Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública
On-line version ISSN 1680-5348Print version ISSN 1020-4989
DEARDEN, Kirk et al. Determinants of optimal breast-feeding in peri-urban Guatemala City, Guatemala. Rev Panam Salud Publica [online]. 2002, vol.12, n.3, pp.185-192. ISSN 1680-5348. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1020-49892002000900007.
Objective. This survey was conducted to identify factors affecting early initiation of breast-feeding and exclusive breast-feeding among mothers in peri-urban Guatemala City, Guatemala. Materials and Methods. In early November 1999 a census was begun in four communities of peri-urban Guatemala City, Guatemala, to identify all children < 6 months old as well as all pregnant women who were expected to deliver during the two-month data-gathering period. After the census was completed, a survey of breast-feeding practices was administered to all mothers of infants < 6 months of age. Results. The most important determinant of early initiation of breast-feeding was place of delivery. Children born at home (odds ratio (OR) = 4.1, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2- 13.3) and at Ministry of Health health centers (OR = 4.9, 95% CI: 1.6-15.0) were significantly more likely than children born at private hospitals to initiate breast-feeding early. The most important determinant of exclusive breast-feeding was whether or not the mother worked outside the home. After controlling for infant's age and sex and mother's ethnicity, women who did not work outside the home were 3.2 times as likely (95% CI: 1.6-6.4) to exclusively breast-feed as were women who worked outside the home. Lack of exclusive breast-feeding was often associated with giving a bottle. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that global efforts must be continued to improve breast-feeding practices in delivery hospitals. In addition, community-based support of breast-feeding is needed well after delivery. Mothers who work outside the home should be provided with options to maintain exclusive breast-feeding when they are physically separated from their infants due to the demands of work.
Keywords : Breast-feeding; infant nutrition; child development; health promotion; health education.