Services on Demand
Revista de Saúde Pública
On-line version ISSN 1518-8787Print version ISSN 0034-8910
FRANCA JUNIOR, Ivan; CALAZANS, Gabriela; ZUCCHI, Eliana Miura and GRUPO DE ESTUDOS EM POPULACAO, SEXUALIDADE E AIDS. Changes in HIV testing in Brazil between 1998 and 2005. Rev. Saúde Pública [online]. 2008, vol.42, suppl.1, pp.84-97. ISSN 1518-8787. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-89102008000800011.
OBJECTIVE: To analize changes in HIV testing, reasons reported by those who were tested or not and received counseling. METHODS: Cross-sectional studies conducted in both men and women aged 16 to 65 years based on representative samples of urban Brazil in 1998 (n=3,600) and 2005 (n=5,040). Sociodemographic, sexual, reproductive characteristics, life experiences and health data were collected and analyzed. Potential differences in the distribution of variables was analyzed using Pearson's chi-square and design-based F test (±<5%). RESULTS: In 1998 and 2005, 20.2% and 33.6% of interviewees had been tested, respectively. A total of 60% women aged 25-34 years were tested, but those who reported sexual initiation before the age of 16 and four or more sexual partners in the fi ve years prior to the interview were less tested. There was no significant increase in testing among men, except among those aged 55-65 years, per capita income between 1-3 and 5-10 monthly minimum wages, retired, historical Protestant and followers of African-Brazilian religions, living in the North/Northeast region and who reported homosexual/bisexual partners or no sexual relationship in the five years prior to the interview. Testing rates did not increase in those who self-reported as high risk for HIV. Among women, prenatal testing rate increased while work-related testing decreased among men. In 2005, half of those who were tested did not receive any advice before or after testing. CONCLUSIONS: HIV testing scaling up was unequal and was mostly seen among women at childbearing age, adults and those better off. There seems to be an increase in testing rates in Brazil but without regard for people's right to free choice and without offering more widely and better quality counseling.
Keywords : Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome [diagnosis]; HIV; Socioeconomic Factors; Health Knowledge [Attitudes, Practice]; Health Inequalities; Cross-Sectional Studies; Population Studies in Public Health; Brazil; Cross-sectional studies.