Revista de Saúde Pública
On-line version ISSN 1518-8787
GALATI, Eunice A. B. et al. Study of phlebotomines (Diptera: Psychodidae) in focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. Rev. Saúde Pública [online]. 1997, vol.31, n.4, pp. 378-390. ISSN 1518-8787. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-89101997000400007.
INTRODUCTION: In the Americas, Lutzomyia longipalpis has been incriminated as the vector of visceral leishmaniasis in almost all the areas in which this disease has been reported. The notification of human cases of visceral leishmaniasis and the presence of dogs with an appearance suggestive of the disease in the county of Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, led us to undertake an entomological investigation in this area, for the purpose of identifying the phlebotomine vector. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The county of Corumbá is located in the Pantanal region and its urban area is situated at 18° 59 44" South and 57° 39 16" West. The research project was carried out in peri and intradomiciliary environments, in three urban districts, one of which was central and the other two on the outskirts, and in a cave situated outside the urban perimeter. Most of the captures were made weekly with light automatic traps, in the period from February 1984 to December 1986. Meteorological data for this period were obtained from the city,s meteorological station and those for the period from 1925 to 1982 from the literature. RESULTS: The urban phlebotomine fauna consisted of eight species and was similar to that of the cave, except that in the latter the species were more abundant. Lutzomyia cruzi was predominant in the peri and intradomiciliary environments. Its prevalence in the central district was of 90.3% and lower in the outskirts. Lu. forattinii presented considerable prevalence (39.0%) in one of the outlying districts too. In the cave, Lu. corumbaensis was the predominant species, followed by Lu. sordellii, Lu. forattinii, Lu. peresi and Lu. cruzi. The impact of the climatic condition and the action of insecticides in the urban area on the frequence of the species, as well as the use of the cave as a breeding ground by the phlebotomines, in view of the changes in the sex rate, are commented. Data on anthropophily and captures of Lu. forattinii using dog bait have been added. CONCLUSION: The predominance of Lu. cruzi in the urban area; the great prevalence of Lu. forattinii in most of the outlying areas studied and the anthropophily of this latter species, as well as the strong affinity of these species with Lu. longipalpis, the main vector of visceral leishmaniais in other areas of the Americas, suggest the participation of both in the transmission of the disease in Corumbá.
Keywords : Phychodidae; Ecology, vectors.