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Revista de Saúde Pública
Print version ISSN 0034-8910
PIRES, Thiago de Oliveira; SILVA, Cosme Marcelo Furtado Passos da and ASSIS, Simone Gonçalves de. Family environment and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Rev. Saúde Pública [online]. 2012, vol.46, n.4, pp. 624-633. Epub June 26, 2012. ISSN 0034-8910. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-89102012005000043.
OBJECTIVE: To analyze factors associated with attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder in children. METHODS: This is a longitudinal study about behavior problems in schoolchildren that was carried out in the city of São Gonçalo (Southeastern Brazil) in 2005. A total of 479 students from public schools was analyzed, selected through three-stage cluster sampling. The Child Behavior Checklist was used to measure the outcome. A questionnaire was administered to parents/guardians concerning the exposure factors, which were: child's and family's profile, family relationship variables, physical and psychological violence. The log-binomial regression model with a hierarchical approach was employed in the analysis. RESULTS: Higher intelligence quotient was inversely associated with the frequency of the disorder (PR=0.980 [95%CI 0.963;0.998]). The prevalence of the disorder in the children was higher when there was family dysfunction than among families with a better way of relating (PR=2.538 [95%CI 1.572; 4.099]). Children who suffered verbal abuse from the mother had a prevalence 3.7 times higher than the ones not exposed to this situation in the last year (PR=4.7 [95%CI 1.254;17.636]). CONCLUSIONS: Negative family relationships are associated with symptoms of Attention-Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder. Its association with the intelligence quotient reiterates the importance of the genetic and environmental basis at the origin of the disorder.
Keywords : Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity, epidemiology; Risk Factors; Socioeconomic Factors; Family Relations; Domestic Violence.