Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública]]> http://www.scielosp.org/rss.php?pid=1020-498920110004&lang=en vol. 29 num. 4 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielosp.org/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielosp.org <![CDATA[<b>Benefits of combining methods to analyze the causes of maternal mortality, Bucaramanga, Colômbia</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892011000400001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Definir puntos críticos de cambio en el proceso de la atención materna, orientar la toma de decisiones alrededor del tema y apoyar el fortalecimiento de las políticas de prestación de servicios con miras a alcanzar el objetivo de desarrollo del milenio de mejorar la salud materna. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de serie de casos de las muertes maternas registradas en Bucaramanga entre 2004 y 2009. Se estudiaron fichas epidemiológicas, historias clínicas, visitas de campo y actas de comités de análisis. Se utilizaron como métodos de análisis el camino de la supervivencia (análisis de demoras) y el de detección de eslabones críticos de la atención. Se trianguló la información obtenida. RESULTADOS: Las 10 muertes maternas ocurrieron en una zona urbana y contaron con la atención de profesionales en establecimientos de salud. Los cuatro tipos de demoras - en el reconocimiento del problema, en la oportunidad de la decisión y de la acción, en la atención/ logística de referencia y en la calidad de la atención - estuvieron presentes con una frecuencia similar en los 10 casos estudiados. Los eslabones críticos para la prevención de muertes maternas fueron los relacionados con fallas en la integración vertical y horizontal del proceso de atención y en su calidad. CONCLUSIONES: La combinación de metodologías de análisis permitió establecer las fallas de la atención que más se relacionaron con las muertes maternas. Sin embargo su uso debe acompañarse de otros métodos que permitan identificar determinantes que trasciendan el contexto de la prestación de servicios. Se documenta una lección aprendida sobre la importancia de la continuidad de las intervenciones y su monitoreo como un factor de éxito en la reducción de la mortalidad materna.<hr/>OBJECTIVE: Define critical points of change in the maternal care process, guide decision-making in this area, and support the strengthening of service delivery policies, with a view to achieving the Millennium Development Goal of improving maternal health. METHODS: Retrospective descriptive study of a series of cases of maternal deaths recorded in Bucaramanga between 2004 and 2009. The study examined epidemiologic reporting cards, clinical histories, field visits, and the records of analysis committees. The road to survival (analysis of delays) and detection of critical links in care were used as the methods of analysis. The information obtained was triangulated. RESULTS: The 10 maternal deaths occurred in an urban area, and the women had received medical care from professionals at a health facility. The four types of delays-in recognizing the problem, in the timeliness of decisions and actions, in care/the logistics of referral, and in the quality of care-occurred with similar frequency in the 10 cases studied. The critical links in the prevention of maternal deaths were those related to deficiencies in the vertical and horizontal integration of the care process and the quality of care. CONCLUSIONS: Combining analysis methods made it possible to identify the deficiencies in care most related to maternal deaths. However, their use should be accompanied by other methods that make it possible to identify determinants that go beyond the context of service delivery. One documented lesson learned is the importance of the continuity and monitoring of interventions as a success factor in reducing maternal mortality. <![CDATA[<b>Human papillomavirus genotypes and their prevalence in a cohort of women in Trinidad</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892011000400002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes and their relative prevalences were determined in a cohort of 310 sexually active women in Trinidad, West Indies. METHODS: Cervical samples were collected with Ayre's spatulas and endocervical brushes. Samples were used for the conventional Papanicolaou test and for determining HPV genotypes by amplification of a section of the viral L1 gene, followed by DNA sequencing and probe hybridization. RESULTS: HPV infections were identified in 126 of 310 (40.6%) women. Of them, 83 (65.8%) were infected with high-risk HPV, 16 (12.7%) with low-risk HPV, and 27 (21.4%) with HPV types of unknown risk. HPV 52 (12.7%) was the most frequently occurring high-risk type, followed by HPV 66 (10.3%), HPV 16 (9.5%), and HPV 18 (8.6%). High-risk types HPV 16 and HPV 66 were each found in 3 (20.0%) and HPV 18 was found in 1 (6.6%) of the 15 women with abnormal cytology. CONCLUSIONS: Cervical HPV prevalence and heterogeneity of HPV genotypes are high in this Trinidad cohort. The relative importance of HPV genotypes in the development of cervical lesions needs further investigation in Trinidad in order to better understand the epidemiology of HPV infections as well as to determine the role of HPV testing in the screening, prevention, and control of cervical cancer. This pilot study provided important information on the prevalence of HPV genotypes, which will be used in future nationwide studies.<hr/>OBJETIVO: Se determinaron los genotipos del papilomavirus humano (PVH) y su prevalencia relativa en una cohorte de 310 mujeres sexualmente activas de Trinidad, en la zona de las Indias Occidentales. MÉTODOS: Se tomaron muestras del cuello uterino con espátula de Ayre y cepillo endocervical. Las muestras se usaron para llevar a cabo la prueba convencional de Papanicolaou y para determinar los genotipos de PVH mediante la amplificación de una sección del gen vírico L1, seguida de secuenciación del ADN e hibridación con sonda. RESULTADOS: Se encontró una infección por PVH en 126 de las 310 mujeres (40,6%). De ellas, 83 (65,8%) estaban infectadas con PVH de alto riesgo, 16 (12,7%) con PVH de bajo riesgo, y 27 (21,4%) con tipos de PVH de riesgo desconocido. De los PVH de alto riesgo, el más frecuente fue el PVH 52 (12,7%), seguido por el PVH 66 (10,3%), el PVH 16 (9,5%) y el PVH 18 (8,6%). Entre las 15 mujeres con citología anormal se encontraron los PVH de alto riesgo 16 y 66 en 3 (20,0%) mujeres cada uno, y el PVH 18 en 1 (6,6%). CONCLUSIONES: Tanto la prevalencia de PVH en el cuello uterino como la heterogeneidad de los genotipos de PVH son elevadas en esta cohorte de Trinidad. La importancia relativa de los genotipos de PVH en la aparición de las lesiones cervicales requiere de mayor investigación en Trinidad para conocer más a fondo las características epidemiológicas de las infecciones por PVH, así como para determinar el papel del estudio de los PVH en la detección sistemática, la prevención y el control del cáncer del cuello uterino. Este estudio piloto suministró información importante sobre la prevalencia de los genotipos de PVH, que se usará en futuros estudios que se lleven a cabo en todo el país. <![CDATA[<b>Relationship between lead levels in colostrum, dietary intake, and socioeconomic characteristics of puerperal women in Goiânia, Brazil</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892011000400003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Estimar a concentração de chumbo em colostro humano e verificar a existência de relação entre esse dado, consumo alimentar e fatores socioeconômicos das puérperas. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 80 puérperas de uma maternidade de Goiânia, Brasil, realizado de julho a dezembro de 2008. Aplicou-se um questionário socioeconômico e de estilo de vida, além do questionário de frequência de consumo alimentar. Posteriormente, foram coletadas amostras de colostro, analisadas por espectrometria de absorção atômica por chama para quantificar o chumbo. Calculou-se a correlação entre o teor de chumbo, as variáveis socioeconômicas e o consumo alimentar. RESULTADOS: A média da concentração de chumbo foi 6,88 μg/L, e a mediana foi 4,65 μg/L. Os aspectos socioeconômicos não apresentaram associação significativa com o teor de chumbo. A ingestão de ácidos graxos saturados, ovos, carnes suínas, frango e derivados (todos com valores de r = -0,26 e P = 0,020) correlacionou-se inversamente ao teor chumbo do colostro humano, ao passo que a ingestão de abóbora (r = 0,26 e P = 0,019) e berinjela (r = 0,27 e P = 0,015) correlacionou-se proporcionalmente ao valor obtido. A correlação entre abóbora cozida, ovos, carnes suínas, de frango e derivados foi mantida após ajuste na regressão logística. CONCLUSÕES: Foi detectada presença de chumbo no colostro materno, possivelmente como resultado da exposição dietética das puérperas deste estudo. Além da correlação entre presença de chumbo e consumo alimentar, os resultados sugerem que a ingestão de nutrientes específicos pode propiciar maior ou menor concentração desse contaminante, sem relação direta com fatores socioeconômicos.<hr/>OBJECTIVE: To estimate the levels of lead in human colostrum and investigate whether they are correlated with dietary intake and socioeconomic factors in puerperal women. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was carried out with 80 puerperal women from a maternity hospital in Goiânia, Brazil. Data were collected between July and December 2008. A questionnaire was used to collect socioeconomic and lifestyle information. A dietary intake frequency questionnaire was also applied. After that, colostrum samples were collected and analyzed using flame atomic absorption spectrometry to quantify lead levels. The correlation between lead levels, socioeconomic variables, and dietary intake was calculated. RESULTS: The mean concentration of lead in colostrum samples was 6.88 μg/L, and the median concentration was 4.65 μg/L. There was no association between socioeconomic aspects and lead levels. The intake of saturated fatty acids, eggs, pork meats, chicken, and chicken products (r = -0.26 and P = 0.020) was inversely correlated with the levels of lead in human colostrum, whereas the intake of squash (r = 0.26; P = 0.019) and eggplant (r = 0.27; P = 0.015) was positively correlated with the levels of lead. The correlation observed for cooked squash, eggs, pork and chicken meats, and chicken products was maintained after logistic regression adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of lead was detected in human colostrum in this sample, probably as a result of dietary exposure. In addition to a correlation between presence of lead and dietary intake, the present findings suggest that specific nutrients may result in increased or decreased levels of lead, without a direct relationship with socioeconomic factors. <![CDATA[<b>Factors associated with incidence of dengue in Costa Rica</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892011000400004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Determinar el grado de influencia de diferentes variables socioeconómicas, demográficas, geográficas y climáticas con respecto a la incidencia de dengue y dengue hemorrágico (D/DH) en Costa Rica durante el período 1999-2007. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico de tipo correlacional, analizando la incidencia acumulada de D/DH desde 1999 a 2007 y su asociación con diferentes variables en los 81 cantones del país. La información se obtuvo de fuentes secundarias y las variables independientes usadas para el análisis se seleccionaron considerando su representatividad en cuanto a aspectos sociodemográficos, ambientales y de cobertura sanitaria que afectan a la epidemiología de D/DH. Estas variables se organizaron en cuatro grupos de indicadores: demográficos, socioeconómicos, de vivienda y climáticos y geográficos. Los datos se analizaron por medio de regresiones de Poisson simples y múltiples. RESULTADOS: Los cantones de Costa Rica con mayor incidencia de D/DH se localizaron principalmente cerca de las costas, coincidiendo con algunas de las variables estudiadas. La temperatura, la altitud y el índice de pobreza humana (IPH) fueron las variables más relevantes para explicar la incidencia de D/DH, en tanto que la temperatura fue la más significativa en los análisis múltiples. CONCLUSIONES: Los análisis permitieron relacionar una mayor incidencia de D/DH con cantones de menor altitud, mayor temperatura y un IPH elevado. Esta información es relevante como un primer paso para estratificar prioridades y optimizar acciones de prevención y control de esta enfermedad.<hr/>OBJECTIVE: Determine the extent to which socioeconomic, demographic, geographic, and climate variables affected the incidence of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever (D/DH) in Costa Rica during the period 1999-2007. METHODS: A correlational epidemiologic study was conducted that analyzed the cumulative incidence of D/DH from 1999 to 2007 and its association with different variables in the country's 81 cantons. Information was obtained from secondary sources, and the independent variables used for the analysis were selected on the basis of their representativeness in terms of sociodemographic, environmental, and health coverage factors that affect the epidemiology of D/DH. These variables were divided into four groups of indicators: demographic, socioeconomic, housing, and climate and geographical. The data were analyzed by means of simple and multiple Poisson regressions. RESULTS: The Costa Rican cantons with a higher incidence of D/DH were located primarily near the coast, coinciding with some of the variables studied. Temperature, altitude, and the human poverty index were the most relevant variables in explaining the incidence of D/DH, while temperature was the most significant variable in the multiple analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The analyses made it possible to correlate a higher incidence of D/DH with lower-altitude cantons, higher temperature, and a high human poverty index ranking. This information is relevant as a first step toward prioritizing and optimizing actions for the prevention and control of this disease. <![CDATA[<b>Outbreak of rubella after mass vaccination of children and adult women</b>: <b>challenges for rubella elimination strategies</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892011000400005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: To describe rubella outbreaks and control strategies in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul before rubella elimination. METHODS: We analyzed rubella and congenital rubella syndrome surveillance data for the state of Rio Grande do Sul and calculated age- and gender-specific incidence of confirmed rubella cases in 2007. We obtained data on measles-rubella doses administered during the outbreak from the state immunization program and reviewed the timing of suspect case notification and implementation of control measures. RESULTS: Of 2 842 confirmed rubella cases reported to the state health department in 2007, 2 145 (75.5%) were in males (39.5 cases per 100 000 population) and 697 (24.5%) were in females (12.3 per 100 000 population). Incidence among 15- to 39-year-olds was 1.8 to 5.5 times higher in males than in females. Rubella genotype 2B was detected in nasopharyngeal specimens from 13 patients from multiple chains of transmission. Eight children were born with congenital rubella syndrome (5.9 cases per 100 000 births in 2008). Delayed notification of initial cases hampered early control efforts, resulting in outbreak spread throughout the state. Rubella transmission was interrupted after mass vaccination of adult men and women as part of a national vaccination campaign. CONCLUSIONS: Routine vaccination strategies and mass vaccination of adolescents and adults for accelerated rubella control and elimination should target men and women.<hr/>OBJETIVO: Describir los brotes de rubéola y las estrategias para el control de la enfermedad anteriores a la eliminación de la rubéola en el estado brasileño de Rio Grande do Sul. MÉTODOS: Se analizaron los datos de vigilancia epidemiológica sobre la rubéola y el síndrome de rubéola congénita del estado de Rio Grande do Sul y se calculó la incidencia específica por edad y sexo de los casos confirmados de rubéola en el 2007. A partir del programa de vacunación estatal se obtuvieron datos sobre las dosis de vacunación antisarampionosa y antirrubeólica administradas durante el brote y se analizaron el momento de notificación de los casos sospechosos y la puesta en práctica de medidas de control. RESULTADOS: De los 2842 casos confirmados de rubéola notificados al departamento de salud estatal en el 2007, 2 145 (75,5%) correspondieron a hombres (39,5 casos por 100000 habitantes) y 697 (24,5%) a mujeres (12,3 por 100000 habitantes). La incidencia en las personas de 15 a 39 años de edad fue de 1,8 a 5,5 veces mayor en los varones que en las mujeres. En 13 pacientes provenientes de distintas cadenas de transmisión se detectó el genotipo 2B del virus de la rubéola en muestras obtenidas de la nasofaringe. Nacieron 8 niños con síndrome de rubéola congénita (5,9 casos por 100000 nacimientos en el 2008). La demora en la notificación de los casos iniciales obstaculizó la adopción temprana de medidas de control, lo que hizo que el brote se propagara a todo el estado. La transmisión de la rubéola se interrumpió después de la vacunación masiva de varones y mujeres adultos como parte de una campaña nacional de vacunación. CONCLUSIONES: Las estrategias de vacunación sistemática y la vacunación masiva de adolescentes y adultos tendientes a acelerar el control y la eliminación de la rubéola deben dirigirse tanto a varones como a mujeres. <![CDATA[<b>Adolescent health screening practices by physicians in Jamaica</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892011000400006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: To review Jamaican physicians' adolescent health screening practices by determining their frequency in areas of biomedical, psychological, social, and educational health; the factors that influence these practices; and physicians' perceived level of self-efficacy and their awareness of screening tools and guidelines. METHODS: A questionnaire was mailed to general practitioners, family medicine specialists, and pediatricians in Jamaica. The primary outcome variable was the frequency of physician screening for a range of biomedical, psychosocial, and educational developmental issues in the majority (> 50%) of adolescent patients. Bivariate analyses were performed to determine differences between professional groups. RESULTS: The response rate was 32.3% (n = 213), with 209 responders being suitable for further analysis. The sample comprised 48.8% general practitioners, 33.0% family medicine specialists, and 18.2% pediatricians. Physicians more often screened for biomedical risks than for psychosocial risks, with very low frequencies of screening for psychosocial issues such as mood, suicidal ideation, sexual orientation, and safety concerns. Physicians reported high levels of confidence in discussing most psychosocial issues with adolescent patients. Time limitation and an insufficient knowledge base were the main factors identified as influencing screening practices. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest unsatisfactory frequency of adolescent health screening by Jamaican physicians, in particular for psychosocial factors. The primary factors identified by physicians as influencing their screening practices have potential for improvement through continued medical education.<hr/>OBJETIVO: Analizar las prácticas de examen sistemático de la salud de los adolescentes por parte de los médicos de Jamaica mediante la determinación de la frecuencia con la que llevan a cabo reconocimientos sistemáticos de salud en las áreas biomédica, psicológica, social y educativa; los factores que afectan dichas prácticas sistemáticas; el nivel de autoeficacia percibida por los médicos respecto a ellas y su conocimiento de los instrumentos y las recomendaciones con respecto a los exámenes sistemáticos. MÉTODOS: Se envió por correo un cuestionario a médicos generales, especialistas en medicina familiar y pediatras de Jamaica. La principal variable de evaluación fue la frecuencia con la que los médicos llevan a cabo exámenes sistemáticos sobre varios aspectos biomédicos, psicosociales y del desarrollo educativo en la mayoría (> 50%) de los pacientes adolescentes. Se realizaron análisis bifactoriales a fin de establecer las diferencias entre los grupos de profesionales. RESULTADOS: La tasa de respuesta fue de 32,3% (n = 213) y se consideró que 209 participantes eran adecuados para el análisis posterior. En la muestra, 48,8% eran médicos generales, 33,0% eran especialistas en medicina familiar y 18,2% eran pediatras. Los médicos llevaban a cabo exámenes sistemáticos con más frecuencia para evaluar los riesgos biomédicos que los riesgos psicosociales, y los exámenes sobre aspectos psicosociales como el estado de ánimo, la presencia de ideas suicidas, la orientación sexual y temas relacionados con la seguridad se exploraron muy poco. Los médicos informaron altos niveles de confianza para tratar la mayoría de los temas psicosociales con los pacientes adolescentes. Los principales factores que afectaran las prácticas de examen sistemático fueron la falta de tiempo y la carencia de conocimientos suficientes. CONCLUSIONES: Los datos indican que la frecuencia con la que los médicos de Jamaica llevan a cabo prácticas de examen sistemático relacionadas con la salud de los adolescentes es insuficiente, en particular en lo que respecta a los factores psicosociales. Los principales factores que, según los médicos, afectan sus prácticas con respecto a este tema pueden mejorarse mediante programas de formación médica continua. <![CDATA[<b>Psychometric properties of a self-efficacy scale for physical activity in Brazilian adults</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892011000400007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Verificar a validade e a fidedignidade de uma escala de autoeficácia para a prática de atividade física (AF) em adultos brasileiros. MÉTODOS: A escala de autoeficácia foi aplicada juntamente com um questionário multidimensional face a face em 1 418 indivíduos (63,4% mulheres) com idade &gt; 18 anos. O instrumento foi submetido à análise de validade (fatorial e construto) e fidedignidade (consistência interna e estabilidade temporal). O procedimento de teste-reteste foi aplicado em 74 indivíduos para verificar a estabilidade temporal do instrumento. RESULTADOS: A análise fatorial exploratória apresentou dois fatores distintos: autoeficácia para a prática de caminhada e autoeficácia para a prática de AF moderada e vigorosa (AFMV). Ambos os fatores explicaram 65,4% da variância total da escala (20,9 e 44,5% para caminhada e AFMV, respectivamente). Foram obtidos valores de α = 0,83 (caminhada) e 0,90 (AFMV), que indicam elevada consistência interna. Ambos os fatores da escala apresentaram correlação positiva e significativa (rho &gt; 0,17; P < 0,001) com os indicadores de qualidade de vida (percepção de saúde, satisfação pessoal e disposição para as atividades diárias), indicando a adequada validade de construto do instrumento. CONCLUSÕES: A escala aplicada apresenta validade, consistência interna e reprodutibilidade adequadas para avaliar a autoeficácia para a prática de AF em adultos brasileiros.<hr/>OBJECTIVE: To test the validity and reliability of a self-efficacy scale for physical activity (PA) in Brazilian adults. METHODS: A self-efficacy scale was applied jointly with a multidimensional questionnaire through face-to-face interviews with 1418 individuals (63.4% women) aged &gt; 18 years. The scale was submitted to validity (factorial and construct) and reliability analysis (internal consistency and temporal stability). A test-retest procedure was conducted with 74 individuals to evaluate temporal stability. RESULTS: Exploratory factor analyses revealed two independent factors: self-efficacy for walking and self-efficacy for moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA). Together, these two factors explained 65.4% of the total variance of the scale (20.9% and 44.5% for walking and MVPA, respectively). Cronbach's alpha values were 0.83 for walking and 0.90 for MVPA, indicating high internal consistency. Both factors were significantly and positively correlated (rho &gt; 0.17, P < 0.001) with quality of life indicators (health perception, self-satisfaction, and energy for daily activities), indicating an adequate construct validity. CONCLUSIONS: The scale's validity, internal consistency, and reliability were adequate to evaluate self-efficacy for PA in Brazilian adults. <![CDATA[<b>Comparison of self-perceived weight and desired weight versus actual body mass index among adolescents in Jamaica</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892011000400008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: To compare self-perceived body size, desired body size, and actual body mass index (BMI) among adolescents in Jamaica, and to discuss the implications of these perceptions for chronic disease prevention. METHODS: A total of 276 Jamaican adolescents 14-19 years of age, randomly selected from grades 9-12 at 10 high schools participated in the study, which was conducted in October 2007. The perceived and desired BMI were measured using a silhouette of body figures representing nine BMI categories for males and females; these were compared to participants' actual BMI. RESULTS: Mean age was 15.6 ± 1.2 years. Actual BMI values classified 24.6% of the participants as underweight; 39.9% as normal; 14.5% as overweight; and 21% as obese. There were significant differences between participants' actual and perceived BMI (P < 0.01), actual and desired BMI (P < 0.01), and perceived and desired BMI (P < 0.01). Gender was significantly different for actual (P < 0.05), perceived, and desired BMI (P < 0.01). Females had significantly higher actual mean BMI than males (P < 0.05). Adolescent males perceived themselves as having a higher BMI and a desired higher BMI than females. There were no differences among ethnicity, age, place of residence, and socioeconomic status on the actual, perceived, and desired BMI in this study population (P &gt; 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Females had higher actual BMI and lower perceived BMI than males. Jamaican adolescents, irrespective of ethnicity, age, place of residence, and socioeconomic status, had similar BMI. Interventions are needed to improve knowledge of a healthy body weight and the relationships among body weight, lifestyle choices, and the implications of excess body weight on chronic diseases.<hr/>OBJETIVO: Comparar el tamaño corporal autopercibido, el tamaño corporal deseado y el índice de masa corporal real (IMC) en adolescentes de Jamaica y analizar las implicaciones de dichas percepciones en la prevención de las enfermedades crónicas. MÉTODOS: El estudio se realizó en octubre del 2007 y participaron 276 adolescentes jamaiquinos de 14 a 19 años de edad, seleccionados aleatoriamente entre los grados 9 y 12 de 10 escuelas secundarias. Se midió el IMC percibido y el deseado usando figuras con una silueta corporal que representaban nueve categorías del IMC para hombres y mujeres, y se compararon con el IMC real de los participantes. RESULTADOS: La media de la edad fue de 15,6 ± 1,2 años. De acuerdo con los valores reales del IMC, 24,6% de los participantes se clasificaron como con peso inferior al normal; 39.9%, como normales; 14,5%, como con sobrepeso; y 21%, como obesos. Hubo diferencias significativas entre el IMC real y el percibido (P < 0,01), entre el IMC real y el deseado (P < 0,01) y entre el IMC percibido y el deseado (P < 0,01). El sexo constituyó una diferencia significativa para el IMC real (P < 0,05), percibido y deseado (P < 0,01). Las mujeres tenían un IMC real medio significativamente mayor que los hombres (P < 0,05). Los adolescentes varones se autopercibían como con un IMC mayor y un IMC deseado mayor que las mujeres. No hubo diferencias en cuanto al grupo étnico, la edad, el lugar de residencia y la situación socioeconómica en el IMC real, percibido y deseado en esta población de estudio (P &gt; 0,05). CONCLUSIONES: Las mujeres tenían un IMC real mayor y un IMC percibido menor que los hombres. Los adolescentes jamaiquinos tenían un IMC similar, independientemente de su grupo étnico, edad, lugar de residencia o situación socioeconómica. Es necesario realizar intervenciones para mejorar los conocimientos sobre el peso corporal saludable y sobre la relación entre el peso corporal, las opciones de modos de vida y las implicaciones del peso corporal excesivo en las enfermedades crónicas. <![CDATA[<b>Nutritional status in children younger than 24 months in Alagoas, Brazil</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892011000400009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en O objetivo deste estudo retrospectivo e transversal foi comparar a avaliação nutricional de crianças atendidas no ambulatório de puericultura do Hospital Universitário em Alagoas, Brasil, utilizando as curvas de crescimento de referência do National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) de 1977 e o padrão da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) de 2006. Foram analisados 252 prontuários de crianças menores de 24 meses e determinados comprimento para idade, peso para idade e peso para comprimento utilizando as duas curvas. A população era de baixo nível socioeconômico e recebia amamentação exclusiva ou predominante. Os escores Z para ambas as curvas indicaram que as crianças na amostra eram eutróficas, mas as curvas da OMS foram mais sensíveis para detectar desvios de crescimento nos primeiros 6 meses de vida.<hr/>The aim of this retrospective, cross-sectional study was to compare the 1977 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and the 2006 World Health Organization (WHO) growth standards to determine the nutritional status of children attending the pediatric outpatient clinic at a university hospital in Alagoas, Brazil. We reviewed 252 hospital charts of children younger than 24 months and determined the height-for-age, weight-for-age, and weight-for-height using the two standards. The sample was of low socioeconomic level and exclusively or predominantly breastfed children. TheZ-scores for both standards indicated that the children in this sample were healthy, but the WHO standard was more sensitive for the detection of growth limitations in the first 6 months of life. <![CDATA[<b>Second Clinical Consensus of the Ibero-American Society of Neonatology</b>: <b>hemodynamic management of newborns</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892011000400010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Este trabajo informa acerca del proceso y los resultados del Segundo Consenso Clínico de la SIBEN (Sociedad Iberoamericana de Neonatología), en el cual 80 neonatólogos de 23 países fueron invitados a participar y colaborar. Se desarrollaron varias preguntas de importancia clínico-fisiológica sobre el manejo hemodinámico del recién nacido. Los participantes fueron distribuidos en grupos, facilitando así la interacción y el trabajo conjunto, con la consigna de responder de tres a cinco preguntas mediante el análisis de bibliografía y factores locales. El Grupo de Consenso se reunió en Mar del Plata, Argentina, donde se llevaron a cabo diversas ponencias, debates y presentaciones. En total participaron 54 neonatólogos de 21 países, con el objetivo de desarrollar un consenso sobre aspectos que incluyeron conceptos y definiciones de inestabilidad hemodinámica, la fisiopatología del cuadro de compromiso hemodinámico, las estrategias terapéuticas recomendadas y el monitoreo hemodinámico. Se espera que esta experiencia internacional sirva como una iniciativa útil tanto para la búsqueda de futuros consensos como para reducir las disparidades existentes entre los tratamientos y resultados de los diferentes países de la Región.<hr/>This study reports on the process and results of the Second Clinical Consensus of the Ibero-American Society of Neonatology. Eighty neonatologists from 23 countries were invited to collaborate and participate in the event. Several questions of clinical-physiological importance in the hemodynamic management of newborns were addressed. Participants were divided into groups to facilitate interaction and teamwork, with instructions to respond to three to five questions by analyzing the literature and local factors. Meeting in Mar del Plata, Argentina, the Consensus Group served as a form for various presentations and discussions. In all, 54 neonatologists from 21 countries attended, with the objective of reaching a consensus on such matters as concepts and definitions of hemodynamic instability, the physiopathology of hemodynamic compromise, recommended therapy strategies, and hemodynamic monitoring. It is hoped that this international experience will serve as a useful initiative for future consensus building and reduction of the existing disparities among the countries of the Region in terms of treatment and outcomes.