Salud Pública de México
Print version ISSN 0036-3634
BASUALDO, Ma del Carmen et al. IgA antibody detection and PCR as first options in the diagnosis of perinatal HIV-1 infection. Salud pública Méx [online]. 2004, vol.46, n.1, pp. 49-55. ISSN 0036-3634. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0036-36342004000100007.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and IgA-specific immunoblot assays as ancillary methods to diagnose human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) perinatal infection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A comparative study was conducted between February and October 2001 at the Human Retrovirus Research Unit of Mexico's National University. Ninety infected and 153 non-infected children were included in the study. Viral cultures were the gold standard tests. Standardized PCR for a conserved region of the gag gene and HIV-specific IgA antibody using ELISA and immunoblot were used. Statistical analysis of results was performed with SPSS 10.0. RESULTS: IgA ELISA sensitivity and specificity were 61.1% and 90.8%, respectively. Immunoblot had a sensitivity of 82.2% and a specificity of 95.4%. PCR had an overall sensitivity of 98.3% and a specificity of 100% with only one false negative result. If both assays were run, the sensitivity increased to 100% and the specificity to 96%. CONCLUSIONS: A very high sensitivity and specificity is reached when using together PCR and IgA immunoblot; these assays are useful for perinatal diagnosis of HIV-1.
Keywords : IgA; polymerase chain reaction; perinatal diagnosis; HIV.