SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.37 issue6Climacteric syndrome: a population-based study in BrazilEpidemiological profile of cocaine users on treatment in psychiatrics hospitals, Brazil author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Page  

Services on Demand

Journal

Article

Indicators

Related links

Share


Revista de Saúde Pública

On-line version ISSN 1518-8787Print version ISSN 0034-8910

Abstract

BISI MOLINA, Maria del Carmen; CUNHA, Roberto de Sá; HERKENHOFF, Luis Fernando  and  MILL, José Geraldo. Hypertension and salt intake in an urban population. Rev. Saúde Pública [online]. 2003, vol.37, n.6, pp.743-750. ISSN 1518-8787.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-89102003000600009.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the salt intake and urinary Na+/K+ ratio in a randomized sample from an ethnically mixed urban population. METHODS: A randomized residential sample of 2,268 individuals aged 25-64 in Vitória, ES, was selected, of whom 1,663 (73.3%) reported to the hospital for standardized tests. Salt, Na+ and K+ intake was estimated from 12-hour urine excretion (7 p.m. to 7 a.m.) and from the monthly salt consumption at home reported in the interview. Clinic arterial pressure was measured twice under standard conditions by two trained investigators, using mercury sphygmomanometry. The Student t and Tukey tests were utilized for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Urinary Na+ excretion was higher in men and individuals of lower socioeconomic level (P<0.000). No difference between ethnic groups was observed. K+ excretion was unrelated to socioeconomic level and ethnicity, but was significantly higher among men (25±18 vs. 22±18 mEq/12h; P=0.002). Positive linear correlation was observed between urinary Na+ excretion and systolic (r=0.15) and diastolic (r=0.19) arterial pressure. Hypertensive individuals showed higher urinary Na+ excretion and Na+/K+ ratio than normotensive individuals. Reported salt intake was around 50% of the intake estimated from 12-hour urine collection (around 45% of 24-hour urinary excretion). CONCLUSIONS: Salt intake is strongly influenced by socioeconomic level and may partially explain the higher prevalence of hypertension in lower socioeconomic classes.

Keywords : Sodium chloride [analysis]; Hypertension [epidemiology]; Prevalence; Sodium; Potassium; Socioeconomic factors.

        · abstract in Portuguese     · text in English | Portuguese     · English ( pdf ) | Portuguese ( pdf )