Salud Pública de México
Print version ISSN 0036-3634
ALMONTE, Maribel et al. New paradigms and challenges in cervical cancer prevention and control in Latin America. Salud pública Méx [online]. 2010, vol.52, n.6, pp. 544-559. ISSN 0036-3634. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0036-36342010000600010.
Cervical cancer continues to be a significant health problem in Latin America. The use of conventional cytology to detect precancerous cervical lesions has had almost no major impact on reducing cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates, which are still high in the region. The availability of new screening tools to detect precancerous lesions provide great opportunities for cervical cancer prevention in the region, as do highly efficacious HPV vaccines able to prevent nearly all lesions associated with HPV-16 and -18 when applied before viral exposure. This paper summarizes the scientific evidence and regional experiences related to: i) the use of HPV testing and visual inspection after the application of acetic acid (VIA) in primary screening and ii) the implementation of adolescent HPV vaccination programs. Finally, we outline a number of recommendations for different resource settings. The feasibility of implementing successful and sustainable national cervical cancer prevention programs in Latin American countries in the region will depend on health priorities and the availability of infrastructure and health personnel-as determined by rigorous local situational analysis.
Keywords : cervical cancer; cervical screening; human papillomavirus (HPV); vaccination programmes; screening techniques.