Services on Demand
- Cited by SciELO
- Access statistics
Print version ISSN 0042-9686
Bull World Health Organ vol.81 n.8 Genebra Jan. 2003
POLICY AND PRATICE
Données propres à étayer les conseils diététiques alimentaires relatifs à la consommation de sucre en Afrique du Sud
Evidencia a favor de unas directrices dietéticas basadas en los alimentos para el consumo de azúcar en Sudáfrica
N.P. SteynI, 1; N.G. MyburghII; J.H. NelIII
IChief Specialist Scientist, Chronic Disease of Lifestyle Unit, WHO Collaborating Centre for Chronic Diseases of Lifestyle, South African Medical Research Council, PO Box 19070, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa (email: email@example.com)
IIDirector, WHO Collaborating Centre for Oral Health, University of the Western Cape, Mitchell's Plain. South Africa
IIIConsulting Statistician, Chronic Diseases of Lifestyle Unit, Medical Research Council, Tygerberg, South Africa
Since 1997, South Africa has been developing and implementing food-based dietary guidelines for people aged >6 years. The complexity of the population, which contains different ethnic groups, as well as the rapid urbanization that is taking place, means that food-based dietary guidelines need to consider both overnutrition and undernutrition. The initial guidelines did not include guidance on sugar, and the Department of Health was not prepared to approve them until appropriate guidance on sugar was included. This paper summarizes the evidence available for such a guideline and the nature of that evidence. Other low- and middle-income countries, particularly those in Africa, may face a similar dilemma and might learn from our experience.
Keywords: Dietary sucrose/administration and dosage/adverse effects; Dietary carbohydrates/administration and dosage; Energy intake; Diet/standards; Dental caries/prevention and control; Protein-energy malnutrition/prevention and control; Obesity/prevention and control; Nutritive value; Micronutrients; Chronic disease; Food habits/ethnology; Guidelines; Nutrition policy; Rural health; Urban health; South Africa/epidemiology/ethnology (source: MeSH, NLM).
En 1997, l'Afrique du Sud a entrepris d'élaborer et d'appliquer refusé de les approuver tant que la question du sucre n'y figurait des conseils diététiques alimentaires pour les personnes à partir pas. Le présent article récapitule les données de nature à étayer de six ans. Etant donné la complexité de la population, qui est une recommandation relative au sucre ainsi que la nature de ces composée de groupes ethniques divers, et l'urbanisation galo-données. Notre expérience pourrait inspirer d'autres pays au pante, les conseils diététiques alimentaires doivent couvrir aussi revenu inférieur ou moyen, notamment en Afrique, qui se troubien la suralimentation que la sous-nutrition. Les conseils initiaux veraient devant ce même dilemme. faisaient l'impasse sur le sucre et le Département de la Santé a refusé de les approuver tant que la question du sucre ny figurait pas. Le présent article récapitule les données de nature à étayer une recommandation relative au sucre ainsi que la nature de ces données. Notre expérience pourrait inspirer dautres pays au revenu inférieur ou moyen, notamment en Afrique, qui se trouveraient devant ce même dilemme.
Mots clés: Sucrose alimentaire/administration et posologie/effets indésirables; Glucide alimentaire/administration et posologie; Ration calorique; Régime alimentaire/normes; Carie dentaire/prévention et contrôle; Malnutrition protéino-calorique/prévention et contrôle; Obésité/prévention et contrôle; Valeur nutritive; Micronutrients; Maladie chronique; Habitude alimentaire/éthnologie; Ligne directrice; Politique nutritionnelle; Hygiène rurale; Santé urbaine; Afrique du Sud/épidémiologie/éthnologie (source: MeSH, INSERM).
Desde 1997 Sudáfrica viene formulando y aplicando directrices sobre el azúcar, y el Departamento de Salud no estaba dispuesdietéticas basadas en los alimentos para las personas mayores to a aprobarlas mientras no proporcionaran asesoramiento en de 6 años. Debido a la complejidad de la población, que com-ese sentido. Este artículo resume las pruebas científicas que prende diferentes grupos étnicos, así como a la rápida urbaniza-respaldan tal asesoramiento y la naturaleza de esas pruebas. ción que está teniendo lugar, las normas dietéticas basadas en Otros países de ingresos bajos y medianos, particularmente de los alimentos han de abarcar tanto la sobrenutrición como la África, se hallan quizá ante un dilema similar y podrían sacar prodesnutrición. Las primeras directrices no incluían orientación vecho de nuestra experiencia.
Palabras clave: Sacarosa en la dieta/administración y dosificación/efectos adversos; Carbohidratos en la dieta/administración y dosificación; Ingestión de energía; Dieta/norma; Caries dental/prevención y control; Desnutrición proteico-energética/prevención y control; Obesidad/prevención y control; Valor nutritivo; Micronutrientes; Enfermedad crónica; Hábitos alimenticios/etnología; Pautas; Política nutricional; Salud rural; Salud urbana; Sudáfrica/epidemiología/etnología (fuente: DeCS, BIREME).
The argument that people should limit intake of sugar added to food is based on evidence that a high intake of sugar increases the risk of certain chronic diseases, particularly dental caries and obesity. As oral diseases and obesity are widespread in South Africa and affect large numbers of people in terms of physical, economic, and social outcomes, the impact that reductions in sugar intake would have as an important preventative measure needs to be emphasized (1). This paper aims to determine whether a food-based dietary guideline on sugar consumption is a justifiable component of public health policy in the South African context. It reviews the scientific evidence that suggests that sugar is a risk factor for various illnesses. It examines the current patterns of sugar consumption in South African adults and children aged >6 years, and the sugar-related conditions they experience.
The term "added sugar" is used throughout and, unless otherwise stated, this refers to all monosaccharides and disaccharides that are added to foods and drinks during preparation and cooking (2).
The call for a sugar guideline
The development of a dietary guideline for "sugar" has been fraught with conflict and political pressure, both locally and internationally. These conflicts seem to arise primarily from the twin imperatives: the formulation of appropriate public health policy and the protection of commercial sugar interests. Both have fundamentally influenced the content and process of this debate.
In 1997, the Nutrition Society of South Africa established a task group to develop food-based dietary guidelines for South Africa. The objective of this group, the members of which were mostly volunteers, was to develop a core set of food-based dietary guidelines to promote health in South Africans aged >6 years according to WHO's guidelines for the development of food-based dietary guidelines (3). Members of the Food-based Dietary Guidelines Task Group came from a wide range of organizations; many active participants came from the food industry, even though some had a dual role, in that they also represented their professional association. From the start, the South African Sugar Association played a role and also sponsored workshops (4).
In September 2001, preliminary guidelines (that excluded guidance on sugar) and results of a pilot study on consumers were published along with a series of technical papers that supported the guidelines (5). The preliminary guidelines were tested on consumers in order to test their understanding of the messages conveyed. The Department of Health raised concerns about the guidelines and urged the inclusion of a guideline on sugar as a preventative measure against the high prevalence of dental caries in certain population groups in South Africa. Such a guideline would conform to the national oral health goal: "to promote the reduction of risk factors, like sugar intake, tobacco and alcohol abuse" (1) and to the Department of Health's "obesity guidelines", which advocate a sugar intake of less than 45 g per day (Department of Health, personal communication, 2002). The Department of Health provisionally accepted the food-based dietary guidelines (Box 1) with minor revisions, but it insisted that a sugar guideline be developed and included. We were charged with the task of writing a technical support paper for an appropriate sugar guideline aimed at children (aged >6 years) and adults.
Sugar consumption in South Africa
Average intakes and sources of added sugar
The National Food Consumption Survey (NFCS) undertaken in 1999 is a useful source of data on consumption of added sugar in children aged 79 years (6). Large differences in sugar intake are seen according to geographical area and dietary assessment method used. For example, the lowest mean sugar consumption in the NFCS determined with the 24-hour recall dietary method was 22 g in the Eastern Cape Province and the highest was 57 g in the Western Cape Province. When the food frequency method was used, the lowest mean intake was 22 g in the Free State Province and the highest was 91 g in Western Cape Province.
Urban and rural differences are also seen, with mean intakes with the food frequency method of 4259 g sugar in urban areas compared with means of 2641 g in rural areas (6). White children had mean intakes of added sugar of 6781 g and black children 4453 g. In black adults (aged 1544 years) from urban areas, average consumption of added sugar was 4752 g/day (7). For adult South Africans, mean sugar intake with the 24-hour recall method was 27.841.1 g/day (8).
The average amounts of consumed sugar reported for South Africans are generally lower than those reported in the United States, where consumers consume the equivalent of 82 g added sugar per day (9). As indicated earlier, however, this is not true for all of South Africa.
Generally, it is inappropriate to compare sugar intake in South Africa with that reported in studies from most European countries, because such studies have not all used the same classification system for sugar. For example, Denmark, France, and Germany reported average sugar intakes in terms of "sucrose", but the Netherlands included milk sugar (lactose) (10).
Fig. 1 and Table 1 show the actual percentage of sugar-containing food items consumed in urban and rural areas of South Africa (8). White table sugar and squash (non-carbon-ated soft drinks) are the most commonly consumed food items in rural areas of South Africa. In urban areas, the variety of sugar-containing items consumed is greater. The most striking finding was that <3 % of adolescents and adults consumed carbonated beverages in rural areas compared with 33% in urban areas (8). In the United Kingdom and the United States, the largest source of added sugar is regular soft drinks, which account for about one-third of intake (11).
Sugar as a percentage of energy intake
Intake of added sugar of adolescents and adults (aged >10 years) amounts to 5.9% of total energy intake in rural areas and 12.3% in urban areas (twofold difference) (Table 2). A similar trend was found in children aged 69 years (6). In black adolescents (aged 1518 years) in urban areas, sugar was 10.7% as a percentage of energy intake in male participants and 14.6% in female participants (7, 12). The latter (14.6%) is similar to that of children in the United States, which is namely 16% of energy intake (11).
WHO recommended a sugar intake of <10% of total energy intake (13) for the prevention of caries; 23 countries currently comply and have this as a set objective (14). As consumption in people in urban areas of South Africa exceeded the 10% recommended by WHO (13), we caution against the argument that South Africans do not eat a lot of sugar. In urban areas, consumption of sugar is much higher than in rural areas, and national averages can hide dramatic local variations in consumption.
Nutritional conditions associated with sugar intake
Does sugar cause dental caries? The answer to this question is a resounding yes. Although sugar does not work alone (it also needs oral commensal bacteria, teeth, and time), it is an essential component in the pathogenesis of dental caries (15). Evidence shows that free sugars are undoubtedly the most important dietary factor in the development of dental caries. Free sugars (sugars) are monosaccharides and disaccharides that are added during the preparation or production of foods and drinks, as well as sugars that naturally occur in foods such as honey and fruit juices. When we refer to sugar in isolation, we mean sucrose (13).
Dental caries is the disease probably most strongly associated with sugar consumption. The ability of oral bacteria, most notably Streptococcus mutans, to ferment sucrose and other sugars into acid and thus produce a sustained pH <5.5 is the basis of the demineralization process that is capable of destroying tooth enamel and that eventually leads to tooth loss.
Some of the strongest evidence to show a link between the risk of dental caries and dietary intake of sugar comes from studies carried out during the last 50 years, which all showed that the caries process depended on a sustained supply of fermentable sugars (1620). The simultaneous presence of fermentable sugar and specific bacteria (mainly S. mutans) led to significant caries. Absence of either component meant caries did not develop (21).
Various researchers have shown changes in intraoral pH brought about by sustained intake of fermentable sugars (22). Animal studies (23) and human studies (17, 18, 24) have highlighted the impact of frequent intake of dietary sugar on caries development. The frequency and total consumption of sugar-rich foods both correlate strongly with the occurrence of dental caries, and also with each other, which suggests that strategies to control one variable will help control the other (14). Other researchers have shown the danger of consuming sugar in forms that are very sticky (that have strong adhesive properties), as they are cleared from the mouth by saliva very slowly and with great difficulty (2527).
The ability of fluoride to protect teeth against caries is well established. The association between frequency of sugar intake and dental caries is negated only partly by the presence of fluoride (28). The beneficial effects of fluoride vary according to the amount of sugars consumed (29). In one of the most recent systematic reviews of the subject, Burt & Pai concluded that where there is good exposure to fluoride, consumption of sugars is a moderate risk factor for caries in most people. Preventing consumption of excess sugars is therefore a justifiable part of caries prevention if not the most crucial aspect for most people; consumption of sugars is likely to be a more powerful indicator of the risk of caries in people who do not have a regular exposure to fluoride; and with widespread use of fluoride, consumption of sugars still has a role to play in the prevention of caries, but this role is not as strong as without exposure to fluoride (1, 3032).
Other researchers have illustrated a dose-response relation between the level of dental caries and the intake of sugars; a dramatic rise in the prevalence and severity of caries is seen as the intake of sugars increases from around 15 kg to 35 kg per person per year (3336). On the basis of this evidence, Sheiham recommended that in the presence of fluoride, a safe intake of sugars would be up to 15 kg/person/year, and in the absence of fluoride, up to 10 kg (37).
Is tooth decay a problem for South Africans?
Unfortunately, tooth decay is widespread in most South African populations, but it also displays wide variations in prevalence and severity across communities (38). Values for decayed, missing, and filled teeth range from 5 to 32. The prevalence of dental caries approaches 90% in most South African adult communities (38).
Table 3 gives a small selection of results from the South African National Oral Health Survey carried out in 198889 and reported in 1994. A more recent effort to collect data on the national oral health status in 2000 has yet to report its findings. Preliminary data from KwaZulu-Natal seem to suggest that urban populations have more dental caries than rural populations in this province (1) and that people of white and coloured (mixed ethnic ancestry) groups still have substantially more caries than black people, with Indians somewhere between (31).
According to the recently published demographic and health survey undertaken by the Department of Health in 1998, dental problems are of great concern among South Africans (1). In 1998, 4.3 million (34.6%) African men and 6.3 million (46.9%) African women aged > 15 years indicated that they experienced oral health problems. In total, 23.7% coloured men, 20.8% white men, 34.5% coloured women, and 23.7% of white women had lost all their natural teeth (1). For this reason, the promotion of meaningful guidelines on sugar consumption is a critical public health promotion measure in our communities.
In short, to limit the caries risk posed by dietary sugar intake:
Intake of free sugars should be limited to 1520 kg/per-son/year (4055 g/day) in the presence of fluoride and <15 kg/year (<40 g/day) in the absence of fluoride.
Frequency of intake of foods that contain sugar should be limited to a maximum of four times a day.
Fluoride exposure should be promoted and managed at optimum levels.
Frequency of intake of soft drinks and fruit juice should be limited to prevent dental erosion.
One of the most common arguments for the lack (or absence) of a dietary guideline on added sugar in South Africa has been the importance of sugar as a source of energy in children (39). As a deficiency of energy is associated with a deficit in growth and related consequences, children (aged > 6 years) and adults need to be evaluated in this context.
Data from the NFCS (6) showed that 13% of children aged 79 years were stunted (height-for-age Zscore <2 standard deviations), 7.7% were underweight (weight-for-age Zscore <2 standard deviations), and 3.4% had wasting (weight-for-height Zscore <2 standard deviations). The prevalence of overweight children (weight-for-height Zscore >2 standard deviations) was 6.1%; this increased to 9% in the same age group in urban areas only. These results can be interpreted as a chronic deficit of energy intake in up to 13% of children aged 79 years. In this same age group, however, 69% of children were classified as overweight. Of greater concern, however, is the increasing prevalence of overweight people aged >15 years. The recent demographic and health survey in adults found a prevalence of obesity (body mass index > 30) of 19.2 % in South Africans and 29% in black women (1).
Table 4 gives data on the macronutrient and anthropometric status of children aged 69 years in the NFCS in relation to consumption of added sugar, adjusted for socioeconomic status, which was found to be a significant confounding variable (6). Total energy intake was not significantly greater in the highest tertile of sugar intake for which the average consumption was 57.9 g/day of sugar (18.2% of total energy intake). No significant differences were seen in carbohydrate or fat intakes between the groups with different levels of sugar intake. A significantly lower protein intake was seen, however, in the highest tertile of sugar consumers. In addition, percentage of energy contributed by protein was significantly lower in the highest tertile of added sugar.
No significant association was seen between the sugar tertiles with respect to mean height, weight, or weight-for-height and level of sugar intake. This implies that the mean weight and height status in the highest quartile of sugar intake did not differ significantly from those in the lowest quintile. With respect to proteinenergy malnutrition among older children (aged > 6 years), these data show no fundamental need for concentrated high-energy, low-nutri-ent dense foods such as sugar, as the highest sugar consumers did not have a significantly higher energy intake than low sugar consumers, and the percentage of protein consumed decreased significantly in the highest tertile of sugar consumers. This implies that sugar sources may replace protein-rich sources. These results should be explored further in adults.
A diet high in added sugars is suggested to dilute micronutrients and displace nutrient-dense foods. Evidence of micronutrient dilution in diets high in added sugar comes from numerous recent publications (4044). Several studies, however, found little or no negative association between intake of total sugars and nutrient intake (4550).
Of some concern are the results of two studies on soft drink consumption in the United States, which found that energy intake was associated positively with consumption of regular soft drinks in teenagers (42, 43). Those who fell in the highest soft drink consumption category consumed less milk and fruit juice than those in the lowest category of consumers, which implied that teenagers may have substituted soft drinks for milk.
Undoubtedly, some of the most comprehensive findings in this regard come from Bowman, who assessed the effects of added sugar in more than 14 000 people from the US Department of Agriculture's 199496 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (41). The participants in the highest sugar intake group (>18% of total energy intake) had the lowest mean absolute intakes of all micronutrients. This group also had the lowest proportion of people that met the recommended dietary allowances.
In the South African context, a recent study found that specific micronutrients decreased in men and women aged > 65 years as the proportion of energy from sugar in the diet increased (40). In men, the intake of thiamine, vitamin E, zinc, iron, magnesium, and copper decreased significantly (P<0.05) as the proportion of sugar intake of the total energy intake increased.
Results from the NFCS (6) indicated that micronutrient intakes specifically of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, the B vitamins, iron, calcium, and zinc were inadequate in many children in all age groups. Table 5 gives data on children aged 69 years according to tertiles of sugar and micronutrient intake per 4.18 kJ. A significant inverse relation was found between sugar intake and thiamine, iron, and zinc. No relation or significant difference was found for the other nutrients, except for a weak linear relation between sugar intake and vitamin B6.
Obesity and the nutrition transition
The prevalence of obesity increased dramatically during the past decade, particularly in children and adolescents. This effect has been described as one of the major consequences of the nutrition transition, which includes a large increase in the consumption of fat and added sugar, a marked increase in the consumption of animal products, and a decline in intake of cereal and fibre (51, 52).
Some of the most dramatic increases in chronic diseases of lifestyle such as obesity, hypertension, coronary heart disease, and type 2 diabetes have taken place in indigenous populations exposed to large dietary shifts because of increasing urbanization (5356). This is particularly relevant to the people of the black population of South Africa, who have changed their eating habits to include an increased consumption of added sugar, as urbanization has increased (57, 58).
The relation between sugar and fat intake has been the focus of numerous studies over the past few years. In the South African context, the people of the highest tertile of sugar consumers also have the highest mean fat intake (37.1g vs 33.3 g; P = 0.0680), although this difference is not significant (Table 4). Mean energy intakes did not differ significantly between the tertiles of sugar consumers, although protein intake was significantly lower in the highest sugar tertile, which suggests that sugar replaces protein foods.
The eating patterns of adolescents in high-income countries show that similar dietary patterns, which include an increased consumption of sweetened and fatty snacks, have emerged over the past decade. In a cohort of 521 Norwegian adolescents studied between the ages of 14 and 21 years, weekly frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption decreased by 12.5 times, while frequency of sugar-con-taining soft drinks increased by almost one intake per week between the ages of 15 and 16 years (59).
A study in Kentucky reported that 446 adolescents ate fewer servings from the bread group (5.2) and vegetable group (5.2) and considerably more from the fat and sugar group (11.2) than recommended (60). A cohort of Scottish adolescents studied between 1990 and 1998 had a large increase in consumption of high fat- and high sugar-con-taining foods, particularly among those from lower socioeconomic groups (60).
To date, the best evidence for a positive association between obesity and sugar intake is a 19-month prospective study on Boston schoolchildren aged 1112 years (31). This found that for each sugar-sweetened drink consumed daily, both body mass index and frequency of obesity increased (odds ratio, 1.60), even after adjustment for confounding variables. Sugar consumption at baseline was associated independently with body mass index.
With respect to the issues of obesity (and micronutrient dilution), the recent American Heart Association (2002) guidelines stated that: "Intakes of vitamins and minerals are reduced by substitution of high-sugar, nutrient-poor foods for those of higher nutritional quality. Thus to improve the overall nutrient density of the diet, reduce the intake of excess calories, and prevent weight gain, individuals should choose foods and beverages low in sugars, particularly added sugars" and "match intake of energy (calories) to overall energy needs; limit consumption of foods with a high caloric density and/or low nutritional quality, including those with a high content of sugars" (61).
Evidence-based sugar guideline for South Africans
Several developed and developing countries have a dietary guideline for sugar (62). The terminology used includes "restrict", "limit", and "moderate" sugar intake. The terminology in this case is important, because it implies a value judgement, with the most negative view being "restrict" and the most liberal being "moderate".
Numerous countries have also quantified their sugar guidelines (14); these generally are the same as that recommended by WHO for the prevention of chronic diseases, namely <10% of total energy intake (13). Countries with a maximum value for added sugar <10% of total energy intake include Denmark, Finland, Germany, Greece, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom (14).
The evidence we present here clearly shows that sugar is a prominent risk factor for a number of important conditions that are prevalent in the South African population. The severity, prevalence, and social impact of these conditions particularly dental caries and aspects of weight status and the nutrition transition make them a public health concern and support the assertion that sugar is a common risk factor that must be addressed by public health policy. A clear food-based dietary guideline on sugar consumption therefore is justified fully.
In the South African context (and in similar countries), we recommend a food-based dietary guideline for children aged > 6 years, as well as for adults. This should comply with the dose-related evidence in relation to dental caries presented earlier namely that sugar intake should be <40 g/day in areas in which water is not fluoridated and <55 g/day in fluoridated areas. This equates to about 610% of energy intake. The guideline should advise people to eat a smaller total amount of sugar, to consume sugar containing foods less frequently during the day, and preferably to do so only during mealtimes and not close to bedtime.
The evidence clearly shows that a guideline on sugar consumption must address the frequency, quantity, and timing of sugar consumption. We recommended that the guideline "Eat and drink food and drinks containing sugar sparingly and not between meals", or a suitably tested variation of this, be adopted.
Conflicts of interest: none declared.
1. Department of Health. South Africa demographic and health survey 1998. Full report. Pretoria: Department of Health (RSA); 2002. [ Links ]
2. Krebs-Smith SM. Choose beverages and foods to moderate your intake of sugars: measurement requires quantification. Journal of Nutrition 2001;131:527S-35S. [ Links ]
3. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Consultation. Preparation and use of food-based dietary guidelines. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1998 (WHO Technical Report Series No. [ Links ]880).
4. Pietinen P. Report on technical assistance to the Directorate of Nutrition, Department of Health, concerning the sugar issue in South-African food dietary guidelines. Pretoria: Department of Health; 2002. [ Links ]
5. Love P, Maunder E, Green M, Ross F, Smale-Lovely J, Charlton K. South African food-based dietary guidelines: testing of the preliminary guidelines among women in KwaZulu-Natal and the Western Cape. South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2001;14:9-19. [ Links ]
6. Labadarios D, Steyn NP, Maunder E, MacIntyre U, Swart R, Gericke G,et al. The National Food Consumption Survey (NFCS): Children aged 1-9 years, South Africa, 1999. Pretoria: Department of Health, Directorate: Nutrition; 2000. [ Links ]
7. Bourne LT, Langenhoven ML, Steyn K, Jooste PL, Laubscher JA, Van der Vyver E. Nutrient intake in the urban African population of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa. The Brisk study. Central African Journal of Medicine1993;39:238-47. [ Links ]
8. Nel JH, Steyn NP. Report on South African food consumption studies undertaken amongst different population groups, 1983-2000: average intakes of foods most commonly consumed. Pretoria: Department of Health; 2002. [ Links ]Available from: URL: http://www.doh.gov.za/department/dir_foodcontr_f.html
9. Morgan KJ, Zabik ME. Amount and food sources of total sugar intake by children ages 5 to 12 years. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1981;34:404-13. [ Links ]
10. Ruxton CHS, Garceau FJS, Cottrell RC. Guidelines for sugar consumption in Europe: Is a quantitative approach justified? European Journal of Clinical Nutrition1999;53:503-13. [ Links ]
11. Guthrie JF, Morton JF. Food sources of added sweeteners in the diets of Americans. Journal of the American Medical Association 2000; 100:43-51. [ Links ]
12. Bourne LT, Langenhoven ML, Steyn K, Jooste PL, Laubscher JA. The food and meal pattern in the urban African population of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa: the BRISK study. Central African Journal of Medicine 1994;40:140-8. [ Links ]
13. Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation on Diet. Nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2003 (WHO Technical Report Series No. 916). [ Links ]
14. Sheiham A. Dietary effects on dental diseases. Public Health Nutrition 2001;4:569-91. [ Links ]
15. Newbrun E. Sucrose in the dynamics of the carious process. International Dental Journal 1982;32:13-23. [ Links ]
16. Gustafsson BE, Quensel CE, Lanke LS, Lundqvist C, Grahnen H, Bonow BE, et al. The Vipeholm dental caries study. The effect of different levels of carbohydrate intake on caries activity in 436 individuals observed for 5 years. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 1954;11:232-364. [ Links ]
17. Sreebny LM. Sugar and human dental caries. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics1982;40:19-65. [ Links ]
18. Sreebny LM. Sugar availability, sugar consumption and dental caries. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 1982;10:1-7. [ Links ]
19. Woodward M, Walker ARP. Sugar and dental caries: The evidence from 90 countries. British Dental Journal 1994;176:297-302. [ Links ]
20. Stephan RM. Effects of different types of foods on dental health in experimental animals. Journal of Dental Research 1966;45:1551-61. [ Links ]
21. Rugg-Gunn A. Nutrition and dental health. Oxford: Oxford Medical Publications; 1993. [ Links ]
22. Krasse B. Caries risk: a practical guide for assessment and control. Chicago: Quintessence; 1985. [ Links ]
23. Konig KG, Schmid P, Schmid R. An apparatus for frequency-controlled feeding of small rodents and its use in dental caries experiments. Archives of Oral Biology 1968;13:13-26. [ Links ]
24. Karlsbeek H, Verrips GH. Consumption of sweet snacks and caries experience of primary school children. Caries Research 1994;28:477-83. [ Links ]
25. Ismail AI, Burt BA, Eklund SA. The cariogenicity of soft drinks in the United States. Journal of the American Dental Association 1984;109:241-5. [ Links ]
26. Edgar WM. Prediction of the cariogenicity of various foods. International Dental Journal 1985;35:190-4. [ Links ]
27. Jamel HA, Sheiham A, Watt RG, Cowell CR. Sweet preference, consumption of sweet tea and dental caries: studies in urban and rural Iraqi populations. International Dental Journal 1996;47:213-7. [ Links ]
28. Stecksen-Blicks C, Holm A-K. Dental caries, tooth trauma, malocclusion, fluoride usage, toothbrushing and dietary habits in 4-year-old Swedish children: changes between 1967 and 1992. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 1995;5:143-8. [ Links ]
29. Kunzel W, Fischer T. Rise and fall of caries prevalence in German towns with different F concentrations in drinking water. Caries Research 1997;31:166-73. [ Links ]
30. Burt B, Pai S. Is sugar consumption still a major determinant of dental caries? A systematic review. In: Consensus development conference on diagnosis and management of dental caries throughout life. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes for Health; 2001. [ Links ]
31. Ludwig DS, Peterson KE, Gortmaker SL. Relation between consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks and childhood obesity: a prospective, observational analysis. Lancet 2001;357:505-8. [ Links ]
32. O'Dea K, Mann JI. Importance of retaining a national dietary guideline for sugar. Medical Journal of Australia 2001;175:165-6. [ Links ]
33. Takeuchi M. Epidemiological study on the relation between dental caries incidence and sugar consumption. Bulletin of the Tokyo Dental College 1960:2:58-7. [ Links ]
34. Takahashi K. Statistical study on caries incidence in the first molar in relation to the amount of sugar consumption. Bulletin of the Tokyo Dental College1961;2:44-57. [ Links ]
35. Sheiham A. Sucrose and dental caries. Nutrition and Health 1987;5:25-9. [ Links ]
36. Miyazaki H, Morimoto M. Changes in caries prevalence in Japan. European Journal of Oral Sciences1996;104:452-8. [ Links ]
37. Sheiham A. Why sugars consumption should be below 15 kg per person per year in industrialised countries; the dental evidence. British Dental Journal 1991;171:63-5. [ Links ]
38. National Oral Health Survey. National Oral Health Survey1988/89. Pretoria: Department of Health; 1994. [ Links ]
39. Department of Health, Directorate: Nutrition. Report on the proceedings of the workshop on the South African food-based dietary guidelines, Benoni, South Africa, 21-22 August 2001. Pretoria: Department of Health, Directorate; 2001. [ Links ]
40. Charlton KE, Wolmarans P, Lombard CJ. Evidence of nutrient dilution with high sugar intakes in older South Africans. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 1998;11:331-43. [ Links ]
41. Bowman SA. Diets of individuals based on energy intakes from added sugars. Family Economics Nutrition Review 1999;12:31-8. [ Links ]
42. Harnach L, Stang J, Story M. Soft drink consumption among US children and adolescents: nutritional consequences. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1999;99:436-41. [ Links ]
43. Guenther PM. Beverages in the diets of American teenagers. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1986;86:493-9. [ Links ]
44. Skinner JD, Carruth BR, Moran J 3rd, Houck K, Coletta F. Fruit juice intake is not related to children's growth. Pediatrics 1999;103:58-64. [ Links ]
45. Farris RP, Hyg MS, Nicklas TA, Myers L, Berenson GS. Nutrient intake and food group consumption of 10-year-olds by sugar intake level: the Bogalusa heart study. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 1998;17:579-85. [ Links ]
46. Flynn M.A, Sugrue DD, Codd MB, Gibney MJ. Women's dietary fat and sugar intakes: implications for food based guidelines. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1996;50:713-9. [ Links ]
47. Gibney M, Sigman-Grant M, Stanton JL, Keast DR. Consumption of sugars. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1995;62 Suppl:178S-94S. [ Links ]
48. Gibson SA. Consumption and sources of sugars in the diets of British schoolchildren. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 1993;6:355-71. [ Links ]
49. Forshee RA, Storey ML. The role of added sugars in the diet quality of children and adolescents. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 2001;20:1-11. [ Links ]
50. Naismith DJ, Nelson M, Burley V, Gatenby S. Does a high-sugar diet promote overweight in children and lead to nutrient deficiencies? Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics1995;8:249-54. [ Links ]
51. Popkin BM. The nutrition transition and obesity in the developing world. Journal of Nutrition 2001;131:871S-3S. [ Links ]
52. Popkin BM. Nutrition in transition: the changing global nutrition challenge. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2001;10 Suppl:S13-8. [ Links ]
53. Popkin BM, Horton S, Kim S, Mahal A, Shuigao J. Trends in diet, nutritional status, and diet-related noncommunicable disease in China and India: The economic costs of the nutrition transition. Nutrition Reviews 2001;59:379-90. [ Links ]
54. Hanley AJG, Harris SB, Gittelsohn J, Wolever TMS, Saksvig B, Zinman B. Overweight among children and adolescents in a Native Canadian community: prevalence and associated factors. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000;71:693-700. [ Links ]
55. Coyne T. Lifestyle diseases in Pacific communities. Noumea: Secretariat the Pacific Community; 2000. [ Links ]
56. Doak CM, Adair LS, Monteiro C, Popkin BM. Overweight and underweight coexist with households in Brazil, China and Russia. Journal of Nutrition 2000;130:2965-71. [ Links ]
57. Bourne LT, Steyn K. Rural/urban nutrition related differentials among adult population groups in South Africa, with special emphasis on the black population. South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000;13:23S-8S. [ Links ]
58. Steyn NP, Senekal M, Brits S, Nel JH. Urban and rural differences in dietary intake, weight status and nutrition knowledge of black female students. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000;9:53-9. [ Links ]
59. Lien N, Lytle LA, Klepp KI. Stability in consumption of fruit, vegetables, and sugary foods in a cohort from age 14 to age 21. Preventive Medicine 2001;33:217-26. [ Links ]
60. Speck B:J, Bradley CB, Harrell JS, Belyea MJ. A food frequency questionnaire for youth: psychometric analysis and summary of eating habits in adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health 2001;28:16-25. [ Links ]
61. Krauss RM, Eckel RH, Howard B, Appel LJ, Daniels SR, Deckelbaum RJ, et al. AHA Dietary Guidelines: revision 2000: A statement for healthcare professionals from the Nutrition Committee of the American Heart Association.Circulation 2000;102:2284-99. [ Links ]
62. Freire MC, Cannon G, Sheiham A. Sugar and health in one hundred and of fifteen authoritative scientific reports on food nutrition and public health published throughout the world in thirty years between 1961 and 1991. London: University College London; 1992. [ Links ]
1 Correspondence should be sent to this author.