Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
Print version ISSN 1726-4634
MENDOZA, Alberto; CHAVEZ, Víctor; HIJAR, Gisely and LOYOLA, Jessica. Is safety for human and animal health the use of Salmonella-based rodenticides?. Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica [online]. 2010, vol.27, n.4, pp. 578-585. ISSN 1726-4634. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1726-46342010000400014.
We conducted a systematic search of the literature to identify publications on the safety of exposure to Salmonella-based rodenticides by humans and animals. We included full-text publications that described the methods and presented their results satisfactorily. Of 545 publications retrieved, 47 were reviewed in full text and from those 12 were selected. Six reports featured cases of salmonellosis in humans, with fatal cases, associated with exposure to previous versions of this type of rodenticide. A clinical trial reported an increased frequency of diarrhea and fever in the group that ingested Biorat ® (the current commercial form) containing Salmonella, however the difference from the control group was not significant, but the trial had methodological problems. Strains of Salmonella enteritidis from an earlier version of the rat poison (Ratin®) and those in the current version correspond to the same variety (Danyzs) and phage type (6a), and were found to be closely related using the technique of pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). No pathogenic effects of this Salmonella were reported in different animal species tested; however, we found limitations in the methodology. We conclude that the Salmonella enteritidis contained in earlier rat poison formulations produced illness in humans so that its commercialization was prohibited, and that there would be a potential risk with the present formulation because it contains a very similar bacteria, and because there is not sufficient evidence to guarantee its safety. Well-designed studies still need to be done by institutions that do not have a conflict of interest before it can be applied in the areas of public health and agriculture.
Keywords : Rodenticidas; Salmonella; Salmonella enteritidis; Public health; Safety.