Revista Española de Salud Pública
versión impresa ISSN 1135-5727
BAENA DIEZ, José Miguel et al. Association between clustering of cardiovascular risk factors and the risk of cardiovascular disease. Rev. Esp. Salud Publica [online]. 2002, vol.76, n.1, pp. 07-15. ISSN 1135-5727. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1135-57272002000100002.
Background: Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of mortality in Spain. The aim of this work was to study the association between clustering of cardiovascular risk factors and the risk of suffering major cardiovascular events: ischemic cardiopathy, cerebrovascular disease and peripheral arteriopathy of the lower limbs. Method: A descriptive transversal study was carried out in a city health centre, with a total of 2248 patients selected by simple random sampling of the clinical records with a mean age of 15 years. The data were obtained by examining the clinical records and estimating Odds Ratios (OR) for any cardiovascular event (n = 224), ischemic cardiopathy (n = 123), cerebrovascular disease (n = 84) and peripheral arteriopathy (n = 55) in relation to the number of cardiovascular risk factors. The cardiovascular risk factors included in the study were smoking, arterial hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, diabetes and obesity. The OR was adjusted for age and sex. Results: The percentage of patients with 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4-6 cardiovascular risk factors was 39.1, 32.8, 17.5, 6.9 and 3.7 respectively. The OR for experiencing a cardiovascular event associated to 1, 2, 3 and 4-6 cardiovascular risk factors was 1.6 (CI95%: 0.9-2.7), 2.8 (CI95%: 1.7-4.7), 3.6 (CI95%: 1.9-6.5) and 5.6 (CI95%: 2.9-10.8), respectively. The OR for ischemic cardiopathy associated to the same risk levels were 2.3 (CI95%: 1.1-4.6), 2.5 (CI95%: 1.2-5.2), 5.3 (CI95%: 2.4-11.5) and 6.2 (CI95%: 2.7-14.3), respectively. For cardiovascular disease, the OR were 1.1 (CI95%: 0.5-2.5), 2.3 (CI95%: 1.2-5.3), 2.4 (CI95%: 1.0-5.9) and 5.6 (CI95%: 2.2-14.1), respectively. The OR for peripheral arteriopathy were 2.1 (CI95%: 0.8-5.9 ), 3.7 (CI95%: 1.3-10.5), 3.3 (CI95%: 1.0-11.1) and 6.1 (CI95%: 1.8-20.3), respectively. Conclusions: The addition of cardiovascular risk factors is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. This finding emphasises the need for prevention of cardiovascular risk factors in primary care.
Palabras llave : Cardiovascular disease; Coronary heart disease; Stroke; Peripheral arteriopathy.