Salud Pública de México
Print version ISSN 0036-3634
MEDINA-ESCOBEDO, Martha; ZAIDI, Mussaret; REAL-DE LEON, Elizabeth and OROZCO-RIVADENEYRA, Sergio. Urolithiasis prevalence and risk factors in Yucatan, Mexico. Salud pública Méx [online]. 2002, vol.44, n.6, pp. 541-545. ISSN 0036-3634. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0036-36342002000600006.
Objective. To measure the prevalence of urolithiasis in Yucatan, and to establish a possible association of the disease with family history and water hardness. Material and Methods. During 1996, a survey was conducted on the population over one year of age in the State of Yucatan. Subjects were classified as having definite lithiasis (DL), probable lithiasis (PL), or no lithiasis (NL). Total hardness, calcium hardness, and magnesium hardness, were determined in drinking water samples. Results. From a total of 5 832 questionnaires, 323 subjects (5.5%) were found to have DL, and 282 (4.8%) PL. The prevalence of lithiasis increased sharply with age, ranging from 1% in the population 18 years or younger, to 11.3% in those over 50 years. A family history of urolithiasis was positive in 44% of subjects with DL and in 34 % of those with PL, compared to 28% of those with NL (OR=2.8, 95% CI=2.2-3.4, p<0.0001, and OR=1.8, 95% CI=1.4-2.4, p<0.0001, respectively). Water hardness above 400 ppm was associated with a higher prevalence of urolithiasis (OR=1.9, 95% CI=1.21-2.94, p=0.003). Conclusions. The prevalence of urolithiasis in Yucatan is higher than that reported elsewhere in the scientific literature. A family history of the disease and high water hardness are risk factors that need to be investigated in future studies.
Keywords : urinary calcule; prevalence; family history; water hardness; Mexico.