Bulletin of the World Health Organization
versão impressa ISSN 0042-9686
FRASER-HURT, Nicole et al. Efficacy of oral azithromycin versus topical tetracycline in mass treatment of endemic trachoma. Bull World Health Organ [online]. 2001, vol.79, n.7, pp. 632-640. ISSN 0042-9686. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0042-96862001000700008.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the impact of mass treatment with oral azithromycin and topical tetracycline on the prevalence of active trachoma. METHODS: A total of 1803 inhabitants from 106 households of eight Gambian villages were randomized, in pairs, to receive either three doses of azithromycin at weekly intervals, or daily topical tetracycline over 6 weeks. Ocular examinations were conducted before treatment, and 2, 6 and 12 months after treatment. FINDINGS: Prior to treatment, 16% of the study participants had active trachoma. Two months after treatment, the prevalence of trachoma was 4.6% and 5.1% in the azithromycin and the tetracycline groups, respectively (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.09; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.53, 2.02). Subsequently, the prevalence rose to 16% in the tetracycline group, while remaining at 7.7% in the azithromycin group (adjusted OR at 12 months = 0.52; 95% CI = 0.34, 0.80). At 12 months post-treatment, there were fewer new prevalent cases in the azithromycin group, and trachoma resolution was significantly better for this group (adjusted OR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.42, 3.50). CONCLUSION: Oral azithromycin therefore appears to offer a means for controlling blinding trachoma. It is easy to administer and higher coverages may be possible than have been achieved hitherto.
Palavras-chave : Trachoma [drug therapy]; Azithromycin [therapeutic use]; Tetracycline [therapeutic use]; Clinical trials; Comparative study; Gambia.