Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública
Print version ISSN 1020-4989
RUIBAL-BRUNET, Ignacio J. et al. Genotypic resistance mutations to antiretroviral drugs in HIV-1 B and non-B subtypes from Cuba. Rev Panam Salud Publica [online]. 2001, vol.10, n.3, pp. 174-180. ISSN 1020-4989. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1020-49892001000900005.
Objectives. To determine the prevalence of drug resistance and to analyze the subtyping in HIV-1 samples from Cuba. Methods. From an estimated total number of 1 950 HIV-1-infected persons in Cuba, a sample of 103 patients were studied, 76 of whom had received drug treatment for HIV and 27 who had not. The RNA plasma viral load was measured, and automated sequencing was used to assess resistance mutations to reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) and to protease inhibitors (PIs). Subtyping in the V3 region was performed using heteroduplex mobility assay (HMA). In order to corroborate the HMA results, sequencing of env (C2-V3-C3) was done with one-third of the samples in each of the subtype groups detected by HMA. Results. Out of the 103 samples, 81 of them (78.6%) were classified as subtype B, 19 (18.5%) as subtype A, and 3 (2.9%) as subtype C. The prevalence of resistance mutations was 26.2% to RTIs, none to PIs alone, and 3.9% to both categories of drugs. The prevalence of resistance to nucleoside RTIs (NRTIs) was 27.6% in treated patients and 7.4% in the untreated patients, and for nonnucleoside RTIs (NNRTIs) it was 5.3% and 0%, respectively. Among treated patients a low frequency (2.6%) of dual resistance to zidovudine (ZDV) plus lamivudine (3TC) and abacavir (ABC) was detected, and multidrug resistance to NRTIs was not found. In relation to PIs together with RTIs, the prevalence of resistance was 5.3% for treated patients and 0% for untreated patients. Conclusions. Even though Cuba is generally considered an area where subtype B is dominant, we detected a high proportion of non-B subtype viruses. The low prevalence of resistance mutations to RTIs and PIs reflects the delay in introducing these drugs to Cuba. Multidrug resistance to RTIs was not found, so, as of now, the use of these drugs continues to be an option for Cuban patients.
Keywords : HIV; AIDS; antiretroviral drugs; drug resistance; Cuba.