Panamá. Las variables fueron: número de episodios de gastroenteritis, número de casos hospitalizados por gastroenteritis aguda grave, días de hospitalización y uso de antibióticos, según dos grupos de edad (de 2 meses a 1 año y de más de 1 año a 5 años). Se calculó el riesgo relativo (RR) con intervalos de confianza de 95% (IC95%) y un nivel de significación P < 0,05. RESULTADOS: Se contabilizaron 1 240 episodios de gastroenteritis aguda grave en 1 222 niños. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los dos períodos de estudio en cuanto al número de complicaciones (P = 0,92) y defunciones (P = 1,00). Hubo más episodios de gastroenteritis aguda grave después de la introducción de la vacuna contra el rotavirus humano que en el período previo, pero esta diferencia no fue estadísticamente significativa (RR = 1,12; IC95%: 0,87 a 1,44; P = 0,39). No se encontraron diferencias significativas en relación al tiempo de hospitalización por grupos de edad en los periodos analizados. La proporción de casos tratados con antibióticos fue similar en ambos períodos de estudio (29,7% contra 25,2%; P = 0,08). CONCLUSIONES: No se encontró que la introducción de la vacunación infantil contra el rotavirus en Panamá llevara a una reducción significativa en la tasa de hospitalización por gastroenteritis en niños menores de 5 años. No se observaron cambios significativos en la morbimortalidad y el uso de antibióticos en el tratamiento de la gastroenteritis aguda grave después de la introducción de la vacuna.<hr/>OBJECTIVES: To determine if infant rotavirus vaccination in Panama has reduced the rate of hospital admission for gastroenteritis among children under 5 years of age. METHODS: An observational, cross-sectional study of two time periods: 1 January-31 August 2005 (prior to initiating rotavirus vaccination) and 1 January-31 August 2007 (one year after introducing rotavirus vaccination). All the children from 2 months-5 years of age admitted with a diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis to the short-stay gastroenteritis area of the Children's Hospital in Panama City, Panama, were studied. The variables were: number of gastroenteritis episodes; number of cases admitted for severe acute gastroenteritis; number of days hospitalized; and antibiotics treatment for each of the two age groups (2 months-1 year and >1-5 years). The relative risk (RR) was calculated with a 95% confidence interval (95%CI) and a significance level of P < 0.05. RESULTS: There was a total of 1 240 episodes of severe acute gastroenteritis in 1 222 children. No significant differences were found between the two study periods regarding the number of complications (P = 0.92) and deaths (P = 1.00). Although there were more episodes of severe acute gastroenteritis after initiating vaccination against human rotavirus than there were in the period prior, the difference was not statistically significant (RR = 1.12; 95%CI: 087-1.44; P = 0.39). There were no significant differences found in the length of hospital stay by age groups studied in each time period. The percent of cases treated with antibiotics was similar in both study periods (29.7% versus 25.2%; P = 0.08). CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of infant rotavirus vaccination was not found to lead to a significant reduction in hospital admission rates for gastroenteritis among children less than 5 years of age. Significant changes in morbidity and in antibiotics use were not found after the introduction of the vaccine. <![CDATA[<b>Device-associated infection rates in intensive care units of Brazilian hospitals</b>: <b>datos de la Comunidad Científica Internacional de Control de Infecciones Nosocomiales</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892008000900006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVES: To measure device-associated infection (DAI) rates, microbiological profiles, bacterial resistance, extra length of stay, and attributable mortality in intensive care units (ICUs) in three Brazilian hospitals that are members of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC). METHODS: Prospective cohort surveillance of DAIs was conducted in five ICUs in three city hospitals in Brazil by applying the definitions of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (CDC-NNIS). RESULTS: Between April 2003 and February 2006, 1 031 patients hospitalized in five ICUs for an aggregate 10 293 days acquired 307 DAIs, a rate of 29.8% or 29.8 DAIs per 1 000 ICU-days. The ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) rate was 20.9 per 1 000 ventilator-days; the rate for central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections (CVC-BSI) was 9.1 per 1 000 catheter-days; and the rate for catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) was 9.6 per 1 000 catheter-days. Ninety-five percent of all Staphylococcus aureus DAIs were caused by methicillin-resistant strains. Infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae were resistant to ceftriaxone in 96.7% of cases, resistant to ceftazidime in 79.3% of cases, and resistant to piperacillin-tazobactam in 85.7% of cases. Pseudomonas aeruginosa DAIs were resistant to ciprofloxacin in 71.3% of cases, resistant to ceftazidime in 75.5% of cases, and resistant to imipenem in 27.7% of cases. Patients with DAIs in the ICUs of the hospitals included in this study presented extra mortality rates of 15.3% (RR 1.79, P = 0.0149) for VAP, 27.8% (RR 2.44, P = 0.0004) for CVC-BSI, and 10.7% (RR 1.56, P = 0.2875) for CAUTI. CONCLUSION: The DAI rates were high in the ICUs of the Brazilian hospitals included in this study. Patient safety can be improved through the implementation of an active infection control program comprising surveillance of DAIs and infection prevention guidelines. These actions should become a priority in every country.<hr/>OBJETIVOS: Determinar las tasas de infección asociadas a aparatos (IAA), los perfiles microbiológicos, la resistencia bacteriana, la estancia hospitalaria adicional y la mortalidad atribuible en las unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI) de tres hospitales brasileños miembros de la Comunidad Científica Internacional de Control de Infecciones Nosocomiales (INICC). MÉTODOS: Se realizó una vigilancia prospectiva de cohorte de las IAA en cinco UCI de tres hospitales urbanos de Brasil, según las definiciones del Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia de Infecciones Nosocomiales de los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades (CDC-NNIS) de los Estados Unidos de América. RESULTADOS: Entre abril de 2003 y febrero de 2006 se hospitalizaron 1 031 pacientes en las cinco UCI estudiadas, con un total de 10 293 días en los que se adquirieron 307 IAA, para una tasa de 29,8% (29,8 IAA por 1 000 días-UCI). Las tasas fueron: de 20,9 casos por 1 000 días-ventilador en neumonía asociada a respiradores (NAR); de 9,1 por 1 000 días-catéter en infecciones circulatorias asociadas con cateterismo venoso central (IC-CVC); y de 9,6 por 1 000 días-catéter en infecciones urinarias asociadas con el uso de catéteres (IUAC). De las IAA causadas por Staphylococcus aureus, 95% se debieron a cepas resistentes a la meticilina. De las infecciones causadas por Enterobacteriaceae, 96,7% fueron resistentes a la ceftriaxona, 79,3% a la ceftazidima y 85,7% a la combinación piperacilina-tazobactam. De las IAA causadas por Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 71,3% resultaron resistentes a la ciprofloxacina, 75,5% a la ceftazidima y 27,7% al imipenem. Los pacientes con IAA en las UCI estudiadas presentaron tasas de mortalidad adicional de 15,3% (riesgo relativo [RR] = 1,79; P = 0,0149) por NAR, 27,8% (RR = 2,44; P = 0,0004) por IC-CVC y 10,7% (RR = 1,56; P = 0,2875) por IUAC. CONCLUSIONES: Las tasas de IAA en las UCI de los hospitales brasileños estudiados fueron elevadas. Se puede mejorar la seguridad de los pacientes mediante la implementación de un programa de control activo de las infecciones, que contemple la vigilancia de las IAA y directivas para la prevención de las infecciones. Estas acciones deben ser una prioridad en todos los países. <![CDATA[<b>Economic value of disability-adjusted life years lost to violence</b>: <b>estimates for WHO Member States</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892008000900007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Violence is an important public health challenge with substantial economic consequences for the affected individuals, families, and communities. Using data from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank, the economic value of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost due to violence in 2002 was estimated for WHO Member States and presented as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP). Results indicated an estimated 48.4 million DALYs were lost as a result of 1.6 million deaths due to violence in 2002, for a total estimated economic value of US$ 151 billion (in constant US$ for the year 2000). Expressed as a percentage of GDP, the economic value of DALYs lost due to violence ranged from 0.04% to 5.1% across the 193 Member States. Much more is needed in terms of quantifying the economic burden of violence globally, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, where the burden of violence is greatest.<hr/>La violencia es un importante reto para la salud pública y conlleva considerables consecuencias económicas para las personas afectadas, sus familias y la comunidad. A partir de datos de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) y del Banco Mundial se estimó el valor económico de los años de vida ajustados por discapacidad (AVAD) perdidos en 2002 por la violencia. Los datos de los Estados Miembros de la OMS se presentan como porcentajes de su producto interno bruto (PIB). Según los resultados, se perdieron 48,4 millones de AVAD como resultado de 1,6 millones de muertes por violencia en el año 2002, para un valor económico total estimado de US$ 151 000 millones (en dólares estadounidenses de 2002). El valor económico de los AVAD perdidos por la violencia en los 193 Estados Miembros de la OMS varió de 0,04% a 5,1% de su PIB. Se debe hacer un mayor esfuerzo en la cuantificación de la carga económica de la violencia en el mundo, particularmente en los países de ingresos bajos y medios, donde la carga de la violencia alcanza los mayores valores. <![CDATA[<b>Commodification of health care services for development</b>: <b>the case of Colombia</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892008000900008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This is a succinct analysis of the circular relationship between health and development and the changes occurring over recent decades regarding health care services production and delivery that have resulted in a new paradigm. From the late 1970s through the 1980s, three major, worldwide shifts occurred that changed health care services in Colombia and in other Latin American countries: the privatization of government entities, the commodification of health care services, and the failure of the Soviet model. Health care system reform in Colombia, considered by some experts to be a model, is an example of health care commodification that, 15 years later, has not achieved the coverage, nor the equity, nor the efficiency, nor the quality, that it should have. More so than the market, the problem has been with the market entities that seek disproportionate profits. A solution for this situation is to appeal to nonprofit organizations for the purchase and sale of health care services. <![CDATA[<b>Diálogo Internacional sobre la Notificación Pública del Desenlace y los Resultados de los Ensayos Clínicos</b>: <b>Reunión PROCTOR</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892008000900009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This is a succinct analysis of the circular relationship between health and development and the changes occurring over recent decades regarding health care services production and delivery that have resulted in a new paradigm. From the late 1970s through the 1980s, three major, worldwide shifts occurred that changed health care services in Colombia and in other Latin American countries: the privatization of government entities, the commodification of health care services, and the failure of the Soviet model. Health care system reform in Colombia, considered by some experts to be a model, is an example of health care commodification that, 15 years later, has not achieved the coverage, nor the equity, nor the efficiency, nor the quality, that it should have. More so than the market, the problem has been with the market entities that seek disproportionate profits. A solution for this situation is to appeal to nonprofit organizations for the purchase and sale of health care services. <![CDATA[<b>El uso compartido de utensilios para preparar drogas inyectables y no inyectables, ¿una vía de transmisión de la infección por el virus de la hepatitis C?</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892008000900010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This is a succinct analysis of the circular relationship between health and development and the changes occurring over recent decades regarding health care services production and delivery that have resulted in a new paradigm. From the late 1970s through the 1980s, three major, worldwide shifts occurred that changed health care services in Colombia and in other Latin American countries: the privatization of government entities, the commodification of health care services, and the failure of the Soviet model. Health care system reform in Colombia, considered by some experts to be a model, is an example of health care commodification that, 15 years later, has not achieved the coverage, nor the equity, nor the efficiency, nor the quality, that it should have. More so than the market, the problem has been with the market entities that seek disproportionate profits. A solution for this situation is to appeal to nonprofit organizations for the purchase and sale of health care services. http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892008000900011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en