Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública]]> http://www.scielosp.org/rss.php?pid=1020-498920100005&lang=en vol. 27 num. 5 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielosp.org/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielosp.org <![CDATA[<B>Validation of an instrument for measuring the effects of oral health on the quality of life of older adults in Mexico</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892010000500001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVOS: Traducir, adaptar culturalmente y validar una nueva versión en español del instrumento denominado perfil de impacto de la salud bucal (OHIP) en adultos mayores de la Ciudad de México, México. MÉTODOS: Estudio de validación de la nueva versión OHIP-Mx-49 mediante entrevistas y exámenes clínicos a personas de 60 años o más del sur de la Ciudad de México. Se analizaron variables sociodemográficas (edad, sexo, estado civil, nivel de escolaridad y si vive solo), clínicas (número de dientes presentes, caries coronal y radicular, higiene de la dentadura, y uso de prótesis removible y dentadura total) y de autopercepción (necesidad de tratamiento dental y de salud general). Como valor del OHIP-Mx-49 se tomó la suma de las puntuaciones alcanzadas en sus siete dimensiones: limitación funcional, dolor, incomodidad psicológica, inhabilidad física, inhabilidad psicológica, inhabilidad social e incapacidad. Se evaluó la consistencia interna (coeficientes a de Cronbach), la repetibilidad (coeficiente de correlación intraclase) y la validez convergente y discriminativa (pruebas de Mann-Whitney y de Kruskal-Wallis). RESULTADOS: De las 131 personas entrevistadas (edad promedio: 73,8 &plusmn; 8,3 años), 77,9% eran mujeres. Se obtuvieron valores elevados de consistencia interna, tanto del OHIP-Mx-49 (0,96) como de las dimensiones (0,79-0,86), y de repetibilidad en el instrumento (0,877) y todas las dimensiones, excepto inhabilidad social (0,176). La puntuación promedio del OHIP-Mx-49 fue de 37,1 &plusmn; 35,3; se observaron mayores puntuaciones en las personas con 1-9 dientes (P = 0,02), las que no presentaron caries coronal (P = 0,02) y las que percibían necesitar tratamiento dental (P = 0,01). CONCLUSIONES: El OHIP-Mx-49 es un instrumento confiable y válido que puede aplicarse en adultos mayores mexicanos.<hr/>OBJECTIVE: Translate, culturally adapt, and validate a new Spanish version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) for older persons in Mexico City, Mexico. METHODS: A validation study of the new version of OHIP-Mx-49 was carried out through interviews and clinical examinations of people aged 60 or older in the southern area of Mexico City. The following variables were analyzed: sociodemographic (age, sex, marital status, level of schooling, and whether the subject lived alone), clinical (current number of teeth, coronal and root caries, dental hygiene, and the use of removable prostheses and dentures), and self-perception (of the need for dental and general health care). The OHIP-Mx-49 value was calculated as the sum of the scores in seven dimensions: functional limitation, pain, psychological discomfort, physical disability, psychological disability, social disability, and handicap. The internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient), replicability (intraclass correlation coefficient), and convergent and discriminant validity (Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests) were assessed. RESULTS: Of the 131 people interviewed (average age: 73.8 &plusmn; 8.3 years), 77.9% were women. High internal consistency values were obtained for the OHIP-Mx-49 (0.96) and the dimensions (0.79-0.86), and replicability in the instrument (0.877) and all the dimensions except social disability (0.176). The average OHIP-Mx-49 score was 37.1 &plusmn; 35.3; higher scores were observed in people with 1-9 teeth (P = 0.02), people who did not have coronal caries (P = 0.02), and people who perceived a need for dental care (P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The OHIP-Mx-49 is a reliable and valid instrument that can be used with older Mexicans. <![CDATA[<B>Geographic distribution of human T-lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 among mothers of newborns tested during neonatal screening, Minas Gerais, Brazil</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892010000500002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the geographic distribution of human T-lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2) in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in puerperal women whose newborns were tested for HTLV-1/2 during neonatal screening, and to overlap seropositivity with social and economic status determinants. METHODS: During September-November 2007, the dry-blood samples taken from newborns on filter paper for routine screening were also tested for maternal IgG anti-HTLV-1/2 antibodies. For reactive samples, the mothers of the newborns had blood drawn to test for these viruses. RESULTS: The study analyzed 55 293 specimens taken from newborns. Of these, 52 (9.4 per 10 000) were reactive and 42 mothers (7.6 per 10 000) were confirmed with HTLV-1/2 infection. HTLV-1/2 geographic distribution was heterogeneous, with a tendency to be higher in the North and North-East parts of Minas Gerais. The highest rates of seropositivity were observed in Vale do Mucuri (55.9 per 10 000) and in Jequitinhonha (16.0 per 10 000), overlapping with the State's worst social and economic indicators. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this was the first time that neonatal screening for HTLV-1/2 was performed in Brazil. This model could be used in other areas with high HTLV-1/2 prevalence rates. The detection of carrier mothers can enable intervention measures, such as providing infant formula to newborns, to be implemented expeditiously to reduce vertical transmission.<hr/>OBJETIVOS: Evaluar la distribución geográfica del virus linfotrópico de células T humanas tipos 1 y 2 (HTLV-1/2) en el estado de Minas Gerais (Brasil), en mujeres puérperas en cuyos recién nacidos se analizó la presencia del HTLV-1/2 durante las pruebas neonatales de detección sistemática, y superponer la seropositividad con determinantes del estado socioeconómico. MÉTODOS: Entre septiembre y noviembre de 2007, en las muestras de sangre seca extraída a los recién nacidos en papel de filtro para un tamizaje sistemático, se analizaron también los anticuerpos maternos de tipo IgG anti-HTLV-1/2. En el caso de las muestras reactivas, se extrajo la sangre de las madres de los recién nacidos para realizar pruebas de detección de estos virus. RESULTADOS: En el estudio se analizaron 55 293 muestras extraídas de los recién nacidos. De estas, 52 (9,4 por 10 000) fueron reactivas y en 42 madres (7,6 por 10 000) se confirmó la infección por el HTLV-1/2. La distribución geográfica del HTLV-1/2 fue heterogénea, con una tendencia a ser mayor en el norte y el noreste de Minas Gerais. Las tasas más elevadas de seropositividad se observaron en Vale do Mucuri (55,9 por 10 000) y en Jequitinhonha (16,0 por 10 000), superponiéndose con los peores indicadores socioeconómicos del estado. CONCLUSIONES: Esta fue la primera vez que se realizó un tamizaje neonatal para el HTLV-1/2 en Brasil. Este modelo podría usarse en otras regiones con tasas de prevalencia altas del HTLV-1/2. La detección de las madres portadoras puede permitir la aplicación rápida de medidas de intervención, como por ejemplo, el suministro de leche maternizada a los recién nacidos, a fin de reducir la transmisión vertical. <![CDATA[<B>Fraction of the global burden of diabetes mellitus attributable to overweight and obesity in Brazil</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892010000500003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Estimar a carga global do diabetes mellitus (DM) para o período de 2002 a 2003 e calcular, para o mesmo período, a fração do diabetes atribuível ao excesso de peso e à obesidade para o Brasil e suas regiões. MÉTODOS: A prevalência de excesso de peso e obesidade por sexo e faixa etária (> 20 anos) e os riscos relativos (obtidos de estudos internacionais) para o desenvolvimento do DM atribuíveis ao excesso de peso e à obesidade foram utilizados para o cálculo da carga global do diabetes. A prevalência de excesso de peso e obesidade para o Brasil e suas regiões foi obtida da Pesquisa de Orçamento Familiar. Foram calculados, para o DM, os anos de vida ajustados para incapacidade (disability-adjusted life years, DALY) a partir da soma de duas parcelas: anos de vida perdidos por morte prematura (years of life lost, YLL) e anos de vida perdidos devido à incapacidade (years lived with disability, YLD). RESULTADOS: Do total de DALY estimados para o DM no Brasil, 70% provinham dos YLD. Para o Brasil como um todo, 61,8 e 45,4% do DM no sexo feminino foram atribuíveis a excesso de peso e obesidade, respectivamente. No sexo masculino, esses percentuais foram de 52,8 e 32,7%. As maiores frações atribuíveis foram encontradas nas regiões Sul, Sudeste e Centro-Oeste e para o grupo populacional entre 35 a 44 anos de idade. CONCLUSÃO: Grande parte da carga do diabetes é atribuível a fatores de risco evitáveis. Medidas voltadas para a prevenção e controle desses fatores de risco, como o excesso de peso e a obesidade, devem estar inseridas na agenda de saúde pública brasileira.<hr/>OBJECTIVE: To estimate the global burden of diabetes mellitus (DM) in 2002-2003 and to calculate the fraction of diabetes attributable to excess weight and obesity for Brazil and its regions. METHODS: The prevalence of excess weight and obesity according to sex and age (> 20 years) and the relative risks for the development of DM (derived from international studies) attributable to excess weight and obesity were used to calculate the global burden of DM. The prevalence of excess weight and obesity for Brazil and its regions was obtained from the Family Budget Survey (Pesquisa de Orçamento Familiar). Disability-adjusted life years (DALY) were calculated for DM based on the sum of two components: years of life lost (YLL) and years lived with disability (YLD). RESULTS: Of the total DALY estimated for DM in Brazil, YLD accounted for 70%. For Brazil as a whole, 61.8% and 45.4% of DM in females was attributable to excess weight and obesity, respectively. Among males, the proportions were 52.8% and 32.7%. The largest excess weight/obesity-attributable fractions were observed in the South, Southeast, and Midwest regions and in the 35-44-year-old age groups. CONCLUSIONS: A large fraction of the burden of DM is attributable to preventable individual risk factors. Measures targeting prevention and control of risk factors such as excess weight and obesity must be included in the Brazilian public health agenda. <![CDATA[<B>Examining long-term effects of Cuídate-a sexual risk reduction program in Mexican youth</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892010000500004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness of a safer sex program (Cuídate) on sexual behavior, use of condoms, and use of other contraceptives among Mexican youth 48 months after the intervention. METHODS: A total of 708 or 85% of those who participated in the original randomized control study (n = 829) were assessed in the 48-month follow-up. Each participant completed a questionnaire on sexual behavior. RESULTS: Findings indicated that adolescents who participated in the Cuídate program were more likely to be older at first sex (odds ratio [OR], 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41-2.12; P < 0.05) and to use condoms at first sex (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.14-2.69; P < 0.05) or some other type of contraception at first sex (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.00-2.33; P < 0.05) than those in the control group. Effects of the intervention on consistent condom use, condom use at last sex, and number of sexual partners were not significant. Gender did not moderate any intervention effects. Social desirability moderated the effect of the intervention on age at first sex. CONCLUSIONS: Results demonstrate the efficacy of Cuídate among Mexican adolescents. Future research, policy, and practice efforts should be directed at sustaining safe sex practices across adolescents' developmental and relationship trajectory.<hr/>OBJETIVOS: Examinar la eficacia de un programa de promoción de actividad sexual de menor riesgo (Cuídate) en cuanto al comportamiento sexual, el uso de condones y el uso de otros anticonceptivos en jóvenes mexicanos, 48 meses después de la intervención. MÉTODOS: En el seguimiento después de 48 meses, se evaluó un total de 708 (85%) de los que participaron en el estudio de control aleatorizado original (n = 829). Cada participante respondió a un cuestionario sobre su comportamiento sexual. RESULTADOS: Los resultados indicaron que los adolescentes que participaron en el programa "Cuídate" tenían una probabilidad más alta de tener una edad mayor en la primera relación sexual (razón de posibilidades [OR]: 1,27; intervalo de confianza [IC]: de 95%, 0,41-2,12; p < 0,05) y de usar condones (OR: 1,75; IC 95%: 1,14-2,69; P < 0,05) o algún otro tipo de medida anticonceptiva en la primera relación sexual (OR: 1,53; IC 95%: 1,00-2,33; P < 0,05) en comparación con los del grupo de referencia. Los efectos de la intervención sobre el uso constante de condones, el uso de condones en la última relación sexual y el número de compañeros sexuales no fueron considerables. El género no moderó los efectos de la intervención. La conveniencia social moderó el efecto de la intervención sobre la edad en la primera relación sexual. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados demuestran la eficacia del programa "Cuídate" en los adolescentes mexicanos. En el futuro, la investigación, las políticas y la práctica deberán diri-girse a promover actividades sexuales de menor riesgo en el desarrollo y las relaciones de los adolescentes. <![CDATA[<B>Economic impact of introducing the injectable inactivated polio vaccine in Colombia</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892010000500005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVOS: Evaluar la relación costo-efectividad de la introducción de la vacuna inyectable contra la poliomielitis (VIP) en Colombia con respecto al sistema actual basado en el empleo de la vacuna oral (VOP). MÉTODOS: Se diseñó un modelo de Markov basado en una cohorte hipotética de recién nacidos que recibiría la VIP o la VOP con un seguimiento de dos años y estimaciones mensuales del número de casos de poliomielitis paralítica asociada con la vacuna (PPAV). El análisis del costo se realizó desde la perspectiva del asegurador (costos a lo largo de la vida) y la sociedad (casos de PPAV evitados y años de vida ajustados por discapacidad [AVAD] evitados). RESULTADOS: Entre 1988 y 1998 se aplicaron en Colombia 22,5 millones de dosis de la VOP y se detectaron nueve casos de PPAV, para una tasa de 4,0 ¥ 10-7 por dosis. Según el modelo, se podrían esperar entre 2 y 4 casos de PPAV en los dos años de seguimiento. El costo de tratar los casos de PPAV sería de US$ 302 008, con costos de vacunación con la VOP de US$ 737 037 y de US$ 5 527 777 con la VIP. La vacunación con la VIP permitiría evitar 64 AVAD con un costo de US$ 71 062 por AVAD evitado; evitar un caso de PPAV mediante la sustitución de la VOP por la VIP costaría entre US$ 1,8 millones y US$ 2,2 millones. CONCLUSIONES: La sustitución de la VOP por la VIP no es una medida efectiva en función del costo en Colombia, incluso si se sustituyera la vacuna celular contra la tos ferina, actualmente en uso, por una vacuna acelular combinada con una VIP.<hr/>OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the cost-effectiveness of introducing the injectable inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) in Colombia versus the current system based on the use of the oral vaccine (OPV). METHODS: A Markov model was designed, based on a hypothetical cohort of newborns that would receive the IPV or the OPV vaccine, with a two-year follow-up and monthly estimates of the number of cases of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) that would emerge. The cost was analyzed from the perspective of the insurer (costs throughout life) and society (cases of VAPP and disability-adjusted life years [DALYs] prevented). RESULTS: From 1988 to 1998, some 22.5 million doses of OVP were administered in Colombia and nine cases of VAPP were detected, for a rate of 4.0 ¥ 10-7 dose. According to the model, 2 to 4 cases of VAPP could be anticipated in the following two years. The cost of treating the VAPP cases would total US$302 008, with the cost of vaccination with OPV coming to US$737 037 and with IPV, US$5 527 777. Vaccination with IPV would prevent 64 DALYs, at a cost of US$71 062 per DALY prevented; preventing one case of VAPP by substituting OPV with IPV would cost between US$1.8 and US$2.2 million. CONCLUSIONS: Substituting OPV with IPV is not a cost-effective measure in Colombia, even if the cellular vaccine against whooping cough currently in use were replaced with an acellular vaccine combined with an IPV. <![CDATA[<B>Measured weight, self-perceived weight, and associated factors in adolescents</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892010000500006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Comparar a autopercepção corporal e o estado nutricional objetivamente medido por meio de peso, altura e pregas cutâneas em adolescentes e avaliar os fatores associados à discordância entre essas duas medidas. MÉTODOS: A amostra incluiu os membros da coorte de nascimentos de 1993 na Cidade de Pelotas, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, que foram visitados em seus domicílios em 2004 e 2005. O desfecho em estudo resultou da comparação entre o estado nutricional e a percepção que os adolescentes tinham de seu peso corporal, sendo dividido em três categorias: subestimação, concordância e superestimação. As variáveis explanatórias foram sexo, cor da pele, índice de bens, sedentarismo, dieta inadequada, discriminação, regime para emagrecimento e sentimento de bem-estar e opinião do adolescente sobre como os pais percebiam o corpo desse adolescente. Para as análises estatísticas, empregou-se regressão logística multinomial. RESULTADOS: Foram entrevistados 4 452 indivíduos (87,5% da coorte original). A média de idade foi de 11 anos. De acordo com o estado nutricional, 7,1% foram classificados como magros, 69,8% como eutróficos, 11,6% com sobrepeso e 11,6% com obesidade. Com relação ao peso percebido, 19% dos jovens se achavam magros ou muito magros, 56% se sentiam normais quanto ao peso e 25% se consideravam gordos ou muito gordos. A concordância global entre a autopercepção corporal do adolescente e seu estado nutricional foi de 65% (kappa = 0,36). A subestimação foi de 24,9% entre meninos vs. 20,3% entre meninas. A superestimação foi de 15,8 % entre meninas vs. 8,5% entre meninos. CONCLUSÃO: Houve tendência de as meninas superestimarem o seu peso corporal e de os meninos subestimarem o mesmo. Detectou-se também forte associação entre a opinião que os adolescentes acreditam que os pais têm de si e a autopercepção de estado nutricional dos adolescentes.<hr/>OBJECTIVE: To compare weight self-perception and nutritional status based on objective measurements of weight, height, and skin folds in adolescents, and to evaluate factors associated with disagreement between these measures. METHODS: The sample included the 1993 birth cohort from the city of Pelotas, Brazil, who were interviewed at home in 2004 and 2005. The study outcome resulted from the comparison between nutritional status and the weight self-perception of adolescents, and was divided into three categories: underestimation, agreement, and overestimation. The explanatory variables were sex, skin color, accumulated goods index, physical activity, eating habits, discrimination, dieting, feeling of well-being, and opinion of the adolescent concerning the perception of his/her parents regarding the adolescent's weight. Multivariate logistic regression was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: A total of 4 452 interviews were conducted (87.5% of original cohort). Mean age was 11 years. The analysis of nutritional status revealed that 7.1% were underweight, 69.8% normal weight, 11.6% overweight, and 11.6% obese. The analysis of self-perceived weight revealed that 19% saw themselves as thin or very thin, 56% believed their weight was normal, and 25% saw themselves as fat or very fat. Global agreement between weight self-perception and nutritional status was 65% (kappa = 0.36). Weight underestimation occurred in 24.9% of boys vs. 20.3% of girls. Overestimation occurred in 15.8% of girls vs. 8.5% of boys. CONCLUSIONS: Girls tended to overestimate their weight, and boys, to underestimate it. There was a strong association between the opinion of adolescents concerning their parents' view of the adolescent's body and self-perceived weight. <![CDATA[<B>Cognitive performance and mortality in people over 50 in Mexico</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892010000500007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVOS: Determinar la asociación entre un bajo desempeño cognoscitivo registrado en 2001 en el Estudio Nacional sobre Salud y Envejecimiento en México (ENASEM), y la mortalidad notificada en 2003 en la segunda vuelta del mismo estudio. MÉTODOS: Se seleccionaron sujetos de 50 o más años de edad que hubiesen completado las secciones de la encuesta de 2001 sobre ejercicios cognoscitivos, estado de salud, y funcionalidad y ayuda para el desempeño de actividades cotidianas. El desempeño cognoscitivo fue evaluado en 2001 utilizando una versión reducida del Examen Cognoscitivo Transcultural (escala de 0 a 80 puntos). En 2003 se realizó el seguimiento de los entrevistados y se registró su supervivencia o mortalidad. RESULTADOS: Los grupos de entrevistados con puntaje menor a 40 notificaron una supervivencia acumulada de 96,1% y una media de 26,49 meses de supervivencia (IC 95% 26,41- 26,57), mientras que los de 40 o más puntos informaron una supervivencia acumulada de 98,7% y una media de supervivencia de 28,76 meses (IC 95% 28,68-28,85) (Log Rank χ2 = 59,230 P < 0,001). Un puntaje menor a 40 en la evaluación cognoscitiva se asoció con un riesgo relativo de muerte de 1,863 (IC 95% 1,30-2,65) en el análisis multivariado. También se asociaron con tasas más altas de mortalidad una mayor edad, autoinforme de diabetes, cáncer, haber fumado alguna vez, recibir ayuda en al menos una actividad instrumentada de la vida diaria y tener un mayor puntaje en la escala de depresión. CONCLUSIONES: Un puntaje menor a 40 en la versión abreviada del Examen Cognoscitivo Transcultural se asoció independientemente con un incremento en las tasas de mortalidad dentro de los dos años siguientes.<hr/>OBJECTIVE: Determine the correlation between the low cognitive performance recorded in 2001 in the National Study on Health and Aging in Mexico (ENASEM) and the mortality reported in 2003 during the second phase of that same study. METHODS: The subjects selected were people aged 50 or over who had completed the sections in the 2001 survey pertaining to cognitive exercises, health status, and functionality and assistance with daily activities. Cognitive performance was assessed in 2001 using an abridged version of the Cross-Cultural Cognitive Examination (scale: 0 to 80 points). In 2003, there was a follow-up to the interviewees, in which their survival or death was recorded. RESULTS: The groups of interviewees scoring less than 40 had a cumulative survival rate of 96.1%, with a mean of 26.49 months of survival (CI 95% 26.41-26.57), while those scoring 40 points or over had a cumulative survival rate of 98.7%, with a mean of 28.76 months (CI 95% 28.68-28.85) (Log Rank χ2 = 59,230 P < 0,001). A score of less than 40 in the cognitive assessment was associated with a relative risk of death of 1.863 (CI: 95% 1.30-2.65) in the multivariate analysis. Also associated with higher mortality was older age, self-reported diabetes, cancer, having smoked at some time, receiving assistance in at least one instrumental activity of daily living, and scoring higher on the depression scale. CONCLUSIONS: A score of less than 40 in the abridged version of the Cross-Cultural Cognitive Examination was independently correlated with an increase in mortality within the next two years. <![CDATA[<B>Profile of studies about intimate partner violence against women</B>: <B>2003 to 2007</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892010000500008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Descrever os estudos sobre violência contra a mulher por parceiro íntimo em termos da área do conhecimento em que se enquadram, sexo dos autores, países onde são realizados e idioma das publicações, enfoque metodológico, sujeitos da pesquisa e local onde foram coletados os dados. MÉTODOS: De janeiro a maio de 2008 realizou-se uma revisão das bases de dados Medline, PsycINFO, LILACS e SciELO para artigos publicados entre 2003 e 2007. As estratégias que utilizaram palavras em português foram aplicadas apenas nas bases LILACS e SciELO. RESULTADOS: Foram selecionados para a análise 176 artigos que abordaram a violência contra a mulher por parceiro íntimo, tendo sido 84,7% publicados em inglês; 49,4% foram publicados em revistas das ciências médicas e 86,4% utilizaram um enfoque metodológico quantitativo. Houve diversidade quanto aos países onde os estudos foram realizados, com destaque para a América do Norte (42,1%). Dentre os sujeitos, foram mais pesquisadas as mulheres entre 20 e 29 anos (78,4%), casadas (72,2%) e cujo agressor era o parceiro íntimo atual (97,2%). Os sujeitos foram abordados principalmente em serviços de saúde (30,7%) e em amostras por domicílios (30,1%). As autoras dos artigos foram pricipalmente mulheres (57,7%). CONCLUSÕES: Pesquisas futuras devem associar diferentes enfoques metodológicos, além de selecionar e descrever os sujeitos e os agressores para possibilitar a comparabilidade dos estudos. Tal medida é necessária para garantir o aprofundamento do conhecimento sobre o tema e viabilizar políticas eficazes para a erradicação da violência contra a mulher.<hr/>OBJECTIVE: To describe the studies about intimate partner violence against women in terms of field of knowledge to which they belong, sex of authors, country where they were conducted, language of publication, study design, participants, and place where data were collected. METHODS: A systematic review of Medline, PsycINFO, LILACS, and SciELO databases was conducted from January to May 2008 for articles published between 2003 and 2007. The search using Portuguese terms was conducted only in LILACS and SciELO. RESULTS: A total of 176 studies about intimate partner violence against women was selected for analysis. Of these, 84.7% were in published in English; 49.4% were published in biomedical journals; and 86.4% had a quantitative design. The studies were carried out in a variety of countries, particularly in North America (42.1%). Participants were mostly married women aged 20 to 39 years (72.2%) who were victims of violence by a current partner (97.2%). Most subjects were recruited in healthcare services (30.7%) or through household sampling (30.1%). Study authors were mostly women (57.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Future studies should combine different methodological approaches and select and describe victims and perpetrators to ensure comparability. This is necessary to advance this field of knowledge and to enable the establishment of effective policies to eradicate violence against women. <![CDATA[<B>Preventing violence and reinforcing human security</B>: <B>a rights-based framework for top-down and bottom-up action</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892010000500009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article explores the violence reduction potential in the intersection between health, criminal justice, and development. It emphasizes public health, rule of law, and equality-driven socioeconomic development as principal concerns in preventing violence. In parts of Latin America, violence has become a serious public health and security problem. Prior studies have explored the risk factors associated with violence as well as experiences in its prevention. These studies and existing approaches to violence prevention provide evidence on where to direct attention and build prevention efforts. This article argues for integrated community-driven and national interventions to create cooperative national- local linkages and embed international human rights law at the national and local levels. Nations struggling with violence should be encouraged to apply an integrated framework to prevent violence and reinforce human security.<hr/>En este artículo se analiza la posibilidad de disminuir la violencia en la intersección entre la salud, la justicia penal y el desarrollo. Se hace hincapié en la salud pública, el imperio de la ley y el desarrollo socioeconómico regido por la igualdad, como inquietudes principales en la prevención de la violencia. En algunas partes de América Latina, la violencia se ha convertido en un problema grave de salud pública y de seguridad. En estudios anteriores se han analizado los factores de riesgo vinculados a la violencia, así como las experiencias en su prevención. Estos estudios y los métodos existentes de prevención de la violencia aportan datos probatorios acerca de dónde debe dirigirse la atención y dónde deben emprenderse iniciativas de prevención. Este artículo aboga por intervenciones comunitarias y nacionales integradas, a fin de crear vínculos de colaboración nacional y local, e instituir la legislación internacional de derechos humanos en los ámbitos nacional y local. Se debe alentar a los países que luchan contra la violencia a que adopten un marco integrado con miras a prevenir la violencia y reforzar la seguridad humana. <![CDATA[<B>International collaboration to protect health workers from infectious diseases in Ecuador</B>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892010000500010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The Healthy Hospital Project, an international collaboration, aimed to strengthen Ecuador's capacity to promote healthier and safer hospitals by reducing occupational transmission of infectious diseases. Team members conducted a needs assessment to identify workplace hazards and health risks in three hospitals. A survey of health care workers' knowledge and practices of occupational health (OH) and infection control (IC) revealed positive practices such as a medical waste disposal program and widespread dissemination of health information. Challenges identified included a high frequency of recapping needles and limited resources for workers to apply consistent IC measures. The survey revealed underreporting of needlestick injuries and limited OH and safety (OHS) training. Therefore, project collaborators organized a training workshop for health care workers that aimed to overcome the identified obstacles by integrating interdisciplinary local, national, and international stakeholders to build capacity and institutionalize work-related infection prevention and control measures. The knowledge transferred and experience gained led to useful hospital-based projects and serves as a basis for implementation of other OHS projects nationwide. International interdisciplinary, interinstitutional collaboration in OHS and IC can build capacity to address OHS concerns in health care.<hr/>El objetivo del Proyecto Hospitales Saludables, resultado de una colaboración internacional, fue fortalecer la capacidad del Ecuador de promover hospitales más saludables y seguros al reducirse la transmisión ocupacional de las enfermedades infecciosas. Los miembros del equipo realizaron una evaluación en tres hospitales para detectar los peligros y los riesgos para la salud en el lugar de trabajo. Tras llevar a cabo una encuesta de conocimientos y prácticas de los trabajadores sanitarios en lo que se refiere a salud ocupacional y control de infecciones, se encontraron aspectos positivos, como un programa de eliminación de desechos médicos y la difusión generalizada de información sanitaria. En cuanto a los retos, se detectó una alta frecuencia de volver a colocar el protector de la punta de la aguja antes de desecharla y recursos limitados para que los trabajadores puedan aplicar uniformemente medidas de control de infecciones. En esa misma encuesta se reveló que se notificaba una cantidad menor de la real de pinchazos en los dedos y una capacitación limitada en salud y seguridad ocupacionales. Por consiguiente, como parte del proyecto y con miras a superar los obstáculos señalados, se organizó un taller de capacitación para los trabajadores sanitarios en el cual participaron los interesados directos locales, nacionales e internacionales en diferentes disciplinas, a efectos de desarrollar capacidades e institucionalizar medidas de control y prevención de infecciones relacionadas con el trabajo. Los conocimientos transferidos y la experiencia adquirida dieron lugar a proyectos útiles basados en hospitales y sirven de base para ejecutar otros proyectos de salud y seguridad ocupacionales en todo el país. La colaboración interdisciplinaria e interinstitucional a nivel internacional en salud y seguridad ocupacionales y control de infecciones tiene el potencial de desarrollar capacidades para atender estos problemas en las actividades de atención de la salud.