Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia
Print version ISSN 1415-790X
RONCO, Alvaro L. et al. Risk factors for esophageal cancer in non-smokers and non-drinkers: a case-control study in Uruguay. Rev. bras. epidemiol. [online]. 2004, vol.7, n.4, pp. 383-391. ISSN 1415-790X. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1415-790X2004000400002.
In order to analyze possible associations of lifestyle factors with esophageal cancer among non-smokers and non-drinkers, the authors carried out the present study. Special emphasis was placed on the analysis of "mate" (infusion of the herb Ilex paraguariensis) drinking, which has been associated with most cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract. The study was conducted at the Instituto Nacional de Oncología in Montevideo, Uruguay. Data corresponded to 73 esophageal cancer cases and 219 controls. A detailed questionnaire included sections on sociodemographic variables, occupation, family history of cancer, "mate" drinking, and a restricted list of dietary items including: red meat, processed meat, salted meat, barbecue, milk, fresh vegetables and fruits. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for major potential confounders, including age, sex, education, urban/rural status and region of birth. Moderate increases in risk were observed for: daily "mate" consumption (OR=2.2), age of quitting (OR=2.02), duration (OR=2.49) and intensity (OR=1.91), most of which were statistically significant. Consequently, our report demonstrates a particular role for "mate" consumption on esophageal cancer in Uruguay, regardless of other well-known risk factors.
Keywords : Esophageal cancer; Mate; Ilex paraguariensis; Epidemiology.