Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública]]> http://www.scielosp.org/rss.php?pid=1020-498920100004&lang=en vol. 27 num. 4 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielosp.org/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielosp.org <![CDATA[<B>Estimate of the cardiovascular disease burden attributable to modifiable risk factors in Argentina</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892010000400001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Estimar la carga de la enfermedad, su proporción atribuible a los principales factores de riesgo cardiovascular modificables y los costos médicos directos por hospitalización, asociados con las enfermedades coronarias y los accidentes cerebrovasculares en Argentina. MÉTODOS: Se elaboró un modelo analítico a partir de los datos de mortalidad en Argentina en 2005 y la prevalencia de los principales factores de riesgo cardiovascular (hipertensión arterial, hipercolesterolemia, sobrepeso, obesidad, hiperglucemia, tabaquismo actual y pasado, sedentarismo y consumo inadecuado de frutas y verduras). Se estimaron la carga de la enfermedad -años potenciales de vida perdidos (APVP) y años de vida saludable (AVISA) perdidos- y los costos de hospitalización por las enfermedades cardiovasculares analizadas. RESULTADOS: En 2005 se perdieron en Argentina más de 600 000 AVISA y se contabilizaron casi 400 000 APVP por enfermedades coronarias y accidentes cerebrovasculares; 71,1% de los AVISA perdidos, 73,9% de APVP y 76,0% de los costos asociados son atribuibles a facto-res de riesgo modificables. La hipertensión arterial fue el factor de riesgo de mayor impacto, tanto en hombres como en mujeres: 37,3% del costo total, 37,5% de los APVP y 36,6% de los AVISA perdidos. CONCLUSIONES: La mayor parte de la carga de la enfermedad en Argentina por enfermedades cardiovasculares está relacionada con factores de riesgo modificables -por lo tanto evitables- y podría reducirse mediante intervenciones poblacionales y clínicas basadas en un enfoque de riesgo, que ya han demostrado ser efectivas en función del costo, asequibles y factibles en países como Argentina.<hr/>OBJETIVE: Estimate the burden of disease, the proportion attributable to the principal modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, and the direct medical cost of hospitalization associated with coronary heart disease and stroke in Argentina. METHODOLOGY: An analitical model was prepared using Argentina's 2005 mortality data and the prevalence of the principal cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, overweight, obesity, hyperglycemia, current and past smoking, sedentary lifestyle, and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables). The burden of disease-years of potential life lost (YPLL) and years of healthy life lost (YHLL)- and hospitalization costs for the cardiovascular diseases analyzed were estimated. RESULTS: In 2005 over 600 000 YHL were lost in Argentina and the number of YPLL due to heart disease and stroke was calculated at 400 000; 71.1% of the YHLL, 73.9% of the YPLL, and 76.0% of the associated costs were attributable to modifiable risk factors. Hypertension was the risk factor with the greatest impact in both men and in women, responsible for 37.3% of the total cost, 37.5% of the YPLL, and 36.6% of the YHLL. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the burden of disease from cardiovascular disease in Argentina is associated with modifiable, and therefore preventable, risk factors and could be reduced through population-based and clinical interventions that employ a risk approach; such interventions have already proven to be cost effective, accessible, and feasible in countries like Argentina. <![CDATA[<B>Dental caries and treatment needs among indigenous people of the Potiguara Indian reservation in Brazil</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892010000400002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the caries prevalence and treatment needs of Brazilian indigenous residents on an Indian reservation. METHODS: This cross-sectional study comprised 1 461 individuals of ages 18-36 months and 5, 12, 15-19, 35-44, and 65-74 years living in the Potiguara Indian villages of Brazil. Decayed, missing, or filled permanent teeth (DMFT) and deciduous teeth (dmft) were determined by calibrated examiners using the methodology recommended by the World Health Organization. Treatment needs were assessed with the guidelines of the 2003 Brazilian Oral Health Survey. RESULTS: Means ± standard deviations (SD) for dmft of 18- to 36-month-old and 5-year-old children were 2.5 ± 3.7 and 5.8 ± 4.3, respectively. For the age groups 12, 15-19, 35-44, and 65-74 years, mean ± SD values of DMFT were 3.6 ± 3.1, 7.1 ± 4.9, 16.4 ± 7.5, and 22.8 ± 8.6. The mean ± SD number of deciduous teeth requiring treatment varied from 2.4 ± 3.5 to 5.0 ± 4.0 in the 18- to 36-month and 5-year-old age groups, respectively. Among adolescents and adults, it was observed that on average at least three permanent teeth required dental treatment such as fillings, crowns, endodontic treatment, and extractions. CONCLUSIONS: High prevalence of caries and many teeth needing treatment were observed in all age groups of the Potiguara Indians.<hr/>OBJETIVO: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la prevalencia de caries y las necesidades de tratamiento en los residentes indígenas brasileños de una reserva india. MÉTODOS: En este estudio transversal se incluyó a 1 461 personas de 18 a 36 meses de edad, y de 5, 12, 15-19, 35-44, y 65-74 años, que vivían en aldeas indias Potiguara de Brasil. Se determinaron los dientes permanentes cariados, perdidos y obturados (CPO) y los dientes deciduos mediante examinadores calibrados, con ayuda del método recomendado por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Las necesidades de tratamiento se evaluaron con las directrices de la Encuesta Brasileña de Salud Bucodental de 2003. RESULTADOS: Las medias ± desviaciones estándar (DE) de los dientes deciduos de los niños de 18 a 36 meses, y de cinco años fueron 2,5 ± 3,7 y 5,8 ± 4,3, respectivamente. En los grupos de edad de 12, 15-19, 35-44, y 65-74 años, los valores de la media ± DE de los dientes CPO fueron 3,6 ± 3,1, 7,1 ± 4,9, 16,4 ± 7,5, y 22,8 ± 8,6. La media ± DE del número de dientes deciduos que precisaron tratamiento varió de 2,4 ± 3,5 a 5,0 ± 4,0 en los grupos de edad de 18 a 36 meses, y 5 años, respectivamente. En los adolescentes y adultos, se observó que, en promedio, por lo menos tres dientes permanentes precisaron tratamiento dental en forma de obturaciones, coronas, endodoncia y extracciones. CONCLUSIONES: En todos los grupos de edad de los indios Potiguara se observaron una prevalencia alta de caries y muchos dientes que precisaban tratamiento. <![CDATA[<B>Dengue fever in three sanitary districts in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil</B>: <B>a population-based seroepidemiological survey, 2006 to 2007</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892010000400003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Determinar a soroprevalência para sorotipos virais da dengue em três distritos sanitários de Belo Horizonte e investigar a associação com variáveis de contexto e individuais. MÉTODOS: O inquérito foi conduzido nos distritos sanitários de Venda Nova, Leste e Centro-Oeste entre junho de 2006 e março de 2007. Foram incluídos todos os residentes com idade Ž 1 ano. Os participantes responderam a questionário; foi também coletada uma amostra de sangue (5 mL) para determinar a presença de anticorpos contra vírus da dengue dos tipos 1, 2 e 3 por soroneutralização. O questionário abrangeu questões demográficas, posição socioeconômica, características físicas do local de moradia, mobilidade de moradia entre cidades, história pregressa de sinais e sintomas associados à dengue e conhecimento sobre medidas de prevenção da dengue, dentre outros. RESULTADOS: Entre os 709 indivíduos estudados, encontrou-se soroprevalência para dengue de 11,9% (IC95%: 9,7 a 14,6), não associada ao sexo, idade, renda familiar e mudança de município nos últimos 10 anos. Houve associação da soropositividade com tipo de moradia (apartamento ou casa/barracão, sendo apartamento fator de proteção) e com índice elevado de vulnerabilidade da saúde do local de moradia. CONCLUSÃO: A soroprevalência neste estudo foi mais baixa do que a encontrada em outros inquéritos realizados em cidades brasileiras de porte grande e médio, sugerindo que Belo Horizonte tem utilizado estratégias eficazes de controle. Entretanto, foi observada uma heterogeneidade intraurbana na transmissão da dengue, em grande parte associada a indicadores contextuais de vulnerabilidade. Permanece ainda elevado o número de suscetíveis, e a dengue como questão de saúde pública de difícil controle.<hr/>OBJECTIVE: To determine the seroprevalence of dengue fever serotypes in three sanitary districts in the city of Belo Horizonte and investigate the association of seroprevalence with contextual and individual variables. METHOD: The survey was conducted in the sanitary districts of Venda Nova, Leste and Centro-Oeste between June 2006 and March 2007. All residents aged 1 year or older were eligible for the study. Participants answered a questionnaire and had a 5 mL blood sample collected to determine the presence of anti-dengue types 1, 2, and 3 virus antibodies by seroneutralization. The questionnaire covered demographic aspects, socioeconomic status, physical characteristics of the home, residential mobility between cities, previous history of signs and symptoms associated with dengue fever, and knowledge concerning dengue fever prevention measures, among others. RESULTS: Seroprevalence was 11.9% (95%CI: 9.7-14.6) among the 709 individuals included in the study, and it was not associated with sex, age, family income, and having moved to another town in the past 10 years. Seropositivity was associated with type of construction (apartment or house/shanty, with apartment being a protection factor) and with an elevated health vulnerability index where the dwelling was located. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, seroprevalence was lower than in previous studies carried out in mid-size and large Brazilian cities. This suggests that Belo Horizonte has employed efficient control measures. However, heterogeneity within the city was observed in terms of dengue fever transmission, which was largely associated with contextual indicators of vulnerability. The number of susceptibles is still high, and the control of dengue fever remains a difficult public health issue. <![CDATA[<B>Causes of visual loss and their risk factors</B>: <B>an incidence summary from the Barbados Eye Studies</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892010000400004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVES: To summarize incidence and risk factors for each main cause of visual loss in an African-Caribbean population and discuss the implications of these data from a public health perspective. METHODS: A nationally representative cohort (n = 4 709; ages 40-84 years at baseline) had ophthalmic and other examinations over 9 years. Incidence rates were estimated by the product-limit approach. Risk factors were evaluated from Cox regression models. RESULTS: Average incidence was ~ 0.1% per year for blindness (< 6/120) and 0.7% per year for low vision (< 6/18 to 6/120), increasing steeply with age (P < 0.05) and affecting related quality of life (P < 0.05). Age-related cataract and open-angle glaucoma (OAG) accounted for 73.2% of blindness and diabetic retinopathy (DR) for 8.9%; cataract caused two-thirds of low vision. Average incidence was 5.1% per year for all lens changes (gradable/ungradable opacities or aphakia) and 0.4% per year for cataract surgery. Incidence of definite OAG was 0.5% per year (0.9% for suspect or probable); 53% of the affected were unaware. Persons with diabetes mellitus (DM) had a DR incidence of 4.4% per year. Age-related macular degeneration was rare (0.08% per year). Main cataract risk factors were age and DM. OAG incidence increased with age, intraocular pressure, family history, low ocular perfusion pressures, and thinner corneas. DR risk increased with early DM onset, DM duration, oral/insulin treatment, increased systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and hyperglycemia. Antihypertensive treatment halved DR risk. CONCLUSIONS: Incidence of visual impairment was high and significantly affected quality of life. Age-related cataract and OAG caused ~ 75% of blindness, indicating the need for public health action to increase appropriate cataract surgery and early OAG detection and treatment. Controlling DM and hypertension would help prevent DR-related complications and could lower cataract risk, further decreasing visual loss.<hr/>OBJETIVO: Presentar un resumen de la incidencia y los factores de riesgo de cada causa principal de pérdida de la visión en una población afrocaribeña y examinar las implicaciones de estos datos desde una perspectiva de salud pública. MÉTODOS: En una cohorte representativa al nivel nacional (n = 4 709; edades de 40 a 84 años al inicio) se hicieron exploraciones oftálmicas y de otros tipos durante nueve años. Se calcularon las tasas de incidencia mediante el método del producto-límite. Los factores de riesgo se evaluaron mediante modelos de regresión de Cox. RESULTADOS: La incidencia promedio fue ~ 0,1% al año para la ceguera (< 6/120) y de 0,7% al año para la visión deficiente (< 6/18 a 6/120), que aumentó de manera pronunciada con la edad (P < 0,05) y afectó a la calidad de vida relacionada (P < 0,05). Las cataratas y el glaucoma de ángulo abierto relacionados con la edad representaron 73,2% de los casos de ceguera, y 8,9% de los casos de retinopatía diabética; las cataratas causaron dos tercios de los casos de visión deficiente. La incidencia media fue de 5,1% al año en todos los cambios del cristalino (opacidades graduables o no graduables o afaquia), y de 0,4% al año en la cirugía de cataratas. La incidencia del glaucoma de ángulo abierto definitivo fue de 0,5% al año (0,9% en el caso de la sospecha o la probabilidad); 53% de los pacientes afectados no era conciente. Las personas que padecían diabetes tenían una incidencia de retinopatía diabética de 4,4% al año. La degeneración macular relacionada con la edad fue muy infrecuente (0,08% al año). Los principales factores de riesgo de las cataratas fueron la edad y la diabetes. La incidencia de glaucoma de ángulo abierto aumentó con la edad, la presión intraocular, los antecedentes familiares, las presiones bajas de perfusión ocular y el grosor más fino de la córnea. El riesgo de retinopatía diabética aumentó con la diabetes de inicio temprano, la duración de la diabetes, el tratamiento con antidiabéticos orales o insulina, el aumento de la presión sistólica o diastólica, y la hiperglucemia. El tratamiento hipotensor redujo el riesgo de retinopatía diabética a la mitad. CONCLUSIONES: La incidencia de trastornos visuales fue alta y afectó de manera significativa a la calidad de vida. Las cataratas relacionadas con la edad y el glaucoma de ángulo abierto causaron aproximadamente 75% de los casos de ceguera, lo que indica la necesidad de adoptar medidas de salud pública destinadas a aumentar la cirugía de cataratas adecuada y la detección y el tratamiento tempranos del glaucoma de ángulo abierto. El control de la diabetes y la hipertensión ayudaría a prevenir complicaciones relacionadas con la retinopatía diabética y podría reducir el riesgo de cataratas, lo que disminuirá aún más la pérdida de la visión. <![CDATA[<B>Hansen's disease, social conditions, and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892010000400005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Analisar a associação entre indicadores sociais e ambientais e o coeficiente de detecção de hanseníase (CDH) na Amazônia brasileira. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo ecológico, foram selecionados os registros de casos novos de hanseníase no ano de 2006 da base de dados do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN) e calculados os CDHs por 10 000 habitantes. As análises foram realizadas considerando-se 105 microrregiões formadas por municípios adjacentes com semelhanças econômicas e sociais. As variáveis independentes foram área total (km²) desmatada nas microrregiões até 2006; proporção de residentes em domicílios com fossa rudimentar; proporção de residentes em domicílios abastecidos com água de poço; e índice de desenvolvimento humano (IDH) do ano de 2000. O coeficiente CDH foi suavizado pelo método Bayesiano empírico local. As análises foram conduzidas por meio de correlação e diferenças de médias (ANOVA) com nível de significância de 5%. A técnica de Kernel foi utilizada para investigar a distribuição geográfica dos eventos de interesse para todos os indicadores analisados. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se correlação positiva dos CDHs com o total de área desmatada (r = 0,50; P < 0,000) e a proporção de domicílios com fossa rudimentar (r = 0,49; P < 0,000). O IDH apresentou comportamento inverso ao CDH - quanto maior o IDH, menor o CDH (r = -0,36; P < 0,000). A variável proporção de domicílios com abastecimento de água de poço não apresentou associação com o CDH quando analisada toda a região. CONCLUSÕES: O coeficiente de detecção de hanseníase, que representa a magnitude da doença, está associado aos indicadores de condições de vida e ao modo de ocupação territorial da Amazônia.<hr/>OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between social and environmental indicators and the Hansen's disease new case detection rate (HNCDR) in the Brazilian Amazon. METHODS: This ecological study was based on the new cases of Hansen's disease reported to the Brazilian Disease Surveillance System SINAN in 2006. Analyses were performed considering 105 micro-regions formed by adjacent municipalities with economic and social similarities. HNCDRs per 10 000 people were calculated. Independent variables were total area deforested (km²) in each micro-region until 2006; proportion of people living in households with rudimentary septic tanks; proportion of people living in households with water supply from wells; and human development index (HDI) in 2000. Local empirical Bayes smoothing was applied to HNCDR. Analyses were carried out to determined correlations and differences between means (analysis of variance) for a significance level of 5%. The Kernel technique was used to investigate the geographic distribution of events of interest for all the study indicators. RESULTS: A positive correlation was observed between HNCDR and total deforested area (r = 0.50; P < 0.000) and percent of households with rudimentary septic tanks (r = 0.49; P < 0.000). HDI was inversely correlated with HNCDR: the higher the HDI, the lower the HNCDR (r = -0.36; P < 0.000). Considering the entire region, proportion of households with water from wells was not associated with NCDR. CONCLUSIONS: The Hansen's disease new case detection rate, which reflects the magnitude of disease, is associated with social conditions and land settlement practices in the Brazilian Amazon. <![CDATA[<B>Geometric coding and cluster analysis to assess metabolic control of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892010000400006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Determinar la frecuencia de las combinaciones de los parámetros de control metabólico por arriba de lo normal, usando la codificación geométrica y el análisis jerárquico de conglomerados, en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2). MÉTODOS: Se desarrolló en México un estudio transversal descriptivo para evaluar a un grupo de 1 051 pacientes con DM2, cuyos criterios de inclusión eran tener uno o más de los siguientes valores: glucosa en ayunas > 130 mg/dL, colesterol total > 240 mg/dL, triglicéridos totales > 200 mg/dL, índice de masa corporal > 27 kg/m², y presión arterial sistólica mayor de 130 mmHg o presión arterial diastólica mayor de 85 mmHg. Por medio de codificaciones geométricas se obtuvieron las frecuencias de todas las combinaciones. Para definir similitudes entre las combinaciones se utilizó el método de análisis de conglomerados. RESULTADOS: Utilizando el instrumento propuesto, se observó que la combinación en pares con mayor número de sujetos estuvo representada por hiperglucemia-hipertrigliceridemia (7,3%) e hiperglucemia-hipercolesterolemia (3,6%). Las policombinaciones de mayor frecuencia fueron hiperglucemia-hipercolesterolemia-hipertrigliceridemia (13,2%) e hiperglucemia- hipertrigliceridemia-hipercolesterolemia-hipertensión (10,5%). CONCLUSIONES: La codificación geométrica y el análisis por conglomerados podrían llegar a ser un instrumento idóneo para evaluar el control metabólico de los pacientes con DM2, así como para identificar parámetros que contribuyan a mejorar su monitoreo y su tratamiento.<hr/>OBJECTIVE: Determine the frequency of combinations of higher-than-normal metabolic control parameters, using geometric coding and hierarchical cluster analysis, in patients with type 2 diabetes (DM2) METHODOLOGY: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Mexico to assess a group of 1 051 patients with DM2. The inclusion criteria were to have one or more of the following values: fasting glucose of 130 mg/dL, total cholesterol of 240 mg/dL, total triglycerides of 200 mg/dL, Body Mass Index of 27 kg/m², and systolic blood pressure higher than 130 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure higher than 85 mmHg. Through geometric coding, the frequencies of all combinations were obtained. Cluster analysis was used to determine similarities among the combinations. RESULTS: Using the proposed instrument, it was observed that the paired combinations with the highest number of subjects were hyperglycemia-hypertriglyceridemia (7.3%) and hyperglycemia-hypercholesterolemia (3.6%). The most frequent polycombinations were hyperglycemia-hypercholesterolemia-hypertriglyceridemia (13.2%) and hyperglycemia-hypertriglyceridemia-hypercholesterolemia-hypertension (10.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Geometric coding and cluster analysis could become a suitable instrument for assessing the metabolic control of patients with DM2, as well as for identifying parameters that will help improve their monitoring and treatment. <![CDATA[<B>Response of the tobacco industry to the creation of smoke-free environments in Brazil</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892010000400007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVOS: Documentar a reação da indústria do cigarro à regulamentação do fumo em locais públicos no Brasil, iniciada com legislação em 1996 MÉTODOS: Foram pesquisados os bancos de dados Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (legacy.library.ucsf.edu/) e British American Tobacco (BAT) Company Documents (bat.library.ucsf.edu/). Utilizaram-se as palavras-chave Brasil/Brazil; Souza Cruz; fumo passivo, tabagismo passivo/passive smoking; fumo de segunda mão/secondhand smoking; convivência em harmonia/courtesy of choice; e nomes de instituições, políticos e pessoas atuantes na área de controle de tabaco. Foram pesquisados ainda os websites de fabricantes de cigarro e de estabelecimentos da indústria da hospitalidade no Brasil, e sites de notícias, jornais e revistas. A pesquisa foi limitada a documentos com datas entre 1995 e 2005. RESULTADOS: A primeira lei a restringir o fumo no Brasil (lei 9 294 de 1996) beneficiou a indústria por sua redação, pela qual um mesmo espaço poderia ser compartilhado por fumantes e não-fumantes desde que houvesse uma separação entre as duas categorias (área de fumantes e área de não-fumantes). Como em outros países, a indústria do cigarro criou parcerias com associações de hotéis, bares e restaurantes para evitar a aprovação de leis que exijam espaços 100% livres de fumo, conforme preconizado pela Organização Mundial da Saúde. Entretanto, leis locais em municípios e estados representativos (como Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo) têm tido sucesso em criar espaços 100% livres de fumo. CONCLUSÕES: É fundamental que o Brasil reconheça os prejuízos causados pelo fumo e revise a sua lei federal de regulamentação do fumo em locais fechados. O conhecimento acerca das estratégias da indústria permite que políticos e profissionais de saúde preparem argumentos de oposição a medidas que podem comprometer a saúde pública.<hr/>OBJECTIVES: To document the response of the tobacco industry to the regulation of smoking in public places in Brazil starting in 1996. METHODS: The Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (legacy.library.ucsf.edu/) and the British American Tobacco (BAT) Company Documents (bat.library.ucsf.edu/) were searched. The following key words were used: Brasil/Brazil; Souza Cruz; fumo passivo, tabagismo passivo/passive smoking; fumo de segunda mão/secondhand smoking; convivência em harmonia/courtesy of choice; along with the names of institutions, politicians, and individuals associated with tobacco control. We also searched the websites of cigarette manufacturers and hospitality industry organizations and businesses, news websites, and online newspapers and magazines. The search was limited to the period from 1995 to 2005. RESULTS: The text of the first law restricting smoking in Brazil (no. 9 294, of 1996) benefited the industry by stating that smokers and nonsmokers could share the same space provided that specific areas were designated as smoking and nonsmoking. As in other countries, the tobacco industry established partnerships with hotel, bar, and restaurant associations to prevent the passing of laws creating 100% smoke-free environments, as recommended by the World Health Organization. However, local state and city laws in major cities and states (such as Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo) have been successful in ensuring the creation of 100% smoke-free places. CONCLUSIONS: It is essential that Brazil recognize the damage caused by smoking and revise its federal law regulating smoking in closed environments. The knowledge concerning the strategies employed by the industry may be useful for politicians and health care professionals to prepare arguments opposing measures that can be detrimental to public health. <![CDATA[<B>Measuring medicine prices in Peru</B>: <B>validation of key aspects of WHO/HAI survey methodology</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892010000400008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVES: To assess the possibility of bias due to the limited target list and geographic sampling of the World Health Organization (WHO)/Health Action International (HAI) Medicine Prices and Availability survey used in more than 70 rapid sample surveys since 2001. METHODS: A survey was conducted in Peru in 2005 using an expanded sample of medicine outlets, including remote areas. Comprehensive data were gathered on medicines in three therapeutic classes to assess the adequacy of WHO/HAI's target medicines list and the focus on only two product versions. WHO/HAI median retail prices were compared with average wholesale prices from global pharmaceutical sales data supplier IMS Health. RESULTS: No significant differences were found in overall availability or prices of target list medicines by retail location. The comprehensive survey of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, anti-diabetic, and anti-ulcer products revealed that some treatments not on the target list were costlier for patients and more likely to be unavailable, particularly in remote areas. WHO/HAI retail prices and IMS wholesale prices were strongly correlated for higher priced products, and weakly correlated for lower priced products (which had higher estimated retailer markups). CONCLUSIONS: The WHO/HAI survey approach strikes an appropriate balance between modest research costs and optimal information for policy. Focusing on commonly used medicines yields sufficient and valid results. Surveyors elsewhere should consider the limits of the survey data as well as any local circumstances, such as scarcity, that may call for extra field efforts.<hr/>OBJETIVOS: Evaluar la posibilidad de sesgo debido a la limitación de la lista de referencia y del muestreo geográfico de la encuesta de precios y disponibilidad de medicamentos de la Organización Mundial de la Salud/Health Action International (OMS/HAI) usada en más de 70 muestras de encuestas rápidas desde el 2001. MÉTODOS: En el año 2005, se realizó una encuesta en Perú, con una muestra ampliada de puntos de venta de medicamento, incluso en zonas remotas. Se recogieron datos integrales acerca de los medicamentos de tres clases terapéuticas, con el fin de evaluar la idoneidad de la lista de referencia de medicamentos de la OMS/HAI y el énfasis únicamente en dos versiones del producto. Las medianas de los precios al por menor de la OMS/HAI se compararon con el promedio de precios al por mayor del proveedor de datos mundiales de ventas farmacéuticas IMS Health. RESULTADOS: No se observó ninguna diferencia significativa en la disponibilidad general ni en los precios de los medicamentos de la lista de referencia por localización de venta al por menor. La encuesta integral de los inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de la angiotensina, los antidiabéticos y los productos antiulcerosos reveló que algunos tratamientos que no están en la lista destinataria eran más caros para los pacientes y era más probable que no estuvieran a la venta, sobre todo en las regiones remotas. Los precios al por menor de la OMS/HAI y los precios al por mayor de IMS presentaron una correlación intensa en el caso de los productos de precio más alto, y la correlación fue débil en el caso de los productos de precio más bajo (que tuvieron márgenes de beneficio calculados más altos para el minorista). CONCLUSIONES: El método de la encuesta de la OMS/HAI logra un equilibrio adecuado entre los costos de investigación moderados y la información óptima para la política. El énfasis en los medicamentos de uso frecuente produce unos resultados válidos y suficientes. Los encuestadores de otros lugares deberían tener en cuenta los límites de los datos de la encuesta, así como las circunstancias locales, como la escasez, que puede requerir mayores esfuerzos en el campo. <![CDATA[<B>Life-long domestic violence against women</B>: <B>prevalence and immediate impact on health, work, and family</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892010000400009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVOS: Estimar a prevalência de violência conjugal física contra a mulher ao longo da vida (VCFM) em uma comunidade urbana de baixa renda e avaliar o seu impacto imediato na saúde, trabalho e vida familiar. MÉTODOS: O presente estudo de corte transversal foi realizado em Embu, Estado de São Paulo, como componente do projeto multicêntrico internacional World Studies of Abuse in the Family Environment (WorldSAFE). Foi utilizada uma amostra probabilística de conglomerados derivados de setores censitários, incluindo todos os domicílios elegíveis identificados em cada um deles. Participaram 784 mulheres (16 a 49 anos) com pelo menos um filho menor de 18 anos e marido/companheiro residente (ao longo da vida). Foi avaliada a ocorrência de algum tipo de VCFM (tapa, chute, soco, espancamento, uso/ameaça de uso de arma, outras agressões físicas espontaneamente referidas), de VCFM grave (mesmos itens, exceto tapa e outras agressões referidas) e de impactos imediatos na saúde, trabalho e vida familiar das vítimas. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de VCFM foi de 26,0% para algum tipo de violência e de 18,5% para violência grave. Entre as vítimas de algum tipo de VFCM, 38,7% julgaram necessitar cuidados médicos, 4,4% foram hospitalizadas, 18,1% ficaram incapacitadas para o trabalho (remunerado ou doméstico), 51,5% separaram-se devido às agressões e 66,7% tiveram filhos testemunhando a violência. Para a violência grave, essas taxas foram de 51,0, 5,5, 23,4, 59,3 e 75,9%, respectivamente. A vergonha e o medo de represália por parte do companheiro dificultaram o acesso à assistência médica. CONCLUSÕES: A VCFM é frequente na comunidade estudada e produz impactos imediatos na saúde, trabalho e vida familiar das vítimas. Esses impactos diminuem a capacidade da vítima de buscar socorro e dificultam a interrupção do ciclo da violência.<hr/>OBJECTIVES: To estimate the lifetime prevalence of domestic violence against women (DVAW) in a low-income urban community and evaluate the immediate impact of DVAW on health, work, and family life. METHODS: The present cross-sectional study was carried out in the city of Embu (state of São Paulo, Brazil) as part of an international multicenter project (World Studies of Abuse in the Family Environment, WorldSAFE). A probabilistic sample of census sector-based clusters including all eligible households identified was used. A total of 784 women (age 16-49 years) with at least one child younger than 18 years and a lifetime resident husband/partner were included. We evaluated the occurrence of any kind of DVAW (slapping, kicking, hitting, beating, threatening to use or using a weapon, other aggressions mentioned spontaneously), of severe DVAW (same items, except slapping and other aggressions informed spontaneously), and of immediate impacts on the health, work, and family of the victims. RESULTS: The prevalence of DVAW was 26.0% for any kind of violence and 18.5% for severe DVAW. Among the victims of any kind of DVAW, 38.7% judged that they needed medical care, 4.4% were hospitalized, 18.1% were incapacitated for work (paid work or household chores), 51.5% left their partner due to the aggression and 66.7% had children who witnessed the violence. For severe violence, these rates were 51.0, 5.5, 23.4, 59.3 and 75.9%, respectively. Shame and fear of retaliation obstructed access to medical care. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of DVAW is high in the studied community and produces immediate impacts on the victim's health, work, and family life. These impacts decrease the victim's ability to look for help and hinder the breaking of the cycle of violence. <![CDATA[<B>Neonatal screening by tandem mass spectrometry</B>: <B>an update</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892010000400010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en La espectrometría de masas en tándem (MS/MS) ha posibilitado la expansión de los programas de tamizaje neonatal en diferentes países. Esta tecnología permite el diagnóstico múltiple y rápido de diversos errores innatos del metabolismo. Sin embargo, su aplicación en distintos programas en el ámbito mundial es actualmente muy heterogénea. Existen diferentes criterios para determinar si se incluye una enfermedad específica en esos programas, en algunos casos con un enfoque más restrictivo que en otros, de acuerdo con los principios tradicionales de tamizaje enunciados por Wilson y Jungner, los que habrán de ser reevaluados a la luz de esta nueva tecnología. En este trabajo se presenta una actualización sobre el uso de la MS/MS en diferentes regiones del mundo en relación con las enfermedades tamizadas y con los criterios de inclusión de nuevos problemas de salud en los programas de tamizaje neonatal.<hr/>Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has made it possible to expand neonatal screening programs in different countries. This technology permits multiple and rapid diagnosis of diverse inborn errors of metabolism. However, its use in different programs around the world currently varies widely. There are different criteria for determining whether to include a specific disease in such programs, with some cases employing a more restrictive approach than others, based on the traditional screening principles enunciated by Wilson and Jungner, which will have to be reevaluated in light of this new technology. This article presents an update on the use of MS/MS in different regions of the world in terms of the diseases screened for, and the criteria for including new health problems in neonatal screening programs.