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Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia
Print version ISSN 1415-790X
LIEBER, Nicolina Silvana Romano and RIBEIRO, Eliane. Adverse drug reactions leading children to the emergency department. Rev. bras. epidemiol. [online]. 2012, vol.15, n.2, pp. 265-274. ISSN 1415-790X. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1415-790X2012000200004.
The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADR) that led children to hospital emergency care in a university hospital in São Paulo, SP. Medical charts (MC) of patients seen at the pediatric emergency department were selected according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes consistent with ADR. Of 23,286 cases studied, 2,409 records were selected. An ADR was observed in 83 (0.36%) MC. Most ADR occurred in children aged 1-5 years with a slight predominance in males (51.8%). The drugs most commonly involved were antibiotics for systemic use (53.0%), vaccines (9.6%) and analgesics (7.2%). Most ADR were dermatological (54.2%) or gastrointestinal (22.9%) manifestations. Two ADR were considered severe (2.4%) while 61.4% were mild and 36.1% were moderate. The incidence was lower than in the literature, probably because it is a retrospective study that used the ICD for selecting the data assessed. The characteristics of ADR are similar to those found in other countries. Interventions are needed to improve the diagnosis and the use of antibiotics, as they were the drugs most involved in the ADR observed. Research in hospital emergency is important to acknowledge ADR that occur outside the hospital setting and may help to identify the most severe ones. Despite limitations, the method requires few resources and materials, and is a good alternative to initial diagnosis. The present study should be followed by studies with higher sensitivity to detect these reactions in order to propose prevention measures.
Keywords : Pharmacoepidemiology; Adverse drug reaction; Emergency care; Product surveillance; Drug utilization.