Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia
Print version ISSN 1415-790X
CARMONA-FONSECA, Jaime. Plasmodium vivax malaria recurrence according to the use of primaquine: analysis of longitudinal descriptive studies. Rev. bras. epidemiol. [online]. 2012, vol.15, n.3, pp.488-503. ISSN 1415-790X. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1415-790X2012000300005.
BACKGROUND: primaquine (PQ) is the only drug available in the market to prevent Plasmodium vivax malaria recurrence, but several aspects are still unknown. OBJECTIVE: To compare PQ regimens to prevent recurrence of vivax malaria. METHODS: systematic review and meta-analysis of data. RESULTS: 1. According to descriptive studies, is PQ effective in preventing recurrence of vivax malaria? Yes. The comparison of studies that did not use PQ to others that did, using any regimen, showed that if PQ is not used, recurrence is highly likely. 2. Are equal daily doses effective (mg/kg) but total doses different? The total dose of 75 mg is equally or more effective than 210 mg. 3. Does the efficacy depend on where the infection happens? Yes. There is variation by country and region. 4. Does the recurrence rate depend on the post-treatment time follow-up? The answer is not uniform everywhere. CONCLUSIONS: Although not 100%, PQ is effective in preventing recurrence. Total doses of 210 and 75 mg are equally effective, but 75 mg alone has been evaluated in India, where P. vivax seems to respond better to PQ than elsewhere. The effect of place in the proportion of recurrences seems evident, even using the same total dose. The role of follow-up time is not clear. Although the standard regimen has an average effectiveness of 90% or more, alternative regimens should be assessed.
Keywords : Primaquine; Malaria; Plasmodium vivax; Recurrence; Efficacy; Descriptive studies.