Salud Pública de México
Print version ISSN 0036-3634
HERNANDEZ-ANDRADE, Edgar and AHUED-AHUED, José Roberto. Transvaginal bleeding during pregnancy associated with Rhesus-D isoimmunization. Salud pública Méx [online]. 2003, vol.45, n.6, pp. 492-496. ISSN 0036-3634. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0036-36342003000600009.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate transvaginal bleeding (TVB) as a risk factor for Rhesus isoimmunization during pregnancy, in order to optimize the application of Anti-D gammaglobulin in non-immunized pregnant women, as an alternative to the routine application of Anti-D at 28 weeks of gestation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This case-control study was conducted from 1995 to 2001 at Mexico's National Perinatology Institute. Cases (n=24) were non-immunized pregnant women who showed positive anti-D antibody seroconversion during pregnancy or during the early puerperium. Controls (n=24) were non-immunized pregnant women who enrolled after each case, with similar clinical characteristics but who had no anti-D antibody seroconversion during pregnancy. In all cases the newborns were Rh-positive. None of the patients received immunoprofilaxis at 28 weeks of gestation. The presence of TVB was recorded at any stage of pregnancy and before labor. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were used to assess associations. RESULTS: TVB was observed in 18/24 (75%) cases and in 5/24 (20%) controls. Preterm uterine contractions and threatened miscarriage were the most frequent causes of TVB. The presence of one TVB event during pregnancy increased 11.4 times (95% CI 2.9-44.0) the likelihood of Rhesus isoimmunization. TVB after 20 weeks of gestation increased the likelihood 5.0 times (95%CI 1.3-19.1). TVB before 20 weeks of gestation was not significantly associated with Rh isoimmunization (OR=7.6, 95%CI 0.8-69.5). CONCLUSIONS: Prophylaxis with anti-D gammaglobulin should be given to all non-immunized Rhesus-negative pregnant woman with TVB at any stage of pregnancy.
Keywords : Rh isoimmunization; anti-D immunoglobuline; uterine hemorrhage; Mexico.