Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
On-line version ISSN 1678-4561Print version ISSN 1413-8123
CLOUGHERTY, Jane Ellen and KUBZANSKY, Laura Diane. A framework for examining social stress and susceptibility to air pollution in respiratory health. Ciênc. saúde coletiva [online]. 2010, vol.15, n.4, pp.2059-2074. ISSN 1678-4561. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1413-81232010000400020.
There is growing interest in disentangling the health effects of spatially clustered social and physical environmental exposures and in exploring potential synergies among them, with particular attention directed to the combined effects of psychosocial stress and air pollution. Both exposures may be elevated in lower-income urban communities, and it has been hypothesized that stress, which can influence immune function and susceptibility, may potentiate the effects of air pollution in respiratory disease onset and exacerbation. In this paper, we review the existing epidemiologic and toxicologic evidence on synergistic effects of stress and pollution, and describe the physiologic effects of stress and key issues related to measuring and evaluating stress as it relates to physical environmental exposures and susceptibility. Finally, we identify some of the major methodologic challenges ahead as we work toward disentangling the health effects of clustered social and physical exposures and accurately describing the interplay among these exposures. As this research proceeds, we recommend careful attention to the relative temporalities of stress and pollution exposures, to nonlinearities in their independent and combined effects, to physiologic pathways not elucidated by epidemiologic methods, and to the relative spatial distributions of social and physical exposures at multiple geographic scales.
Keywords : Air pollution; Social stress; Spatial analysis; Synergistic effects; Urban community health.