Revista de Saúde Pública
Print version ISSN 0034-8910
DOURADO, Inês; VERAS, Maria Amélia de S M; BARREIRA, Dráurio and BRITO, Ana Maria de. AIDS epidemic trends after the introduction of antiretroviral therapy in Brazil. Rev. Saúde Pública [online]. 2006, vol.40, suppl., pp. 9-17. ISSN 0034-8910. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-89102006000800003.
OBJECTIVE: Universal access to antiretroviral therapy starting from 1996 has changed HIV/AIDS epidemic profile in Brazil. The objective of this study was to review the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS epidemic in Brazil. METHODS: Indicators of temporal trends were developed for Brazilian regions from 1990 to 2003 using the Ministry of Health's databases. Exponential regression models adjusted to the 1990-1996 trends were used to estimate expected values for the entire period. RESULTS: The proportion of AIDS hospitalizations has not changed over the study period but there was a decrease in hospitalizations among those using ARV therapy. There was a 2.7 growth in those receiving Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) from 1997 to 2003. HIV/AIDS incidence and mortality rates rose up to 1995 in all regions. From 1996, there has been a gradual reduction in mortality rates while incidence rates have increased. In all regions, except in the Northern region, expected incidence rates have been greater than the observed ones in the last years but these differences were statistically significant only in the Southeastern and Midwestern regions. CONCLUSIONS: The observed trend can be explained by universal access to ARV therapy in Brazil, which had a significant impact on HIV/AIDS mortality. But other factors, such as years of epidemic, prevention actions, knowledge on HIV/AIDS, years of schooling, need to be considered as well.
Keywords : Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [prevention & control]; Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [trends]; Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART); Brazil.