Revista de Saúde Pública
Print version ISSN 0034-8910
GONDIM, Sheila Sherezaide Rocha et al. Magnitude, time trends and factors associate with anemia in children in the state of Paraíba, Brazil. Rev. Saúde Pública [online]. 2012, vol.46, n.4, pp. 649-656. Epub July 24, 2012. ISSN 0034-8910. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-89102012005000055.
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the magnitude of the anemia, to analyze the time trends and investigate the factors associated with this disturbance in children in the state of Paraíba, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey, of population-based, with 1108 children, aged 6 to 59 months, both sexes in the state of Paraíba. Hemoglobin (Hb) in venous blood was analyzed with an automatic counter. The social-economic and demographic characteristics of children were obtained by questionnaire. Proportions were compared by Pearson's chi-squared test, and the association between hemoglobin concentrations and potential risk factors was tested by regression model Poisson. The time trend of anemia was assessed by the increase/decreased in the prevalence of anemia, using as comparison the prevalence observed in the years 1982, 1992 and 2007. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia (Hb < 11.0 g/dl) in the state of Paraíba was 36.5% (CI95% 33.7 to 39.3). It was observed that 1.3% (CI95% 0.7 to 1.8) were in severe form (Hb <7.0 g/dl), 11% (CI95% 9.4 to 13.5) in a moderate form and 87.6% (CI95% 79.1 to 91.2) in the mild form. There was an increase 88.5% in cases of anemia between the years 1982-1992 and stabilization in the prevalence between the years 1992-2007. The analysis adjusted Poisson model showed a greater susceptibility to anemia in children 6 to 24 months of age, those breastfed for six months or more, who co-inhabited with more than 04 people in the same household and lived in houses with less than 05 rooms. CONCLUSIONS: The results revealed that anemia remains an important public health problem in the state of Paraíba and despite having been shown an stabilization in the prevalence of anemia between 1992-2007, differently the prevalence observed between 1982-1992, this deficiency presents in high level, witch requires more effective measures of prevention and control.
Keywords : Child; Anemia, epidemiology; Socioeconomic Factors; Risk Factors; Cross-Sectional Studies.