Salud Pública de México
Print version ISSN 0036-3634
CASTANEDA-INIGUEZ, Maura Sara; TOLEDO-CISNEROS, Rebeca and AGUILERA-DELGADILLO, Mario. Risk factors for cervical cancer in women from Zacatecas, Mexico. Salud pública Méx [online]. 1998, vol.40, n.4, pp. 330-338. ISSN 0036-3634. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0036-36341998000400005.
Objective. To determine the sociodemographic characteristics and the reproductive and sexual behavior of participants in the Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Program and to identify the risk factors for this neoplasm. Material and methods. A case control study was performed among participants in the Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Program in the state of Zacatecas. The cases consisted of all patients diagnosed and corroborated by histopathology with CIN III and invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix (251) who were referred to the Dysplasia Clinic (within the same program), during 1993-1995. Controls were women randomly selected from the population which participates in this program, who had negative cervical cytology. One control was selected for each case and paired by age and date, simultaneous to the cervical cytology. Results. Risk of cervical cancer was higher in women with greater number of pregnancies (more than 12 pregnancies) than in women with less than 3 (OR 5.2, CI 95% 2.6-10.5). This is also true of women with greater number of births (12 or more) who have a risk five times higher than women with less than 3. Beginning sexual activity at an early age was associated to the risk of cervical cancer; women who began their sexual activity after the age of 19 had a risk two times lower than those who started before the age of 15. The use of oral contraceptives increased the risk of cervical cancer in relation to the use of non-hormonal contraceptives (OR 1.9, CI 95% 1.3-3.4). Conclusions. In the present study, the risk factors for cervical cancer in the population participating in the prevention and control program were higher in women with high parity, who began sexual activity at an early age and/or who consumed oral contraceptives.
Keywords : cervix neoplasms; risk factors; case-control studies; Mexico.