Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Print version ISSN 1413-8123
BRICENO-LEON, Roberto. Three phases of homicidal violence in Venezuela. Ciênc. saúde coletiva [online]. 2012, vol.17, n.12, pp. 3233-3242. ISSN 1413-8123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1413-81232012001200008.
Venezuela was considered one of the least violent countries in Latin America, however by 2010 it was among the countries with the highest homicide rate. This article analyzes the evolution of homicides in Venezuela between 1985 and 2010 and proposes the existence of three stages which correspond to trends in social and political institutions of the country. The first from 1985 to 1993, characterized by the looting of 1989 and the coups d'état of 1992, when for the first time the homicide rate rose from 8 to 20. The second phase from 1994 to 1998 was a recovery period of the institutional and political stability when the homicide rate remained constant at around 20. The third phase began in 1999 with the H Chavez government and the institutional destruction that comes with the Bolivarian revolution and caused an increase in the rate of 20 to 57 homicides per 100 thousand inhabitants. This article argues that the explanation for the changes in the phases is to be found in the transformation of social and political institutions.
Keywords : Homicide; Venezuela; politics; violence; institutions; society.