Salud Pública de México
Print version ISSN 0036-3634
AVILA-FIGUEROA, Carlos et al. Nosocomial infections in children: Prevalence survey in 21 public hospitals in Mexico. Salud pública Méx [online]. 1999, vol.41, suppl.1, pp. S18-S25. ISSN 0036-3634. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0036-36341999000700005.
OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of nosocomial infections, associated risk factors, microbiology, use of antibiotics, and associated mortality among hospitalized children. MATERIAL AND METHODS.A 1-day prevalence survey was conducted among 1 183 children hospitalized in a nationwide network of 21 public hospitals caring for children. To attain consistency between hospitals, CDC nosocomial infection definitions were used. Adjusted relative odds of bacteremia were estimated using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS. The prevalence of nosocomial acquired infection was 9.8% (CI 95%, 8.1-11.6). The more prevalent infections were pneumonia (25%), sepsis/bacteremia (19%),and urinary tract infection (5%). The main microorganism isolated in blood cultures drown from patients with nosocomial infection was K. penumoniae (31%). The prevalence of antibiotics use was 49% with substantial variation between hospitals (range 3-83%). Using logistic regression analysis, four factors were independently associated with the risk of nosocomial infection: central venous catheters (OR 3.3; CI 95% 1.0-5.9), total parenteral nutrition (OR 2.1; CI 95%1.0-4.5) mechanical ventilation (OR 2.3; CI 95% 1.2-4.1), and low birth weight (OR 2.6; CI 95% 1.0-6.8). The overall mortality was 4.8%; however, patients with nosocomial infection had two times greater risk to die as compared to non-infected children (OR 2.6; CI 95% 1.3-5.1). CONCLUSIONS. This rapid assessment survey using a standard methodology allows to document the prevalence of nosocomial infections in children. The results were used to develop targeted programs on central catheters and mechanical ventilation aimed to reduce bacteremia/sepsis and pneumonia, two nosocomial infections characterized by high prevalence and mortality.
Keywords : nosocomial infection; hospitals, pediatric; Mexico.