Salud Pública de México
Print version ISSN 0036-3634
VILLALPANDO, Salvador et al. The prevalence of anemia decreased in Mexican preschool and school-age children from 1999 to 2006. Salud pública Méx [online]. 2009, vol.51, suppl.4, pp.S507-S514. ISSN 0036-3634. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0036-36342009001000005.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the distribution of anemia in children, based on information from Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006) and Mexican National Nutrition Survey 1999 (ENN-99), and examine the association of anemia with potentially explanatory variables. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Adjusted prevalence and means as well as associations with potentially explanatory variables were assessed by multiple linear and logistic regression models for complex samples. RESULTS: From 1999 to 2006, the prevalence of anemia decreased 13.8 percentage points (pp) in toddlers and 7.8 pp in children 24-35 months of age; it also decreased 0.7 pp/year in urban and rural populations, 1.8 pp/year in indigenous and 0.61 pp/year in non-indigenous toddlers, 1.5 pp/year in children 5-8 years of age and 0.78 pp/year in children 9-11 years of age. In toddlers served by Oportunidades, Hb was inversely associated with indigenous ethnicity (p=0.1) and they had a lower risk of anemia (OR=0.002). In school-age children, age (OR=0.98), affiliation to Liconsa (OR=0.42) and living in the central region (OR=0.56) were protective factors for anemia. CONCLUSIONS: The national prevalence of anemia in Mexico has decreased in the past seven years, especially in toddlers. Being a beneficiary of Liconsa or Oportunidades was protective for anemia.
Keywords : anemia; preschool children; food fortified; Mexico.