Revista Española de Salud Pública
Print version ISSN 1135-5727
CARRASCO-PORTINO, Mercedes et al. Gender development inequalities epidemiology in Spain (1990-2000). Rev. Esp. Salud Publica [online]. 2008, vol.82, n.3, pp. 283-299. ISSN 1135-5727. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1135-57272008000300005.
Background: Gender is an important health determinant for public health policies. This study describes the changes in gender development inequalities in Spain and its autonomous regions from 1990 to 2000. Methods: An ecological study using the Human Development Index (HDI) and the Gender Development Index (GDI) was done. IDG both men and women was analysed according to indexes of education, income and life expectancy at birth. Results: Although the GDI has had an increase of 5,05% in the 90´s, 51,5% of the population was located above the global GDI of Spain in 1990, moreover this number decreased to 46,3% in 2000. Gender inequalities have been reduced both at national and regional levels. The regions with the lowest increase were Asturias (3.37%), Cantabria (3.68%) and Baleares Islands (3.71%). The regions with the highest increase were Madrid (6,46%) and Extremadura (6,75%). All the autonomous regions showed a number of GDI lower than the value of HDI. Both sexes achieved similar increase in life expectancy (Men: 5% and Women: 4%). An unequal variation was detected according to the autonomous region (Basque Country; Men: 7% and Women: 3%; Madrid; Men:8% and Women:5%). Women have improved their educational level in comparison to men (Men: 3% and Women: 6%). In the 90s, men obtained more income than women, but women improved their situation three times more than men. Conclusions: Inequalities in Human Development analysed by gender have been reduced in the 90s in Spain. However, the improvement of education, income and life expectancy occurred only in some autonomous regions. This situation shows the differences among Spanish autonomous regions.
Keywords : Gender; Health inequalities; Human Development; Life expectancy; Education; Income.