Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública
Print version ISSN 1020-4989
NEUMANN, Africa Isabel Cruz Perez; MARTINS, Ignez Salas; MARCOPITO, Luiz Francisco and ARAUJO, Eutalia Aparecida Candido. Dietary patterns associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease in a Brazilian city. Rev Panam Salud Publica [online]. 2007, vol.22, n.5, pp. 329-339. ISSN 1020-4989. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1020-49892007001000006.
OBJECTIVE: To identify the dietary patterns of individuals living in the urban area of São Paulo, Brazil, and to investigate the association between these patterns and biological, sociodemographic, and behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHOD: A cross-sectional epidemiological survey was carried out with a population-based probabilistic sample. The 2 100 participants of both sexes were from 15 to 59 years of age. A sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical, and dietary survey was applied to a systematic subsample of 700 people. Dietary patterns were determined using factor analysis based on a food frequency questionnaire. Covariance analysis was used to determine the associations between dietary patterns and sociodemographic and behavioral variables, and multilinear regression to determine the association between dietary patterns and biological factors. RESULTS: Four patterns were identified: (1) the "cafeteria" pattern (simple sugars and saturated fat), associated with areas of medium sociodemographic and environmental homogeneity, high school and university-level schooling, and alcohol consumption; positively associated with systolic (SAP) and diastolic (DAP) arterial pressure, body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR); and negatively associated with HDL. (2) The "traditional" pattern (including cereals, beans, and infusion beverages) was predominant among women and in the age group over 50 years;associated with alcohol consumption, higher income, and areas of medium homogeneity; positively associated with glucose levels and BMI; and negatively associated with triglycerides and WHR. (3) The "modern" pattern (low intake of fat and simple sugars; fish) was predominant among individuals from high homogeneity areas, with higher income and university schooling;negatively associated with DAP, total cholesterol, glucose levels, and LDL. (4) The "atherogenic" pattern (saturated fat, addition of salt to cooked foods and alcohol consumption) was predominant among males; associated with elementary schooling, smoking, alcohol consumption, and areas of medium and low homogeneity; and positively associated with total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose levels, BMI, and WHR. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate an unfavorable trend in the dietary patterns of this population, since three of the four patterns identified (cafeteria, traditional, and atherogenic) are significantly associated with risk factors for CVD.
Keywords : Factor analysis; statistical; food consumption; cardiovascular diseases; Brazil.