Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública]]> http://www.scielosp.org/rss.php?pid=1020-498920120004&lang=en vol. 31 num. 4 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielosp.org/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielosp.org <![CDATA[<b>Model to estimate epidemic patterns of influenza A (H1N1) in Mexico</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892012000400001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Aplicar un modelo matemático para estimar el comportamiento epidémico de la influenza A (H1N1) en México durante las etapas de aplicación y suspensión de medidas para mitigar la epidemia. MÉTODOS: Se estimó el número reproductivo efectivo (R) para cada estado de México mediante el modelo SIR (individuos susceptibles, infectados y removidos) durante y después de la aplicación de las medidas de distanciamiento social a partir de los datos publicados por la Secretaría de Salud de México. RESULTADOS: Desde el inicio del brote hasta la suspensión de actividades escolares (28 de abril al 13 de mayo del 2009), la mediana nacional de R fue de 1,13. En el período posterior (14 de mayo al 17 de julio del 2009) la mediana nacional de R disminuyó a 1,01. CONCLUSIONES: Se demostró que se presentaron diversos escenarios de la epidemia a nivel nacional. Se sugiere tener en cuenta el comportamiento heterogéneo a nivel estatal para la toma de decisiones sobre la adopción de medidas para mitigar epidemias de influenza.<hr/>OBJECTIVE: Apply a mathematical model to estimate the epidemic patterns of influenza A (H1N1) in Mexico during the stages of application and suspension of measures to mitigate the epidemic. METHODS: The effective reproductive number (R) for each state of Mexico during and after the application of social distancing measures was estimated by the SIR model (susceptible, infected, and recovered individuals) based on data published by the Ministry of Health of Mexico. RESULTS: From the beginning of the outbreak until suspension of school activities (28 April-13 May 2009), the national median of R was 1.13. In the following period (14 May-17 July 2009) the national median of R decreased to 1.01. CONCLUSIONS: It was demonstrated that several epidemic scenarios occurred at the national level. It is suggested that heterogeneous patterns at the state level be taken into account in decision-making on the adoption of measures to mitigate influenza epidemics. <![CDATA[<b>Comparison of crude and adjusted mortality rates from leading causes of death in northeastern Brazil</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892012000400002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: To present how the adjustment of incompleteness and misclassification of causes of death in the vital registration (VR) system can contribute to more accurate estimates of the risk of mortality from leading causes of death in northeastern Brazil. METHODS: After estimating the total numbers of deaths by age and sex in Brazil's Northeast region in 2002-2004 by correcting for undercount in the VR data, adjustment algorithms were applied to the reported cause-of-death structure. Average anual age-standardized mortality rates were computed by cause, with and without the corrections, and compared to death rates for Brazil's South region after adjustments for potential misdiagnosis. RESULTS: Death rates from ischemic heart disease, lower respiratory infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and perinatal conditions were more than 100% higher for both sexes than what was suggested by the routine VR data. Corrected cause-specific mortality rates were higher in the Northeast region versus the South region for the majority of causes of death, including several noncommunicable conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Failure to adjust VR data for undercount of cases reported and misdiagnoses will cause underestimation of mortality risks for the populations of the Northeast region, which are more vulnerable than those in other regions of the country. In order to more reliably understand the pattern of disease, all cause-specific mortality rates in poor populations should be adjusted.<hr/>OBJETIVO: Presentar de qué manera el ajuste de los datos incompletos y de la clasificación errónea de las causas de muerte registradas en el sistema del registro civil puede ayudar a estimar los riesgos de mortalidad debida a las principales causas de muerte en el nordeste del Brasil. MÉTODOS: Después de calcular el número total de defunciones por edad y sexo en el nordeste del Brasil entre 2002 y 2004 mediante la corrección del subregistro de los datos del registro civil, se aplicaron algoritmos de ajuste a la estructura de las causas de defunción notificadas. Las tasas de mortalidad promedio anuales estandarizadas por edades se calcularon según la causa, con y sin las correcciones, y se compararon con las tasas de mortalidad de la región meridional del Brasil después de efectuar un ajuste de los posibles diagnósticos erróneos. RESULTADOS: Las tasas de mortalidad debidas a cardiopatía isquémica, infecciones de las vías respiratorias inferiores, enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica y enfermedades perinatales fueron más de 100% mayores para ambos sexos que las sugeridas por los datos habituales del registro civil. Las tasas de mortalidad corregidas por causa específica fueron mayores en la región del nordeste que en la región meridional para la mayoría de las causas de muerte, incluso para varias enfermedades no transmisibles. CONCLUSIONES: La falta de ajuste de los datos del registro civil para compensar el subregistro de los casos notificados y los diagnósticos erróneos ocasionará una subestimación del riesgo de mortalidad para las poblaciones de la región del nordeste, más vulnerables que las de otras regiones del país. Para comprender de manera más fiable el patrón de las enfermedades, en las poblaciones pobres deben ajustarse todas las tasas de mortalidad por causa específica. <![CDATA[<b>Evolution of consumption of high-cost drugs in Colombia</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892012000400003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Determinar el comportamiento del consumo de medicamentos de alto costo (MAC) durante 2005-2010 en una población de pacientes colombianos afiliados al Sistema General de Seguridad Social en Salud. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo observacional; se analizaron datos de prescripción de fórmulas dispensadas desde 2005 a 2010 a todos los usuarios (1 ;674 517) de algún medicamento considerado de alto costo en 20 ciudades de Colombia. Se consideró la clasificación anatómica terapéutica y el número de pacientes, así como la facturación mensual por cada medicamento, la dosis diaria definida y el costo por 1 000 habitantes/día. RESULTADOS: En todo el período de estudio, el valor facturado por MAC creció 847,4%. Los antineoplásicos e inmunomoduladores constituyeron 46,3% del total facturado, antinfecciosos 15,2%, preparaciones hormonales sistémicas 9,5% y fármacos para el sistema nervioso 9,1%. La mayoría de estos medicamentos fueron prescritos a las dosis diarias definidas recomendadas por la Organización Mundial de Salud, pero con altos costos por 1 000 habitantes y día. CONCLUSIONES: En Colombia durante los últimos años se ha presentado una crisis debida al elevado gasto generado por los medicamentos más costosos. El crecimiento progresivo del gasto farmacéutico es mayor que el aumento de la cobertura del sistema sanitario del país. El sistema sanitario colombiano debe evaluar cuánto está dispuesto a pagar por los medicamentos más costosos para algunas morbilidades y qué estrategias debe implementar para sufragar estos gastos y así garantizar el acceso a los asegurados.<hr/>OBJECTIVE: Determine the patterns of consumption of high-cost drugs (HCD) during the 2005-2010 period in a population of Colombian patients enrolled in the General System of Social Security in Health. METHODS: An observational descriptive study was conducted. The prescription data of formulas of any drug considered to be high-cost dispensed to all users (1 674 517) in 20 cities of Colombia between 2005 and 2010 were analyzed. The anatomical therapeutic classification was considered, and the number of patients as well as monthly invoicing for each drug, the daily dose defined, and the cost per 1 ;000 inhabitants/day were defined. RESULTS: Over the entire study period, the amount invoiced for HCDs increased by 847.4%. Antineoplastic and immunomodulator drugs accounted for 46.3% of the total invoicing. The other drugs were anti-infectives (15.2%), systemic hormonal preparations (9.5%), and drugs for the nervous system (9.1%). Most of these drugs were prescribed at the daily doses defined as recommended by the World Health Organization, but with high costs per 1000 inhabitants/day. CONCLUSIONS: In Colombia a crisis has occurred in recent years due to the high spending generated by the most expensive drugs. The progressive growth of pharmaceutical spending is greater than the increased coverage by the country's health system. The Colombian health system should evaluate how much it is willing to pay for the most expensive drugs for some diseases and what strategies should be implemented to cover these expenses and thus guarantee access to the insured. <![CDATA[<b>Agroecology and health promotion in Brazil</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892012000400004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Pesquisar como os especialistas da promoção de saúde e da agroecologia compreendem os conceitos dessas áreas de diretrizes comuns e como é concebida a relação entre tais conceitos. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa qualitativa. Foram realizadas entrevistas com 14 especialistas das duas áreas sobre relações entre sistema agroalimentar e saúde; conceitos de agroecologia e promoção da saúde; relevância da inserção da agroecologia nos cursos de formação de saúde pública e vice-versa. RESULTADOS: Existe pouco diálogo entre os campos de estudo que foram considerados afins, sendo a qualidade do alimento a principal interface entre as áreas. A agroecologia apareceu como um sistema de produção de alimentos saudáveis, mas o estudo mostrou outras relações: agroecologia e empowerment, fomento à autonomia e qualidade de vida e melhores condições socioeconômicas para o agricultor; agroecologia e saúde ambiental; agroecologia e participação social; agroecologia, territorialidade e resgate cultural; agroecologia, alimentos locais e baixo custo produtivo. Já a promoção de saúde foi essencialmente relacionada a práticas voltadas à manutenção de estilos de vida saudável. Os especialistas mostraram-se favoráveis à inserção de conhecimentos da área da saúde pública na agroecologia e vice-versa. CONCLUSÕES: A agroecologia e a promoção da saúde são áreas contributivas e complementares, cuja aproximação pode vir a enriquecer a discussão da saúde rural e a concepção das políticas públicas que se debruçam sobre essa temática, estimulando intervenções e práticas intersetoriais.<hr/>OBJECTIVE: Research how specialists in health promotion and agroecology understand the concepts in those areas of common guidelines and how the relationship between such concepts is conceived. METHODS. Qualitative research. Fourteen specialists in the two areas were interviewed about the relationship between the agrofood system and health, concepts of agroecology and health promotion, and the relevance of including agroecology in public health training courses and vice-versa. RESULTS: There is little dialogue between the fields of study that were considered similar, food quality being the main interface between the areas. agroecology appeared to be a system of healthy food production, but the study showed other connections: agroecology and empowerment, a spur to autonomy and quality of life, and better socioeconomic conditions for the farmer; agroecology and environmental health; agroecology and community involvement; agroecology, territoriality, and cultural rescue [translator's note: this is a term for measures taken to revitalize or preserve imperiled indigenous cultures]; and agroecology, local foods, and low costs of production. Health promotion already was linked in effect to practices oriented to healthy lifestyles. The specialists appeared favorable toward including knowledge about public health in agroecology and vice-versa. CONCLUSIONS: Agroecology and health promotion contribute to one another and are complementary, and bringing them closer together can lead to an enriched discussion about rural health and the concept of public policies that focus on this theme, thereby stimulating actions for improvement and intersectoral practices. <![CDATA[<b>Lead exposure among children from native communities of the Peruvian Amazon basin</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892012000400005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: To assess potential risk factors associated with elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) among children in two communities from the Corrientes River basin in the Peruvian Amazon. METHODS: Children aged 0-17 years were screened for BLLs, hemoglobin levels, and anthropometric measures. Dwelling, family, and child data were collected through a parental questionnaire. Statistical analysis included descriptive and bivariate analysis. Multiple linear and logistic regressions using generalized estimating equations were also conducted to determine associated risk factors. A map of each community was drawn to examine the spatial distribution of BLLs. RESULTS: Of 208 children (88 from 23 households of the Peruanito community and 120 from 28 households of Santa Isabel), 27.4% had BLLs &gt; 10 µg/dL. The geometric mean (± standard deviation) BLL was 8.7 ± 4.0 µg/dL (range 3.0-26.8 µg/dL). In the total population, linear regression analysis indicated that age was positively associated with BLLs (P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that boys had 2.12 times greater odds of having BLLs &gt; 10 µg/dL than girls (P < 0.05). Among the children 0-3 years, those whose mothers had BLLs &gt; 10 µg/dL had 45.0% higher odds of presenting BLLs &gt; 10 µg/dL than children whose mothers had BLLs < 10 µg/dL (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Older age, male gender, and mothers' BLL &gt; 10 µg/dL were the main risk factors for elevated BLLs. The higher risk in boys 7-17 years suggests that exposure could be related to specific activities in this group, such as fishing and hunting. Continuous monitoring of BLLs in the Corrientes River population is recommended.<hr/>OBJETIVO: Evaluar los potenciales factores de riesgo asociados con niveles elevados de plomo en sangre (Pbs) en niños de dos comunidades de la cuenca del río Corrientes en la Amazonia peruana. MÉTODOS: Se estudiaron de manera sistemática los niveles de PbS, la concentración de hemoglobina y las medidas antropométricas en niños de 0 a 17 años. A través de un cuestionario efectuado a los padres se recopilaron datos sobre la vivienda, la familia y los niños. El análisis estadístico incluyó el análisis descriptivo y de dos variables. También se llevaron a cabo análisis de regresión logística y lineal múltiple usando ecuaciones predictivas generales para determinar los factores de riesgo asociados. Se trazó un mapa de cada comunidad para examinar la distribución espacial de los niveles de PbS. RESULTADOS: De 208 niños (88 de 23 hogares de la comunidad de Peruanito y 120 de 28 hogares de Santa Isabel), 27,4% presentaron niveles de PbS &gt; 10 µg/dL. La media geométrica (± desviación estándar) de los niveles de PbS fue 8,7 µg/dL ± 4,0 (amplitud 3,0 a 26,8 µg/dL). En la población total, el análisis de regresión lineal indicó que la edad se asociaba de manera positiva con los niveles de PbS (P < 0,05). El análisis de regresión logística demostró que los varones presentaron una probabilidad 2,12 veces mayor de tener niveles de PbS &gt; 10 µg/dL que las niñas (P < 0,05). En los niños de ambos sexos de 0 a 3 años, aquellos cuyas madres tuvieron niveles de PbS &gt; 10 µg/dL presentaron 45,0% más probabilidades de exhibir niveles de PbS &gt; 10 µg/dL que los niños cuyas madres tuvieron niveles de PbS < 10 µg/dL (P < 0,05). CONCLUSIONES: La mayor edad, el sexo masculino y niveles maternos de PbS &gt; 10 µg/dL fueron los principales factores de riesgo de presentar niveles elevados de PbS. El mayor riesgo en los varones de 7 a 17 años sugiere que en este grupo la exposición podría relacionarse con actividades específicas, como la pesca y la caza. Se recomienda llevar a cabo una vigilancia continua de los niveles de PbS en la población de la cuenca del río Corrientes. <![CDATA[<b>Prevalence of grade retention and associated factors among adolescents from the 1993 Pelotas, Brazil, birth cohort</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892012000400006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Avaliar a ocorrência de retenção escolar até os 11 anos de idade e os fatores associados à retenção. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo, incluindo 4 452 adolescentes da coorte de nascidos em Pelotas, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, em 1993. A amostra representa 87,5% da coorte original. A retenção escolar foi definida como a repetição de pelo menos uma série escolar até a data da entrevista. As variáveis independentes analisadas foram: sexo, cor da pele, peso ao nascer, índice de bens, idade e escolaridade materna, tipo de escola (privada, estadual ou municipal), idade de ingresso na escola e trabalho. RESULTADOS: A frequência de retenção escolar foi de 36,3%, sendo de 42,8% entre os meninos e 30,0% entre as meninas. Na análise ajustada, quanto menor a escolaridade da mãe, o índice de bens e o peso ao nascer, maior foi o risco de retenção escolar em ambos os sexos. Adolescentes cuja cor da pele era parda/preta, aqueles que frequentavam escolas públicas e aqueles que ingressaram na escola com 7 anos ou mais apresentaram maior risco de retenção escolar. Apenas entre os meninos, o trabalho infantil esteve associado com a ocorrência de retenção. CONCLUSÕES: O baixo nível socioeconômico e a baixa escolaridade materna foram os fatores mais fortemente associados com a retenção escolar. Estratégias para a redução desse evento devem levar em consideração características demográficas e socioeconômicas.<hr/>OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the occurrence of grade retention until 11 years of age and the factors associated with retention. METHODS: This prospective study included 4 452 adolescents from the 1993 city of Pelotas birth cohort (state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil). This sample represents 87.5% of the original cohort. Grade retention was defined as the repetition of at least one school grade until the date of the interview. The following independent variables were analyzed: sex, skin color, birth weight, ownership of goods, age, maternal schooling, type of school (private, state, or city), age at school entry, and employment. RESULTS: The overall frequency of grade retention was 36.3%, vs. 42.8% for boys and 30.0% for girls. The adjusted analysis showed that the lower the level of maternal schooling, ownership of goods, and birth weight, the higher the risk of grade retention for both boys and girls. Black/brown adolescents, those studying in public schools, and those who were 7 years of age or older at school entry had a higher risk of grade retention. For boys, childhood labor was associated with grade retention. CONCLUSIONS: Low socioeconomic and low maternal schooling levels were the factors most strongly associated with grade retention. Strategies to reduce this situation must take into account demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. <![CDATA[<b>Out-of-pocket health spending</b>: <b>the case of Chile, 1997 and 2007</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892012000400007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Determinar el impacto, las características y los cambios del gasto de bolsillo en salud de los hogares en Chile entre 1997 y 2007. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo y econométrico basado en encuestas de hogares con información transversal sobre gasto en dos años -1997 y 2007- para el Gran Santiago. Se revisa la evolución de indicadores del gasto por quintiles de gasto per cápita del hogar. Se utiliza la metodología propuesta por la Organización Mundial de la Salud para el análisis econométrico de los determinantes del gasto de bolsillo y del gasto catastrófico. También se calculan índices Gini para el análisis de equidad. RESULTADOS: El gasto de bolsillo en salud de los hogares del Gran Santiago aumentó significativamente (39,5% per cápita). La razón de gasto en salud del quintil 5 respecto al 1 disminuyó, pero en razón de que el aumento fue menor en el quintil 5. El gasto de bolsillo en 2007 sigue estando determinado por la presencia de grupos de riesgo: menores de 5 años de edad y, aunque en menor medida, mayores a 65 años. El gasto catastrófico disminuyó levemente y la presencia de adultos mayores persiste en aumentar dicho riesgo. La presencia de mujeres en edad fértil tiende a ser un atenuador del gasto de bolsillo. CONCLUSIONES: El gasto de bolsillo en salud de los hogares ha crecido y es alto, y su influencia en la desigualdad sigue siendo significativo. Se detectan efectos de programas como el AUGE en la contención del gasto de bolsillo, pero se necesitan nuevas políticas de protección financiera que ataquen el problema.<hr/>OBJECTIVE: Determine the impact, characteristics, and changes in out-of-pocket health spending of households in Chile in 1997 and 2007. METHODS: A descriptive econometric study was conducted based on household surveys with cross-sectional information on spending in two years-1997 and 2007-for Greater Santiago. The evolution of indicators of per capita household spending by quintile was reviewed. The method proposed by the World Health Organization was used for econometric analysis of the determinants of out-of-pocket spending and catastrophic spending. The Gini indices were also calculated to analyze equity. RESULTS: Out-of-pocket health spending in the households of Greater Santiago increased significantly (39.5% per capita). The ratio of health spending in quintile 5 compared to quintile 1 decreased, but the increase in spending was less in quintile 5. In 2007, out-of-pocket spending was still determined by the presence of risk groups: under 5 years and, although to a lesser extent, over 65 years of age. Catastrophic spending decreased slightly and the presence of older adults continues to increase this risk. The presence of women of childbearing age tends to minimize out-of-pocket spending. CONCLUSIONS: Out-of-pocket health spending in the households is high and has increased. It continues to have a significant influence on inequality. The effects of out-of-pocket spending containment programs such as AUGE are evident, but new financial protection policies that address the problem are needed. <![CDATA[<b>Coronary heart disease mortality in China</b>: <b>age, gender, and urban-rural gaps during epidemiological transition</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892012000400008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: To examine and describe coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality and its pattern of change (trend) by sex, age, and area of residence (urban versus rural) in Tianjin, China, within the context of epidemiological transition, and compare it with current trends in the Americas and Europe. METHODS: A total of 104 393 cases of CHD death in Tianjin occurring between 1999 and 2008 were monitored. Death due to CHD was coded using International Classification of Diseases (ICD) standards (ninth and tenth revisions). Standardized CHD mortality rates and their trends were analyzed by age, sex, and urban versus rural residence. RESULTS: During the 10-year study period, the proportion of total deaths due to CHD in Tianjin increased significantly (from 16% to 24%) and age-standardized CHD mortality increased slightly (with no statistical differences), in contrast to CHD mortality trends in various countries in the Americas and Europe, which are declining. No difference was found in Tianjin's CHD mortality trend by sex. Overall CHD mortality was consistently higher among older age groups, males, and residents of urban areas. The proportion of CHD deaths occurring outside hospitals was 55.81%, with a declining trend over the study period. Rural areas had a higher proportion of outside-hospital CHD mortality than urban areas, but no difference was found across age groups. CONCLUSIONS: From 1999 to 2008, CHD mortality in Tianjin varied by sex, age, and urban versus rural area of residence. Future research to identify CHD risk factors and the populations most vulnerable to the disease is recommended to help strengthen CHD prevention. Strategies for CHD control similar to those used in various developed countries in the Americas and Europe should be developed to reduce the CHD burden in China.<hr/>OBJETIVO: Examinar y describir la mortalidad por cardiopatía coronaria y su patrón de cambio (tendencia) por sexo, edad y zona de residencia (urbana frente a rural) en Tianjín, China, en el contexto de la transición epidemiológica, y compararla con las tendencias actuales en las Américas y Europa. MÉTODOS: Se analizaron 104 393 casos de muertes debidas a cardiopatía coronaria ocurridas en Tianjín entre 1999 y 2008. Se codificó la mortalidad debida a cardiopatía coronaria según la Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades (novena y décima revisiones). Se analizaron las tasas estandarizadas de mortalidad por cardiopatía coronaria y sus tendencias por edad, sexo y residencia urbana frente a rural. RESULTADOS: Durante el período de estudio, de 10 años, la proporción de la mortalidad total debida a cardiopatía coronaria registrada en Tianjín aumentó significativamente (de 16% a 24%) y la mortalidad por cardiopatía coronaria estandarizada por edad aumentó levemente (sin significación estadística), en contraposición con las tendencias de mortalidad por cardiopatía coronaria observadas en diversos países de las Américas y Europa, que están descendiendo. No se encontraron diferencias en la tendencia de la mortalidad por cardiopatía coronaria por sexo en Tianjín. La mortalidad general por cardiopatía coronaria fue sistemáticamente más elevada en los grupos de mayor edad, los varones y los residentes de zonas urbanas. La proporción de muertes debidas a cardiopatía coronaria que ocurrieron fuera de los hospitales fue de 55,81%, con una tendencia decreciente en el período de estudio. Esta proporción fue mayor en las zonas rurales que en las urbanas, pero no se encontró diferencia entre los distintos grupos de edad. CONCLUSIONES: Desde 1999 hasta el 2008, la mortalidad por cardiopatía coronaria en Tianjín varió según el sexo, la edad y la residencia urbana frente a la rural. Se recomienda efectuar nuevas investigaciones para identificar los factores de riesgo de cardiopatía coronaria y las poblaciones más vulnerables a la enfermedad, a fin de mejorar la prevención de la cardiopatía coronaria. Deben elaborarse estrategias para controlar la enfermedad similares a las usadas en varios países desarrollados de las Américas y Europa para reducir la carga de cardiopatía coronaria en China. <![CDATA[<b>Economic benefits of the cochlear implant for treating profound sensorineural hearing loss</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892012000400009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Evaluar el costo-beneficio (CB), costo-utilidad (CU) y costo-efectividad (CE) de la implantación coclear, comparándola con el uso de audífonos en niños con hipoacusia sensorineural profunda bilateral. MÉTODOS: Se empleó la técnica no paramétrica Propensity Score Matching (PSM) para realizar la evaluación de impacto económico del implante y así llevar a cabo los análisis CB, CU y CE. Se utilizó información primaria, tomada aleatoriamente a 100 pacientes: 62 intervenidos quirúrgicamente con el implante coclear (grupo de tratamiento) y 38 pertenecientes al grupo de control o usuarios de audífono para tratar la hipoacusia sensorineural profunda. RESULTADOS: Se halló un diferencial de costos económicos -en beneficio del implante coclear- cercano a US$ 204 000 entre el implante y el uso de audífonos durante la esperanza de vida de los pacientes analizados. Dicha cifra indica los mayores gastos que deben cubrir los pacientes con audífono. Con este valor descontado, el indicador costo-beneficio señala que por cada dólar invertido en el implante coclear, para tratar al paciente, el retorno de la inversión es US$ 2,07. CONCLUSIONES: El implante coclear genera beneficios económicos para el paciente. También produce utilidades en salud dado que se encontró una relación positiva de CU (ganancia en decibeles) y CE (ganancia en discriminación del lenguaje).<hr/>OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the cost-benefit, cost-utility, and cost-effectiveness of cochlear implantation, comparing it to the use of hearing aids in children with profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. METHODS: The nonparametric propensity score matching method was used to carry out an economic and impact assessment of the cochlear implant and then perform cost-benefit, cost-utility, and cost-effectiveness analyses. Primary information was used, taken randomly from 100 patients: 62 who received cochlear implants (treatment group) and 38 belonging to the control group who used hearing aids to treat profound sensorineural hearing loss. RESULTS: An economic cost differential was found-to the advantage of the cochlear implant-of close to US$ 204 000 between the implant and the use of hearing aids over the expected life span of the patients analyzed. This amount refers to the greater expenses that hearing-aid patients will have. With this adjusted figure, the cost-benefit indicator shows that for each dollar invested to treat the cochlear-implant patient, there is a return on the investment of US$ 2.07. CONCLUSIONS: The cochlear implant produces economic benefits for the patient. It also produces health utilities since positive cost-utility (gain in decibels) and cost-effectiveness (gain in language discrimination) ratios were found. <![CDATA[<b>Interventions to reduce salt consumption through labeling</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892012000400010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Determinar el grado en que el etiquetado de productos alimentarios informa acerca del consumo de sal. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un análisis crítico y sistemático de 9 estudios -seleccionados de un total de 133- recogidos mediante revisión de la literatura científica sobre las intervenciones realizadas en población humana orientadas a reducir el consumo de sal a través de mensajes en el etiquetado. Toda la información se obtuvo mediante consulta directa y vía Internet a la literatura científica recogida en varias bases de datos. RESULTADOS: De los 133 artículos recuperados, una vez aplicados los criterios de inclusión y exclusión, se seleccionaron para la revisión 9 trabajos: en todos ellos se planteaba a la población en estudio su conocimiento acerca de la interpretación de la etiqueta sobre el contenido de sal de los alimentos. CONCLUSIONES: Los consumidores de alimentos entienden y valoran más a los logotipos que a la composición nutricional que figura en la etiqueta. Se justificaría entonces el uso de logotipos alternativos que facilitaran esta información y que además fueran normalizados. Esta situación se ve reforzada porque la inclusión de símbolos fácilmente entendibles favorece la correcta elección por parte de los consumidores.<hr/>OBJECTIVE: Determine the extent to which labeling of food products informs about salt consumption. METHODS: A critical and systematic analysis was conducted of 9 studies selected out of a total of 133 studies. The studies were collected by reviewing the scientific literature on interventions conducted in the human population aimed towards reducing salt consumption through label messaging. All of the information was obtained by direct consultation and by Internet from the scientific literature collected in several databases. RESULTS: Out of the 133 articles recovered, after the inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, 9 studies were selected for review. All of them took into account the ability of the study population to interpret and understand salt content labeling in foods. CONCLUSIONS: Food consumers understand and value easily recognizable logos more than the information found on nutritional composition labels. Therefore, use of alternative logos that facilitate this information and are also standardized could be justified. This situation is reinforced because the inclusion of symbols that are easily understandable favors the most adequate choice by consumers. <![CDATA[<b>Identification of ICF participation categories in quality-of-life instruments utilized in cerebrovascular accident victims</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892012000400011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Identificar categorias do componente de participação da Classificação Internacional de Funcionalidade, Incapacidade e Saúde (CIF) que já foram sistematicamente relacionadas aos instrumentos de Qualidade de Vida Relacionada à Saúde (QVRS) comumente utilizados em indivíduos acometidos pelo acidente vascular encefálico (AVE) - Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) e Stroke Specific Quality of Life (SS-QOL) - e sugerir a utilização dos mesmos para avaliar e/ou caracterizar tal componente nessa população. MÉTODOS: Por meio de busca nas bases de dados Medline, SciELO e Lilacs, foi realizado levantamento dos estudos que associavam os conceitos mensurados pelos itens do NHP, SF-36 e SS-QOL com os componentes e categorias da CIF. RESULTADOS: Dos 24 estudos identificados, quatro atenderam aos critérios estabelecidos: dois avaliaram os três instrumentos de QVRS, um avaliou o NHP e SF-36, e outro apenas o SS-QOL. Para cada instrumento, foram encontrados três estudos que associaram seus conceitos até, no mínimo, o segundo nível de hierarquia das categorias da CIF. Considerando os resultados concordantes entre os três estudos que avaliaram o mesmo instrumento, nove categorias de participação foram associadas ao NHP, sete ao SF-36 e 15 ao SS-QOL, sendo que apenas uma foi específica para o NHP, uma para o SF-36, e sete para o SS-QOL. CONCLUSÕES: Para a avaliação da participação de indivíduos acometidos pelo AVE segundo a estrutura da CIF, o SS-QOL pareceu ser o instrumento mais adequado, pois, além de avaliar o maior número de categorias, também avalia o maior número de categorias distintas quando comparado aos outros dois instrumentos de QVRS, que acrescentam apenas uma categoria àquelas mensuradas pelo SS-QOL.<hr/>OBJECTIVE: To identify the categories of the participation component of the International Classification of Functionality, Incapacity, and Health (ICF) which are currently related to Health-related Quality of Life (HRQOL) instruments commonly used in cerebrovascular accident (CVA) victims-Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), and Stroke Specific Quality of Life (SS-QOL)-and suggest the utilization of these instruments to assess and/or characterize that component in that population. METHODS: Through searches in the Medline, SciELO, and Lilacs databases, a compilation of studies which associated the concepts measured by the NHP, SF-36, and SS-QOL items with the ICF components and categories, was carried out. RESULTS: Of the 24 identified studies, four met the established criteria: two assessed the three HRQOL instruments, one assessed the NHP and SF-36, and the other just the SS-QOL. For each instrument, three studies were found which associated their concepts up to, at least, the second hierarchical level of the ICF categories. Considering the results that were in agreement between the three studies that assessed the same instrument, nine participation categories were associated with the NHP, seven with the SF-36, and 15 with the SS-QOL, although just one was specific to the NHP, one to the SF-36, and seven to the SS-QOL. CONCLUSIONS: To assess the participation of CVA victims based upon the ICF framework, the SS-QOL appeared to be the most suitable instrument in that, in addition to assessing the greatest number of categories, it also assesses the greatest number of distinct categories, when compared to the other two HRQOL instruments, which added just one category to those measured by SS-QOL. <![CDATA[<b>Medical equipment donations in Haiti</b>: <b>flaws in the donation process</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892012000400012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The magnitude 7.0 earthquake that struck Haiti on 12 January 2010 devastated the capital city of Port-au-Prince and the surrounding area. The area's hospitals suffered major structural damage and material losses. Project HOPE sought to rebuild the medical equipment and clinical engineering capacity of the country. A team of clinical engineers from the United States of America and Haiti conducted an inventory and assessment of medical equipment at seven public hospitals affected by the earthquake. The team found that only 28% of the equipment was working properly and in use for patient care; another 28% was working, but lay idle for technical reasons; 30% was not working, but repairable; and 14% was beyond repair. The proportion of equipment in each condition category was similar regardless of whether the equipment was present prior to the earthquake or was donated afterwards. This assessment points out the flaws that existed in the medical equipment donation process and reemphasizes the importance of the factors, as delineated by the World Health Organization more than a decade ago, that constitute a complete medical equipment donation.<hr/>El terremoto de magnitud 7,0 que azotó a Haití el 12 de enero del 2010 devastó la capital, Puerto Príncipe, y sus alrededores. Los hospitales del área afectada sufrieron daños estructurales importantes y pérdidas materiales. El Proyecto Hope procuró reconstruir el equipo médico y la capacidad de ingeniería clínica del país. Un equipo de ingenieros clínicos de Estados Unidos y Haití realizó un inventario y una evaluación del equipo médico en siete hospitales públicos afectados por el terremoto. El equipo encontró que solo 28% del equipo estaba funcionando adecuadamente y se usaba para la atención de los pacientes; otro 28% funcionaba pero no se empleaba por razones técnicas; 30% del equipo no funcionaba, pero podía repararse; y 14% no funcionaba y no podía repararse. La proporción de equipo en cada categoría fue similar, independientemente de que el equipo estuviera presente antes del terremoto o se hubiera donado después. Esta evaluación señala las fallas en el proceso de donación de equipo médico y recalca la importancia de los factores que implica una donación completa de equipo médico, ya delineados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud hace más de un decenio. <![CDATA[<b>Cholera in Haiti's Artibonite Valley</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892012000400013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The magnitude 7.0 earthquake that struck Haiti on 12 January 2010 devastated the capital city of Port-au-Prince and the surrounding area. The area's hospitals suffered major structural damage and material losses. Project HOPE sought to rebuild the medical equipment and clinical engineering capacity of the country. A team of clinical engineers from the United States of America and Haiti conducted an inventory and assessment of medical equipment at seven public hospitals affected by the earthquake. The team found that only 28% of the equipment was working properly and in use for patient care; another 28% was working, but lay idle for technical reasons; 30% was not working, but repairable; and 14% was beyond repair. The proportion of equipment in each condition category was similar regardless of whether the equipment was present prior to the earthquake or was donated afterwards. This assessment points out the flaws that existed in the medical equipment donation process and reemphasizes the importance of the factors, as delineated by the World Health Organization more than a decade ago, that constitute a complete medical equipment donation.<hr/>El terremoto de magnitud 7,0 que azotó a Haití el 12 de enero del 2010 devastó la capital, Puerto Príncipe, y sus alrededores. Los hospitales del área afectada sufrieron daños estructurales importantes y pérdidas materiales. El Proyecto Hope procuró reconstruir el equipo médico y la capacidad de ingeniería clínica del país. Un equipo de ingenieros clínicos de Estados Unidos y Haití realizó un inventario y una evaluación del equipo médico en siete hospitales públicos afectados por el terremoto. El equipo encontró que solo 28% del equipo estaba funcionando adecuadamente y se usaba para la atención de los pacientes; otro 28% funcionaba pero no se empleaba por razones técnicas; 30% del equipo no funcionaba, pero podía repararse; y 14% no funcionaba y no podía repararse. La proporción de equipo en cada categoría fue similar, independientemente de que el equipo estuviera presente antes del terremoto o se hubiera donado después. Esta evaluación señala las fallas en el proceso de donación de equipo médico y recalca la importancia de los factores que implica una donación completa de equipo médico, ya delineados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud hace más de un decenio.