Cadernos de Saúde Pública
On-line version ISSN 1678-4464
D'ORSI, Eleonora; CARVALHO, Marilia Sá and CRUZ, Oswaldo Gonçalves. Similarity between neonatal profile and socioeconomic index: a spatial approach. Cad. Saúde Pública [online]. 2005, vol.21, n.3, pp. 786-794. ISSN 1678-4464. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X2005000300012.
This study aims to compare neonatal characteristics and socioeconomic conditions in Rio de Janeiro city neighborhoods in order to identify priority areas for intervention. The study design was ecological. Two databases were used: the Brazilian Population Census and the Live Birth Information System, aggregated by neighborhoods. Spatial analysis, multivariate cluster classification, and Moran's I statistics for detection of spatial clustering were used. A similarity index was created to compare socioeconomic clusters with the neonatal profile in each neighborhood. The proportions of Apgar score above 8 and cesarean sections showed positive spatial correlation and high similarity with the socioeconomic index. The proportion of low birth weight infants showed a random spatial distribution, indicating that at this scale of analysis, birth weight is not sufficiently sensitive to discriminate subtler differences among population groups. The observed relationship between the neighborhoods' neonatal profile (particularly Apgar score and mode of delivery) and socioeconomic conditions shows evidence of a change in infant health profile, where the possibility for intervention shifts to medical services and the Apgar score assumes growing significance as a risk indicator.
Keywords : Spatial Analysis; Live Birth; Socioeconomic Factors.