Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública]]> http://www.scielosp.org/rss.php?pid=1020-498920120009&lang=en vol. 32 num. 3 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielosp.org/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielosp.org <![CDATA[<b>Surveillance for leptospirosis in the Americas, 1996-2005</b>: <b>a review of data from ministries of health</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892012000900001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: To characterize current leptospirosis reporting practices in the Americas. METHODS: Information was collected from the official websites of national ministries of health from the Americas region and two international organizations; personal communications; and three international morbidity databases. For all sources other than the morbidity databases, the review was limited to official reports citing clinically suspected and laboratory confirmed leptospirosis cases or deaths during the period 1996-2005. RESULTS: A total of 73 out of 1 644 reports met the selection criteria and were included in the analysis. Published leptospirosis data were available from half of the countries/sovereign territories (24 out of 48), and 18 of them had mandatory notification policies for leptospirosis. The sum of the median number of leptospirosis cases notified annually by the 24 countries/territories was 4 713.5, but just three countries (Brazil, Costa Rica, and Cuba) accounted for 83.1% (3 9cas20 es) of the notifications. Eight (16.7%) countries reported deaths due to leptospirosis. The sum of the median number of deaths reported annually for the eight countries was 380, but 349 (91.8%) were reported by Brazil. CONCLUSIONS: Notification practices in the Americas for leptospirosis are limited. Therefore, the numbers of cases and deaths reported are not representative for the region. The lack of leptospirosis data for many countries/territories may reflect weaknesses in certain aspects of national surveillance systems, including mandatory reporting policies, clinical laboratory infrastructure for performing case confirmation, and capacity to collect reported cases. Improved surveillance of leptospirosis cases and deaths in the Americas is needed to allow monitoring of regional epidemiological patterns and to estimate the burden of this important disease.<hr/>OBJETIVO: Determinar los procedimientos actuales de notificación de la leptospirosis en la Región de las Américas. MÉTODOS: Se recopiló información de los sitios web oficiales de los ministerios de salud de los países de la Región de las Américas y dos organizaciones internacionales, de comunicaciones personales y de tres bases de datos internacionales de morbilidad. Con la excepción de las bases de datos de morbilidad, el análisis se limitó a los informes oficiales que citaban casos de leptospirosis, clínicamente presuntos o confirmados por el laboratorio o defunciones por esta infección, ocurridos durante el período de 1996 al 2005. RESULTADOS: Un total de 73 informes de los 1 644 considerados reunían los criterios de selección y se incluyeron en el análisis. Se dispuso de datos publicados sobre leptospirosis de la mitad de los países o territorios soberanos (24 de 48), 18 de los cuales contaban con políticas de notificación obligatoria de la leptospirosis. La suma de las medianas del número de casos de leptospirosis notificados anualmente por los 24 países o territorios fue de 4 713,5, pero tres países en particular (Brasil, Costa Rica y Cuba) representaban 83,1% (3 920 casos) de las notificaciones. Ocho países (16,7%) notificaron defunciones debidas a leptospirosis. La suma de las medianas del número de defunciones notificadas anualmente por los ocho países fue de 380, pero 349 (91,8%) fueron notificadas por Brasil. CONCLUSIONES: Los procedimientos de notificación de la leptospirosis en la Región de las Américas son limitados. Por consiguiente, los números de casos y muertes notificados no son representativos de la Región. La carencia de datos de leptospirosis de muchos países o territorios puede reflejar los puntos débiles de ciertos aspectos de los sistemas nacionales de vigilancia, incluidas las políticas de notificación obligatoria, la infraestructura de laboratorios clínicos para confirmar los casos y la capacidad para recopilar los casos notificados. Es necesario mejorar la vigilancia de los casos y las defunciones por leptospirosis en la Región de las Américas con objeto de permitir el seguimiento de los perfiles epidemiológicos regionales y calcular la carga de esta importante enfermedad. <![CDATA[<b>Cost-effectiveness of an alternative tuberculosis treatment</b>: <b>home-based guardian monitoring of patients</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892012000900002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Estimar la relación de costo-efectividad del tratamiento de corta duración bajo observación directa (DOTS), comparándolo con una variación de dicho tratamiento, que incluye un mayor seguimiento a los convivientes residenciales de los pacientes (DOTS-R) para el tratamiento de tuberculosis (TB). MÉTODOS: Tomando una perspectiva social que incluye los costos para las instituciones de salud, para los pacientes y sus familiares, y para otras entidades que contribuyen a hacer efectiva la operación del programa, se evaluaron los costos incurridos con cada una de las dos estrategias y se estimaron razones costo-efectividad adoptando las medidas de efecto usadas por los programas de control. La estimación de los costos de cada una de las dos estrategias incluye los correspondientes a las instituciones de salud que administran el tratamiento, los pacientes y sus familiares, y los de la secretaría de salud que gestiona los programas de salud pública a nivel municipal. Con base en estos costos y el número de casos curados y tratamientos terminados como medidas de resultado de cada una de las estrategias evaluadas, se calcularon las razones costo-efectividad y costo incremental. RESULTADOS: El DOTS-R se halló más costo-efectivo para lograr tratamientos exitosos que el DOTS. El DOTS-R registró costos de entre US$ 1 122,4 y US$ 1 152,7 por caso curado, comparados con valores de entre US$ 1 137,0 y US$ 1 494,3 correspondientes al DOTS. La proporción de casos tratados con éxito fue mayor con DOTS-R que con DOTS. CONCLUSIONES: El DOTS-R es una alternativa costo-efectiva promisoria para mejorar el control de la TB en sitios endémicos. Se recomienda a las autoridades del sector salud incorporar en su gestión institucional del programa contra la TB, acciones de seguimiento de los convivientes de pacientes, con la participación del personal de salud y los recursos físicos y financieros que apoyan actualmente dicho programa.<hr/>OBJECTIVE: Estimate the cost-effectiveness ratio of the directly observed treatment short course (DOTS) for treatment of tuberculosis (TB), comparing it to a variation of this treatment that includes increased home-based guardian monitoring of patients (DOTS-R). METHODS: Taking a social perspective that includes the costs for the health institutions, the patients, and their family members, and for other entities that contribute to making operation of the program effective, the costs incurred with each of the two strategies were evaluated and the cost-effectiveness ratios were estimated adopting the measures of effect used by the control programs. The estimate of the cost of each of the two strategies includes the cost to the health institutions that administer treatment, the patients and their family members, and the cost to the Ministry of Health that manages public health programs on the municipal level. Based on these costs and the number of cases cured and treatments completed as outcome measures of each of the strategies evaluated, the cost-effectiveness ratio and incremental cost were calculated. RESULTS: The DOTS-R was found to be more cost-effective for achievement of successful treatments than the DOTS. The DOTS-R recorded costs of US$ 1 122.40 to US$ 1 152.70 for each case cured compared to values of US$ 1 137.00 to US$ 1 494.30 for the DOTS. The percentage of cases treated successfully was higher with DOTS-R than with DOTS. CONCLUSIONS: The DOTS-R is a promising cost-effective alternative for improved control of TB in endemic areas. It is recommended that the health authorities include home-based guardian monitoring of patients in their institutional management of the TB program, with the participation of health workers and the physical and financial resources that currently support this program. <![CDATA[<b>Consumption of animal-derived foods and mouth and oropharyngeal cancer</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892012000900003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Avaliar a relação entre alimentos de origem animal e câncer de boca e orofaringe. MÉTODOS: Estudo caso-controle, de base hospitalar, pareado por sexo e idade (± 5 anos) com a coleta de dados realizada entre julho de 2006 e junho de 2008. A amostra foi composta por 296 pacientes com câncer de boca e orofaringe e 296 pacientes sem histórico de câncer atendidos em quatro hospitais da cidade de São Paulo (SP), Brasil. Foi aplicado um questionário semiestruturado, para a coleta de dados relativos à condição socioeconômica e aos hábitos deletérios (tabaco e bebidas alcoólicas). Para avaliação do consumo alimentar, utilizou-se um questionário de frequência alimentar qualitativo. A análise se deu por meio de modelos de regressão logística multivariada, que consideraram a hierarquia existente entre as características estudadas. RESULTADOS: Entre os alimentos de origem animal, o consumo frequente de carne bovina (OR = 2,73; IC95% = 1,27-5,87; P < 0,001), bacon (OR = 2,48; IC95% = 1,30-4,74; P < 0,001) e ovos (OR = 3,04; IC95% = 1,51-6,15; P < 0,001) estava relacionado ao aumento no risco de câncer de boca e orofaringe, tanto na análise univariada quanto na multivariada. Entre os laticínios, o leite apresentou efeito protetor contra a doença (OR = 0,41; IC95% = 0,21-0,82; P < 0,001). CONCLUSÕES: O presente estudo sustenta a hipótese de que alimentos de origem animal podem estar relacionados à etiologia do câncer de boca e orofaringe. Essa informação pode orientar políticas preventivas contra a doença, gerando benefícios para a saúde pública.<hr/>OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the relationship between animal-derived foods and mouth and oropharyngeal cancer. METHODS: Hospital-based case-control study matched by sex and age (± 5 years) with data collected between July of 2006 and June of 2008. The sample contained 296 patients with mouth and oropharyngeal cancer and 296 patients without a cancer history who were treated in four hospitals in the City of São Paulo, State of São Paulo, Brazil. A semistructured questionnaire was administered to collect data regarding socioeconomic condition and harmful habits (tobacco and alcoholic beverage consumption). To assess eating habits, a qualitative questionnaire that asked about the frequency of food consumption was used. The analysis was rendered by means of multivariate logistic regression models that considered the existing hierarchy among the characteristics studied. RESULTS: Among foods of animal origin, frequent consumption of beef (OR = 2.73; CI95% = 1.27-5.87; P < 0.001), bacon (OR = 2.48; CI95% = 1.30-4.74; P < 0.001) and eggs (OR = 3.04; CI95% = 1.51-6.15; P < 0.001) was linked to an increased risk of mouth and oropharyngeal cancer, in both the univariate and multivariate analyses. Among dairy products, milk showed a protective effect against the disease (OR = 0.41; CI95% = 0.21-0.82; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study affirms the hypothesis that animal-derived foods can be etiologically linked to mouth and oropharyngeal cancer. This information can guide policies to prevent these diseases, generating public health benefits. <![CDATA[<b>Diabetes-related lower-extremity amputation incidence and risk factors</b>: <b>a prospective seven-year study in Costa Rica</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892012000900004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: To analyze the incidence and determinants of lower-extremity amputation (LEA) in people with diabetes in a low-income community in Costa Rica. METHODS: Data on LEA incidence were collected during a seven-year follow-up (2001-2007) in a diabetes patient cohort (n = 572). Risk factors were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards regression model and baseline variables from the year 2000 (socio- demographic characteristics, comorbidity, metabolic control, treatment, and chronic microvascular complications). RESULTS: LEA incidence was 6.02 per 1 000 person-years (8.65 in men and 4.50 in women). Known risk factors (sex, years of diabetes, elevated glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c], retinopathy, insulin therapy, and prior amputation) were highly significant. CONCLUSIONS: Those most likely to undergo LEA among Costa Rican diabetic patients were men with 10 or more years of diabetes and average HbA1c > 8% who used insulin and had diabetic retinopathy. Patients on insulin therapy were at greatest risk, especially those with a previous amputation. Diabetic patients with the above-mentioned profile should be considered to be at very high risk of LEA and followed closely by the health care system.<hr/>OBJETIVO: Analizar la incidencia y los determinantes de la amputación de extremidades inferiores (AEI) en personas diabéticas de una comunidad con bajos ingresos de Costa Rica. MÉTODOS: Se recopilaron datos sobre la incidencia de la AEI durante un período de seguimiento de siete años (del 2001 al 2007) en una cohorte de pacientes diabéticos (n = 572). Se analizaron los factores de riesgo usando el modelo de regresión de Cox de riesgos proporcionales y los valores de referencia del año 2000 de las variables (características sociodemográficas, comorbilidad, control metabólico, tratamiento y complicaciones microvasculares crónicas). RESULTADOS: La incidencia de la AEI fue de 6,02 por 1 000 personas-año (8,65 en varones y 4,50 en mujeres). Los factores de riesgo conocidos (sexo, años de evolución de la diabetes, glucohemoglobina [HbA1c] elevada, retinopatía, tratamiento con insulina y amputación previa) fueron muy significativos. ONCLUSIONES: Los pacientes diabéticos costarricenses con mayor probabilidad de sufrir una AEI fueron los varones con 10 o más años de evolución de la diabetes y un promedio de HbA1c > 8% que eran tratados con insulina y padecían una retinopatía diabética. Los pacientes en tratamiento con insulina presentaban el mayor riesgo, especialmente los que habían sufrido una amputación anterior. Los pacientes diabéticos con el perfil descrito anteriormente deben considerarse como de riesgo muy elevado de AEI y deben ser seguidos de cerca por el sistema de atención de salud. <![CDATA[<b>Cardiovascular mortality and impact of corrective techniques for dealing with underreported and ill-defined deaths</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892012000900005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Identificar o impacto de técnicas corretivas na tendência das taxas de mortalidade por doenças cardiovasculares, doenças isquêmicas do coração e doenças cerebrovasculares, em Manaus (AM), Brasil, no período entre 1980 e 2007. MÉTODOS: Os dados foram obtidos no Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde, considerando-se os seguintes passos: (1) redistribuição proporcional dos registros de óbitos com idade e/ou sexo ignorados; (2) redistribuição dos óbitos mal definidos dentre os de causa conhecida; (3) tratamento e realocação dos chamados "códigos-lixo" em cardiologia; e, (4) correção dos sub-registros de óbitos por técnicas indiretas. Registros tratados nos passos 1, 2 e passos 3 e 4 agregados geraram as taxas base, taxas ajustadas e taxas ajustadas e corrigidas, respectivamente, as quais foram analisadas por sexo e faixa etária; posteriormente, foram padronizadas pelo método direto. A regressão linear simples foi utilizada para análise de tendência. RESULTADOS: Os dados brutos do Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade subestimavam as taxas de mortalidade por doenças do coração, principalmente a partir do ano 2000. Quanto à tendência temporal, as taxas ajustadas e corrigidas, comparadas às taxas base, apontam: atenuação da tendência de queda para as doenças cardiovasculares como um todo; acentuação da tendência de queda para as doenças isquêmicas do coração; e estabilidade nas taxas para as doenças cerebrovasculares no período. CONCLUSÕES: Com essa correção, foi possível identificar um excesso de óbitos que não havia sido computado, gerando taxas de mortalidade ajustadas e corrigidas mais confiáveis.<hr/>OBJECTIVE: Identify the impact of corrective techniques in the mortality rate trends for cardiovascular disease, ischemic heart diseases, and cerebrovascular diseases, in the City of Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil, between 1980 and 2007. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Unified Health System's Information Technology Department and the following steps undertaken: (1) proportional redistribution of death records, but without taking into account age and/or sex; (2) redistribution of ill-defined deaths among those whose cause is known; (3) treatment and reallocation of so-called "junk codes" in cardiology; and (4) correction of underrecordings of deaths by indirect techniques. Records treated in steps 1 and 2, and steps 3 and 4 together, generated base rates, adjusted rates, and adjusted and corrected rates, respectively, which were analyzed according to sex and age cohort; subsequently, they were standardized by the direct method. Simple linear regression was used for trend analysis. RESULTS: The Mortality Information System's raw data underestimated death from heart diseases, mainly starting in the year 2000. With regard to the trend over time, the adjusted and corrected rates, compared to the base rates, pointed to the following: attenuation of the downward trend for cardiovascular diseases as a whole; accentuation of the downward trend for ischemic heart diseases; and stability in the rates for cerebrovascular diseases during the period. CONCLUSIONS: This correction made it possible to identify an excess of deaths that had not been computed, generating more reliable adjusted and corrected death rates. <![CDATA[<b>Implementation of the International Health Regulations in Cuba</b>: <b>evaluation of basic capacities of the health sector in selected provinces</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892012000900006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Obtener información de línea base sobre el estado de las capacidades básicas del sector salud a nivel local, municipal y provincial, a fin de facilitar la identificación de prioridades y orientar las políticas públicas dirigidas a garantizar los requisitos y capacidades establecidos en el Anexo 1A del Reglamento Sanitario Internacional de 2005 (RSI-2005). MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal mediante la aplicación de un instrumento de evaluación de capacidades básicas referidas a la autonomía legal e institucional, el proceso de vigilancia e investigación y la respuesta frente a emergencias sanitarias en 36 entidades involucradas en el control sanitario internacional de los niveles local, municipal y provincial en las provincias de La Habana, Cienfuegos y Santiago de Cuba. RESULTADOS: Los policlínicos y centros provinciales de higiene y epidemiología de las tres provincias contaban con más del 75% de las capacidades básicas requeridas. Doce de 36 unidades disponían del 50% del marco legal e institucional implementado. La vigilancia e investigación de rutina presentaron una disponibilidad variable, mientras que las entidades de La Habana contaron con más del 40% de capacidades básicas en el campo de la respuesta ante eventos. CONCLUSIONES: Las provincias evaluadas cuentan con capacidades básicas instaladas que permitirán la implementación del RSI-2005 según el plazo previsto por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Es necesario establecer y desarrollar planes de acción eficaces para consolidar a la vigilancia como una actividad esencial de seguridad nacional e internacional en términos de salud pública.<hr/>OBJECTIVE: Obtain baseline information on the status of the basic capacities of the health sector at the local, municipal, and provincial levels in order to facilitate identification of priorities and guide public policies that aim to comply with the requirements and capacities established in Annex 1A of the International Health Regulations 2005 (IHR-2005). METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted by application of an instrument of evaluation of basic capacities referring to legal and institutional autonomy, the surveillance and research process, and the response to health emergencies in 36 entities involved in international sanitary control at the local, municipal, and provincial levels in the provinces of Havana, Cienfuegos, and Santiago de Cuba. RESULTS: The polyclinics and provincial centers of health and epidemiology in the three provinces had more than 75% of the basic capacities required. Twelve out of 36 units had implemented 50% of the legal and institutional framework. There was variable availability of routine surveillance and research, whereas the entities in Havana had more than 40% of the basic capacities in the area of events response. CONCLUSIONS: The provinces evaluated have integrated the basic capacities that will allow implementation of IHR-2005 within the period established by the World Health Organization. It is necessary to develop and establish effective action plans to consolidate surveillance as an essential activity of national and international security in terms of public health. <![CDATA[<b>Prevalence of obesity, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption by socioeconomic status among six communities in Nicaragua</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892012000900007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of noncommunicable disease (NCD) risk factors (overweight/obesity, tobacco smoking, and alcohol consumption) and identify correlations between these and sociodemographic characteristics in western and central Nicaragua. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 1 355 participants from six communities in Nicaragua conducted in September 2007-July 2009. Demographic and NCD risk-related health behavior information was collected from each individual, and their body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, diabetes status, and renal function were assessed. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses, and (non-stratified and stratified) logistic regression models. RESULTS: Of the 1 355 study participants, 22.0% were obese and 55.1% were overweight/obese. Female sex, higher income, and increasing age were significantly associated with obesity. Among men, lifelong urban living correlated with obesity (Odds Ratio [OR] = 4.39, 1.18-16.31). Of the total participants, 31.3% reported ever smoking tobacco and 47.7% reported ever drinking alcohol. Both tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption were strikingly more common among men (OR = 13.0, 8.8-19.3 and 15.6, 10.7-22.6, respectively) and lifelong urban residents (OR = 2.42, 1.31-4.47 and 4.10, 2.33-7.21, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: There was a high prevalence of obesity/overweight across all income levels. Women were much more likely to be obese, but men had higher rates of tobacco and alcohol use. The rising prevalence of NCD risk factors among even the poorest subjects suggests that an epidemiologic transition in underway in western and central Nicaragua whereby NCD prevalence is shifting to all segments of society. Raising awareness that health clinics can be used for chronic conditions needs to be priority.<hr/>OBJETIVO: Describir la prevalencia de los factores de riesgo (sobrepeso/obesidad, tabaquismo y consumo de alcohol) de las enfermedades no transmisibles (ENT), y determinar las correlaciones entre estos y las características sociodemográficas en las zonas occidental y central de Nicaragua. MÉTODOS: De septiembre del 2007 a julio del 2009, se llevó a cabo este estudio transversal en 1 355 participantes de seis comunidades de Nicaragua. Para cada persona, se recopiló información demográfica y sobre la conducta en materia de salud relacionada con el riesgo de ENT, y se evaluaron el índice de masa corporal (IMC), la presión arterial, la presencia o no de diabetes y la función renal. Se analizaron los datos mediante estadísticas descriptivas, análisis de dos variables, y modelos de regresión logística (análisis no estratificado y estratificado). RESULTADOS: De los 1 355 participantes en el estudio, 22,0% eran obesos y 55,1% presentaban sobrepeso u obesidad. El sexo femenino, los ingresos más altos y la edad más avanzada se asociaron significativamente con la obesidad. En los varones, la residencia de por vida en un entorno urbano se correlacionó con la obesidad (razón de posibilidades [OR] = 4,39, 1,18-16,31). Del total de participantes, 31,3% habían fumado tabaco y 47,7% habían consumido alcohol alguna vez. Tanto el tabaquismo como el consumo de alcohol fueron considerablemente más frecuentes en los varones (OR = 13,0, 8,8-19,3 y 15,6, 10,7-22,6, respectivamente) y en los que residían de por vida en un entorno urbano (OR = 2,42, 1,31-4,47 y 4,10, 2,33-7,21, respectivamente). CONCLUSIONES: Se observó una alta prevalencia de obesidad/sobrepeso en todos los niveles de ingresos. Las mujeres tenían muchas más probabilidades de ser obesas, pero los varones mostraban mayores tasas de tabaquismo y consumo del alcohol. La creciente prevalencia de los factores de riesgo de las ENT, incluso en las personas más pobres, sugiere que se está produciendo una transición epidemiológica en las zonas occidental y central de Nicaragua mediante la cual la prevalencia de las ENT se está desplazando a todos los segmentos de la sociedad. La concientización de que los dispensarios pueden utilizarse para atender a las afecciones crónicas debe ser prioritaria. <![CDATA[<b>Projeto ESPAÇOS de Curitiba, Brazil</b>: <b>applicability of mixed research methods and geo-referenced information in studies about physical activity and built environments</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892012000900008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Descrever os métodos empregados para avaliar o ambiente construído e a atividade física em um estudo multicêntrico internacional e discutir os desafios enfrentados para obter os dados necessários no contexto brasileiro. MÉTODOS: Em 2010, foi conduzido um inquérito domiciliar com adultos entre 20 e 65 anos de idade na Cidade de Curitiba, Estado do Paraná. O estudo envolveu o uso de informações georreferenciadas para identificar locais que facilitem a caminhada como forma de deslocamento (walkability) em todos os 2 125 setores censitários de Curitiba. Os setores censitários foram categorizados de acordo com walkability e renda, a qual considerou a renda média dos responsáveis pelos domicílios contidos em cada setor. A atividade física foi avaliada de maneira autorrelatada e objetiva (acelerômetro). RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 16 setores de alto walkability e 16 de baixo walkability, sendo oito de baixa renda e oito de renda elevada em cada categoria. Foram entrevistados 699 sujeitos e 381 utilizaram acelerômetros. A taxa de respostas para as entrevistas foi de 66,4%. O sucesso no uso de acelerômetros foi de 85,8% (n = 327). CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados demonstram que é possível desenvolver estudos de elevada qualidade sobre AF e ambiente construído no contexto brasileiro, seguindo padrões internacionais de investigação.<hr/>OBJECTIVE: To describe the methods employed to assess the built environment and physical activity (PA) as part of a multicenter international study, and to discuss the challenges faced to obtain the necessary data in the Brazilian context. METHODS: In 2010 a household survey was conducted with adults aged from 20 to 65 years in the city of Curitiba, Brazil. The study involved the used of geo-referenced information to measure walkability in all 2 125 census sectors in Curitiba. Census sectors were categorized by walkability and income, taking into consideration the average income of heads of the family in each sector. Physical activity was assessed by self- report and using an objective measure (accelerometers). RESULTS: Sixteen high walkability and 16 low walkability sectors were studied, with eight high-income and eight low-income sectors in each category. A total of 699 subjects were interviewed and 381 wore accelerometers. The response rate was 66.4% for the interviews and the compliance with accelerometer use was 85.8% (n = 327). CONCLUSIONS: The results show that it is feasible to conduct high-quality studies on physical activity and built environment in the Brazilian context in accordance with international standards. <![CDATA[<b>Lessons from scaling up a depression treatment program in primary care in Chile</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892012000900009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In Chile, the National Depression Detection and Treatment Program (Programa Nacional de Diagnóstico y Tratamiento de la Depresión, PNDTD) in primary care is a rare example of an evidence-based mental health program that was scaled up to the national level in a low- or middle-income country. This retrospective qualitative study aimed to better understand how policymakers made the decision to scale up mental health services to the national level, and to explore the elements, contexts, and processes that facilitated the decision to implement and sustain PNDTD. In-depth semistructured interviews with six key informants selected through intentional sampling were conducted in August-December 2008. Interviewees were senior officers at the Ministry of Health who were directly involved in the decision to scale up the program. Results yielded four elements pivotal to the decisionmaking process: scientific evidence, teamwork and leadership, strategic alliances, and program institutionalization. Each element contributed to building consensus, securing funding, attracting resources, and gaining lasting support from policymakers. Additionally, a review of available documentation led the authors to consider sociopolitical context and use of the media to be important factors. While research evidence for the effectiveness of mental health services in the primary care setting continues to accumulate, low- and middle-income countries should get started on the lengthy process of scaling up by incorporating the elements that led to decisionmaking and implementation of the PNDTD in Chile.<hr/>En Chile, el Programa Nacional de Diagnóstico y Tratamiento de la Depresión (PNDTD) en atención primaria constituye un raro ejemplo de programa de salud mental basado en la evidencia ampliado al nivel nacional en un país de ingresos medios o bajos. Con este estudio retrospectivo cualitativo se buscó conocer más a fondo la forma en que los responsables de las políticas tomaron la decisión de ampliar los servicios de salud mental al nivel nacional e investigar los elementos, contextos y procesos que facilitaron la decisión de implementar y mantener el PNDTD. Entre agosto y diciembre de 2008, seis informantes clave seleccionados mediante muestreo intencional llevaron a cabo entrevistas en profundidad semiestructuradas. Los entrevistados eran funcionarios de alto nivel del Ministerio de Salud directamente involucrados en la decisión de ampliar el programa. Los resultados arrojaron cuatro elementos fundamentales para el proceso de toma de decisiones: las pruebas científicas, el trabajo en equipo y el liderazgo, las alianzas estratégicas y la institucionalización del programa. Los cuatro elementos contribuyeron a la creación de consensos, la obtención de financiamiento, la captación de recursos y la obtención de un apoyo duradero por parte de los responsables de las políticas. Además, la revisión de la documentación disponible llevó a los autores a considerar al contexto sociopolítico y el uso de los medios factores importantes. Mientras se siguen acumulando datos de investigación sobre la eficacia de los servicios de salud mental en la atención primaria, los países con ingresos medios y bajos deben comenzar el largo proceso de ampliación incorporando los elementos que condujeron a la toma de decisiones y la implementación del PNDTD en Chile. <![CDATA[<b>Mapping the nutrition transition in Peru</b>: <b>evidence for decentralized nutrition policies</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892012000900010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The study objectives were to map the different stages of the nutrition transition for each department within Peru, and to determine the nutrition policy needs for each geographic area based on their current stage in the nutrition transition. Results show that most of the country is suffering from a double-burden of malnutrition, with high rates of stunting among children less than 5 years of age and high rates of overweight and obesity among women of reproductive age. Currently, Peru has only country-wide nutrition policies, administered by the Ministry of Health, that are primarily focused on stunting prevention. This study argues for the need to have decentralized nutrition policies that vary according to what type of malnutrition is being experienced in each geographic area.<hr/>Los objetivos de este estudio consistían en trazar un mapa por departamentos y etapas de la transición nutricional en el Perú y determinar las políticas nutricionales necesarias en las distintas zonas geográficas en función de sus etapas en la transición. Los resultados demuestran que la mayor parte del país está sufriendo la llamada "doble carga de la malnutrición", en la que coexisten tasas elevadas de desnutrición crónica entre los menores de 5 años y tasas elevadas de sobrepeso y obesidad en las mujeres en edad fecunda. En el Perú actual, las políticas nutricionales, gestionadas por el Ministerio de Salud, están centralizadas y su prioridad es prevenir la detención del crecimiento. Este estudio aboga por la necesidad de contar con políticas nutricionales descentralizadas que varíen en función del tipo de malnutrición que se esté padeciendo en cada zona geográfica. <![CDATA[<b>Toward greater inclusion</b>: <b>lessons from Peru in confronting challenges of multi-sector collaboration</b>]]> http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1020-49892012000900011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Despite widespread enthusiasm for broader participation in health policy and programming, little is known about the ways in which multi-sector groups address the challenges that arise in pursuing this goal. Based on the experience of Peru's National Multi-sector Health Coordinating Body (CONAMUSA), this article characterizes these challenges and identifies organizational strategies the group has adopted to overcome them. Comprising nine government ministries, nongovernmental organizations, academia, religious institutions, and international cooperation agencies, CONAMUSA has faced three principal challenges: 1) selecting representatives, 2) balancing membership and leadership across sectors, and 3) negotiating role transition and conflict. In response, the group has instituted a rotation system for formal leadership responsibiliti es, and professionalized management functions; created electoral systems for civil society; and developed conflict of interest guidelines. This case study offers lessons for other countries trying to configure multi-sector groups, and for donors who mandate their creation, tempering unbridled idealism toward inclusive participation with a dose of healthy realism and practical adaptation.<hr/>A pesar del entusiasmo generalizado por la mayor participación en las políticas y programas sanitarios, poco se sabe sobre las formas de afrontar los retos que se plantean en la consecución de este objetivo por parte de los grupos multisectoriales. Este artículo parte de la experiencia de la Coordinadora Nacional Multisectorial en Salud del Perú (CONAMUSA) para caracterizar dichos retos e identificar las estrategias de organización que ha adoptado el grupo a fin de superarlos. CONAMUSA, formada por nueve ministerios del gobierno, organizaciones no gubernamentales, instituciones académicas, organizaciones religiosas y agencias de cooperación internacional, se ha enfrentado con tres retos fundamentales: 1) elegir a los representantes, 2) encontrar el equilibrio entre la representación de los miembros y el liderazgo en los distintos sectores y 3) negociar el cambio de roles y los conflictos. Para responder a estos retos el grupo ha establecido un sistema rotatorio para las responsabilidades formales de liderazgo y ha profesionalizado las funciones de gestión, se han creado sistemas electorales para la sociedad civil y se han elaborado pautas para los conflictos de intereses. Este estudio de casos aporta lecciones para otros países que estén tratando de configurar grupos multisectoriales, así como para los organismos de ayuda que dirigen su creación, suavizando los idealismos extremos con una dosis de realismo saludable y de adaptación práctica para lograr una participación inclusiva.