Cadernos de Saúde Pública
On-line version ISSN 1678-4464
SANTOS, Iná S. et al. Infant mortality in three population-based cohorts in Southern Brazil: trends and differentials . Cad. Saúde Pública [online]. 2008, vol.24, suppl.3, pp. s451-s460. ISSN 1678-4464. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X2008001500011.
We studied time trends in infant mortality and associated factors between three cohort studies carried out in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in 1982, 1993, and 2004. All hospital births and deaths were determined by means of regular visits to hospitals, registrar's offices, and cemeteries. This data was used to calculate neonatal, post-neonatal, and infant mortality rates per thousand live births. Rates were also calculated according to cause of death, sex, birth weight, gestational age, and family income. The infant mortality rate fell from 36.4 per 1,000 live births in 1982 to 21.1 in 1993 and 19.4 in 2004. Major causes of infant mortality in 2004 were perinatal causes and respiratory infections. Mortality among low birth weight children from poor families fell 16% between 1993 and 2004; however, this rate increased by more than 100% among high-income families due to the increase in the number of preterm deliveries in this group. The stabilization of infant mortality in the last decade is likely to be due to excess medical interventions relating to pregnancies and delivery care.
Keywords : Infant Mortality; Low Birth Weight Infant; Premature Birth; Income; Cohort Studies.