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Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública

Print version ISSN 1020-4989

Abstract

CECCHINI, Diego et al. Prevention of vertical HIV-1 transmission in a tertiary care public hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Rev Panam Salud Publica [online]. 2011, vol.30, n.3, pp. 189-195. ISSN 1020-4989.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1020-49892011000900001.

OBJECTIVE: To describe characteristics of mother-child binomium (MCB), antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis, time trends, and variables associated with vertical transmission of HIV-1 in a population assisted by a tertiary public hospital in Argentina. METHODS: Prospective descriptive study undertaken by the Hospital Cosme Argerich s Vertical Transmission Working Group, Buenos Aires city, Argentina 1998-2008. Periods 1998-2003 vs. 2004-2008 were compared and variables associated with vertical transmission identified. RESULTS: Of 357 MCB, 21.0% of the mothers had HCV coinfection and 68.0% CD4 < 500/µL. During pregnancy, 75.0% received ARV: zidovudine (17.8%), zidovudinelamivudine (19.8%), zidovudine-lamivudine-nevirapine (41.9%), and zidovudinelamivudine-protease inhibitor (11.4%); 74.0% had viral load (VL) peripartum < 1 000 copies/mL. Caesarean delivery: 58.0%. Intrapartum zidovudine: 83.4%; 98.0% of infants received prophylaxis; zidovudine monotherapy was the most frequently used (73.0%). Of neonates, 15.4% had low birthweight and 6.7% were premature. The global vertical transmission was 3.3% (10/302). Comparing both periods, an increase in triple ARV and VL < 1 000 copies/mL in peripartum and a decrease in the absence of maternal/neonatal prophylaxis and overall VT was observed. The vertical transmission for 2004-2008 was 1.3% vs. 6.3% in Buenos Aires city (official statistics). Absence of maternal/intrapartum prophylaxis and prematurity were associated with vertical transmission (P < 0.01 and P = 0.01, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: A decline in overall vertical transmission between the two periods was observed attributable to increased coverage of maternal/neonatal ARV administration and increased use of triple therapy. The absence of maternal/intrapartum prophylaxis was the main factor associated with vertical transmission, emphasizing the need to improve accessibility of MCB to the local public health system.

Keywords : HIV; infectious disease transmission, vertical; vulnerable populations; primary prevention; women's health; sexually transmitted diseases; Argentina.

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