Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública
Print version ISSN 1020-4989
BARROS, Teodoro et al. A model for the primary prevention of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS among adolescents. Rev Panam Salud Publica [online]. 2001, vol.10, n.2, pp. 86-94. ISSN 1020-4989. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1020-49892001000800003.
Objective. To develop, apply, and evaluate an educational model for the primary prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) that was based on the sexual knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs) of adolescents and on their perceptions and behaviors in this area, with the ultimate goal of helping develop educational tools to prevent infection with STDs and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Methods. An STD/HIV/AIDS primary prevention model was applied with adolescent schoolchildren (12 to 15 years old) in the canton of Santo Domingo de los Colorados, Ecuador. Two groups with similar characteristics were formed: the experimental group, with 358 students, and the control group, with 288 students. Schools were selected according to inclusion criteria, and adolescents at each school were chosen at random. A discussion guide was applied with 16 focus groups, and the resulting information was used to prepare a KAP survey. After being validated, the KAP survey was applied to the experimental group and to the control group. A prevention education program geared to students and teachers was implemented with the experimental group. Eight months later a second KAP survey was done with the experimental group and the control group. The differences in KAPs before and after the intervention were evaluated using the chi-square test. Results. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups before the intervention, but afterwards the differences were statistically significant (P = 0.012), with an increase in the knowledge of sexuality and STDs/AIDS in the experimental group, even though the long-term behavior changes have not been evaluated. Conclusions. This study validated a multifactorial STD/AIDS prevention model adapted to the reality of adolescents, and it suggests the possibility of extrapolating this experience more broadly to contexts similar to those of this Ecuador population.
Keywords : Adolescencia; prevención primaria; educación; conocimientos; actitudes y prácticas (CAP); enfermedades de transmisión sexual (ETS); VIH/sida.