Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública
Print version ISSN 1020-4989
AGUDELO, Clara Inés and GRUPO SIREVA II et al. Resistance to non-beta-lactam antibiotics in the clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae of children in Latin America: SIREVA II, 2000-2005. Rev Panam Salud Publica [online]. 2009, vol.25, n.4, pp. 305-313. ISSN 1020-4989. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1020-49892009000400004.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the development of resistance to erythromycin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ), and vancomycin of the invasive isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae obtained from children in 10 Latin American/Caribbean countries during six years of surveillance. METHODS: Analysis of 8 993 isolates of S. pneumoniae recovered in 2000-2005 from children with invasive infections, who were less than 6 years of age, and from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Mexico, Paraguay, Uruguay, or Venezuela. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined through the methods established and standardized by the SIREVA project. Multidrug resistance was defined as: resistance to three or more antibiotics of the same class; to the non-beta-lactams analyzed by this study; or, to the beta-lactams evaluated by a previous study, in which 37.8% of these isolates showed decreased susceptibility to penicillin. RESULTS:Some degree of resistance was found to TMP-SMZ and erythromycin (56.4% and 15.4% of the isolates studied, respectively), with 4.6% highly resistant to chloramphenicol. All isolates were susceptible to vancomycin. The highest prevalence of TMP-SMZ resistance was observed in the pneumonia isolates; and that of erythromycin, in cases of sepsis (61.6% and 25.5%, respectively; P < 0.01). The high-est prevalence of TMP-SMZ resistance was found in Brazil (71.9%), and that of erythromycin, in Mexico (38.2%) and Venezuela (32.9%). The 14, 6B, 19F, and 23F serotypes were most often associated with resistance to the antibiotics in the study. CONCLUSIONS: High and increasing rates of isolates resistant to TMP-SMZ and erythromycin were observed, as well as a decreasing percentage of isolates resistant to chloramphenicol. These trends highlight differences among the countries studied.
Keywords : Anti-bacterial agents; Streptococcus pneumoniae; beta-lactam resistance; child; Latin America; Caribbean.