Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública
Print version ISSN 1020-4989
FRANCO-ALVAREZ, Nubia; AVILA-FUNES, José Alberto; RUIZ-ARREGUI, Liliana and GUTIERREZ-ROBLEDO, Luis Miguel. Determinants of malnutrition risk among the older adult community: a secondary analysis of the Health, Wellbeing, and Aging Study (SABE) in Mexico. Rev Panam Salud Publica [online]. 2007, vol.22, n.6, pp. 369-375. ISSN 1020-4989. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1020-49892007001100001.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the psychosocial and health determinants associated with malnutrition risk (MR) among older adults living in the community of Mexico City, Mexico. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. Secondary analysis was performed on the data of adults who were 60 or more years of age, living in the metropolitan area of Mexico city, and had participated in the multi-city study on Health, Wellbeing, and Aging in 1999 and 2000. Information on 820 participants was analyzed (mean age 69.7 ± 7.6 years; 62.9% female). In addition to the MR (dependent variable) that was established through a basic nutrition evaluation, the following variables were analyzed: sociodemographics, body mass index, comorbidity, symptoms of depression, oral health, mental function, functional capability, among others. Independent associations from among the variables and the MR were calculated by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were determined. RESULTS: MR was present in 261 (31.8%) participants. The univariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for possible confounding variables showed that the following variables demonstrated significant and independent associations with MR among the study sample population: not having a pension (adjusted OR = 1.45; 95%CI: 1.01 - 2.38); feeling that one did not have enough money to live on (adjusted OR = 2.52; 95%CI: 1.69 - 3.74); having osteoarthritis (adjusted OR = 2.34; 95%CI: 1.42 - 3.85); having a low body mass index (adjusted OR = 0.89; 95%CI: 0.85 - 0.93); having symptoms of depression (adjusted OR = 5.41; 95%CI: 1.90 - 15.34); eating only once daily (adjusted OR = 12.95; 95%CI: 5.19 - 32.28) or twice daily (adjusted OR = 3.27; 95%CI: 2.18 - 4.9); and having physical difficulty with getting to bed (adjusted OR = 3.25; CI 95%: 1.58 - 6.68), going out alone (adjusted OR = 2.70; CI 95%: 1.54 - 4.73), and using the telephone (adjusted OR = 1.95; CI 95%: 1.10 - 3.43). CONCLUSIONS: There are multiple and various determinants of malnutrition risk. To determine MR, the older adult's financial and social situation must be carefully evaluated along with the more traditional health and anthropometric information.
Keywords : Elderly nutrition; malnutrition; risk factors; Mexico.