Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública
On-line version ISSN 1680-5348
Print version ISSN 1020-4989
NASCIMENTO-CARVALHO, Cristiana M. and SOUZA-MARQUES, Heloísa H.. Recommendation of the Brazilian Society of Pediatrics for antibiotic therapy in children and adolescents with community-acquired pneumonia. Rev Panam Salud Publica [online]. 2004, vol.15, n.6, pp.380-387. ISSN 1680-5348. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1020-49892004000600003.
OBJECTIVE: To standardize the use of antibiotics to treat community-acquired pneumonia in children and adolescents in Brazil. METHODS: The following data sources were utilized: the Medline and LILACS (Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde) bibliographic databases; World Health Organization and Pan American Health Organization documents published between 1980 and 2002; Internet materials in Portuguese, Spanish, or English located using the search terms "pneumonia, child, adolescent, etiology, treatment"; and interviews with renowned experts in the field. RESULTS: Hospitalization is always required for children younger than 2 months of age. That age group should be treated with ampicillin and aminoglycosides or third-generation cephalosporins. Children older than 2 months must be hospitalized if there is severe pneumonia. Tachypnea should be used as the criterion to distinguish between acute respiratory infection and pneumonia. Pneumonia is considered to be very severe when there are seizures, sleepiness, stridor at rest, severe malnutrition, no ingestion of fluids, or signs of respiratory failure such as central cyanosis. Children who are 2 months of age or older may receive outpatient treatment with amoxicillin or penicillin G procaine. In the case of inpatient treatment, crystalline penicillin or ampicillin may be used for severe cases, and oxacillin and chloramphenicol or ceftriaxone for very severe cases. A macrolide, preferably erythromycin, should be employed when the etiologic agent is suspected to be Chlamydia trachomatis, C. pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, or Bordetella pertussis. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of pneumonia and the need for hospitalization can be based on clinical assessment. The main antibiotics to be used are amoxicillin, penicillin, erythromycin, ampicillin, oxacillin, chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, and aminoglycosides, depending on the age of the patient and the severity of the disease.
Keywords : Brasil; consenso; pneumonia [terapia].