Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública
On-line version ISSN 1680-5348
Print version ISSN 1020-4989
GAITAN-CEPEDA, Luis Alberto et al. Oral candida in Mexican children with malnutrition, social marginalization, or HIV/AIDS. Rev Panam Salud Publica [online]. 2012, vol.31, n.1, pp.48-53. ISSN 1680-5348. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1020-49892012000100007.
OBJECTIVE: Determine the frequency of candida in the oral cavity of children with a risk of developing opportunistic infections, and establish if there is an association between the frequency of this oral colonization and three categories of at-risk populations. METHODS: Four infant population groups in Mexico were studied: an HIV/AIDS group undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (35 girls and 25 boys); a malnourished group (26 girls and 29 boys); a group from the Tarahumara indigenous people, one of the poorest ethnic populations in the country (37 girls and 20 boys); and a control group (8 girls and 21 boys in apparently good health). The children with HIV/AIDS were immunologically and virologically classified according to the EC Clearinghouse criteria, while malnutrition was determined through the World Health Organization's weight/height index. A sample of oral mucosa was taken with a sterile swab, which was incubated in Sabouraud dextrose agar and in Candida CHROMagar®. The species of candida were confirmed through the API ID32C test. RESULTS: The HIV/AIDS and malnutrition groups showed the higher frequency of Candida spps (51.7% and 38.2%, respectively), while the frequency level in the Tarahumara group was similar to that of the control group (17.5% versus 10.3%). With regard to the species of candida, the malnutrition group had the greatest diversity: C. albicans, C. tropical, C. krusei, and C. glabrata. CONCLUSIONS: The children with HIV/AIDS and malnutrition require strategies designed to reduce oral candidal colonization and reduce the risk of opportunistic infections.
Keywords : Candida; candida albicans; candida tropicalis; oral health; child health (public health); pediatric dentistry; HIV; acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; Mexico.