Salud Pública de México
Print version ISSN 0036-3634
MARTINEZ-AGUILAR, Gerardo; ANAYA-ARRIAGA, María del Carmen and AVILA-FIGUEROA, Carlos. Incidence of nosocomial bacteremia and pneumonia in a pediatric ward. Salud pública Méx [online]. 2001, vol.43, n.6, pp. 515-523. ISSN 0036-3634. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0036-36342001000600001.
Objective. To determine the incidence of catheter-related bacteremia and ventilator-associated pneumonia in children admitted to a secondary care hospital. Material and Methods. A prospective active surveillance system was conducted from January 1999 to June 2000, at the Hospital General of Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in Durango, Mexico. Daily visits to the pediatric ward were conducted to detect episodes of bacteremia and pneumonia, according to the Official Mexican Norm. Hospitalized patients under mechanical ventilation and/or with a central venous catheter, were followed from the first day of exposure, until a nosocomial infection was detected, or until the invasive device was removed. Blood and tracheal aspirate cultures were obtained from all exposed patients. Incidence rates with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for ventilator-associated pneumonia and bacteremia/sepsis per 1000 exposure days. Also, the monthly infection rate is presented for days of exposure, using statistical control graphs. Results. A total of 47 episodes of bacteremia/sepsis and 44 of ventilator associated pneumonia were recorded. The incidence rate of pneumonia and bacteremia/sepsis was 28 and 26 cases respectively, per 1000 days of exposure to and invasive device. The gram-positive rods (61.11%) were more common than the gram negative rods (38.88%). Conclusions. The most striking finding of this study was the higher incidence of these two nosocomial infections in children, as compared to that reported elsewhere. These findings call for preventive strategies and guidelines for handling intravenous catheters and mechanical ventilation in Mexico. The English version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html
Keywords : cross infection; bacteremia; pneumonia; child; hospitalized; Mexico.