- Similares em SciELO
versão On-line ISSN 1678-4464
versão impressa ISSN 0102-311X
Cad. Saúde Pública vol.27 no.12 Rio de Janeiro Dez. 2011
Desigualdades raciais no acesso à saúde da mulher no Sul do Brasil
Fernanda Souza de BairrosI, II; Stela Nazareth MeneghelII; Juvenal Soares Dias-da-CostaI; Diego Garcia BassaniIII; Ana Maria Baptista MenezesIV; Denise Petrucci GiganteIV; Maria Teresa Anselmo OlintoI
IPrograma de Pós-graduação em Saúde Coletiva, Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos, São Leopoldo, Brasil
IIUniversidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brasil
IIIThe Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
IVUniversidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, Brasil
The aim of this population-based cross-sectional study was to investigate access by 20 to 60 year-old women - both black and white - to early detection (pap-smear) exams for breast and cervical cancer in two towns - São Leopoldo and Pelotas - in Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil. Estimates of the association between race/color and access to pap-smear and breast exams were adjusted for income, education, economic class and age. Of the 2,030 women interviewed, 16.1% were black and 83.9%, white. Black women were significantly less likely to have had a pap-smear and/or breast exam than white women. Racial inequalities in access to cancer early detection exams persisted after controlling for age and other socioeconomic factors. Racial differentials in access to early detection (pap-smear) exams for breast and cervical cancers might result from racial and socioeconomic inequalities experienced by black women in access to reproductive health care services and programs.
Women's Health; Health Services Accessibility; Early Detection of Cancer
O objetivo da pesquisa foi investigar o acesso de mulheres negras e brancas aos exames de detecção precoce de câncer de mama e colo de útero (citopatológico), em duas cidades no Sul do Brasil. Foi realizado um estudo transversal de base populacional realizado com mulheres de 20-60 anos, residentes em São Leopoldo e Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. As análises foram ajustadas por renda, escolaridade, classe econômica e idade para verificar a associação entre raça/cor e acesso aos exames. Foram entrevistadas 2.030 mulheres, sendo que 16,1% eram negras e 83,9% brancas. A probabilidade das mulheres não realizarem os exames citopatológico e de mama foi significantemente maior nas negras. A desigualdade racial no acesso aos exames de detecção precoce de câncer persistiu após controle para idade e variáveis socioeconômicas. O diferencial na realização dos exames de detecção precoce pode ser um reflexo das desigualdades raciais e socioeconômicas vividas por mulheres negras no acesso aos serviços e ações de atenção à saúde reprodutiva.
Saúde da Mulher; Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde; Detecção Precoce de Câncer
Concern with racial inequalities and inequities in health has increased in recent years. Health inequities are expressed by differentials in the risk of disease and death that originate from heterogeneous conditions of life and of access to goods and services. Differences are considered inequitable if they occur because, as a result of injustices, people suffer from limited choices, restricted access to health resources, and exposure to harmful factors 1,2. A number of studies 3,4,5,6 have documented disparities in the health of different racial groups in terms of morbi-mortality and access to health services for prevention, diagnosis and treatment. A recent review study of the literature published from 1995 to 2005 in the United States and in Brazil revealed that the worst health indicators relate to the black population 7.
In Brazil, in spite of claims and complaints by organizations of the black movement, discussion of racial differences in health is still incipient. The need to show evidence of the impact of racism on the process of health-disease-care and death led the authors of this study to seek the contribution of the social sciences. In that way, through the category "race", expressed by way of the variable " race/color", it is possible to identify at least part of the inequality and social injustice caused by racism, which studies centered only on socioeconomic determinants are unable to highlight 6,8.
Race/color is an important category for defining populations, because the phenotypical differences that do in fact exist between them can give rise to differential distribution of rights 9,10. Krieger 11 regards the term "race/color" as a social category, more than a biological one, referring to groups with a common cultural heritage. Accordingly, skin color can be considered a biological expression of race or the racialized expression of biology when exposed to racism 11,12. At present, "race/color" also relates to the use of phenotypical differences as symbols of social disparities, which can indicate class, group or political power status 13. Common to most authors is that racial categories and the meanings given to them are constructed in social terms, not biological ones.
In the health field there is evidence that black women are jeopardized by vulnerabilities expressed as differentials in morbidities, and access to services and health care. In relation to black women, authors have shown a smaller percentage receiving analgesia during childbirth 10, fewer antenatal appointments 12 and early detection examinations 3,14,15, longer examination waiting times 14,15, late diagnosis of pathologies including malignant neoplasms 13,14, and differences in access to, and the quality of, gynecological and obstetric care 3,16.
Preventive conduct, such as clinical breast and pap-smear examinations, besides being simple and inexpensive, can reduce mortality from breast and cervical cancer when performed early 16. Coefficients of mortality from these types of cancer continue high in Brazil, probably because the disease is diagnosed at an advanced stage. Studies have shown that diagnosis is made later in black women than in white women 14,15.
This study, conducted in view of the need for research into the health of the black population, investigated racial differences in access to early detection examinations for breast and cervical cancer in women resident in the towns of Pelotas and São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Access was evaluated by way of traditional indicators of coverage for early detection and diagnosis of treatable diseases, such as breast and cervical cancer screening.
Materials and methods
This cross-sectional population-based study used information drawn from the samples of two studies of adult women in the municipalities of Pelotas (from December 1999 to April 2000) and São Leopoldo (from March to December 2003). The two studies were conducted using the same methodological procedures, and were approved by the ethics committee of Pelotas Federal University.
São Leopoldo is a municipality with a population of 206,942 in the Porto Alegre metropolitan region, while Pelotas is in the southeast of the state, and has a population of 338,544. Figures from the official statistics agency (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Censo Demográfico 2000 - http://www.ibge.gov.br), indicate that the black population represented 9% and 16% of total population in São Leopoldo and Pelotas, respectively.
The sample for this study was taken in clusters, corresponding to census tracts selected by #random draw, 36 in São Leopoldo and 40 in Pelotas. It comprised 2,030 adult women (1,026 from São Leopoldo and 1,004 from Pelotas), all 20 to 60 years old. The size of each sample was established according to criteria that would make it possible to identify a ratio 2.0 for social class, a 95% level of confidence, and a statistical power of 80%. The ratio of exposure to non-exposure was 1.3 in São Leopoldo and 1.6 in Pelotas. Sample size was increased by 10% for possible losses and refusals, and 15% to control for confounders.
The same standardized, pre-coded questionnaires were applied in the two surveys.
In both studies, race/color was classified by hetero-attribution (where the interviewer classifies the interviewee). This classification takes into consideration basically external phenotypical traits, such as skin color. Interviewees were first grouped into four categories: white, black, brown and mixed (indigenous and oriental). For statistical analysis, women categorized as black or brown were classified as black, and women classified as white or mixed were classified as white (the category mixed represented only 0.5% of the sample).
The explanatory variables investigated were: age; marital status; economic class according to the classification of the Brazilian Population Studies (Associação Brasileira de Empresas de Pesquisa - ABEP), which emphasizes estimated purchasing power, abandoning any intention to classify the population in terms of "social classes"; per capita family income in minimum wages; and schooling as reported by interviewees in years of study. The outcomes investigated were: clinical breast examination performed in the past year, and pap-smear examination performed in the past three years.
Data quality control and dual input to reduce consistency errors were performed using Epi Info 6.0 (Centers of Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA), and the univariate and bivariate frequencies, using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 13.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA). The analysis were stratified by socio-demographic variables (age, income, schooling and economic class) in order to observe the effect of black race/color on having breast and pap-smear examinations in each stratum. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated for each category of the explanatory variables, considering black women as exposed.
Of the 2,030 women studied, 327 (16.1%) were black and 1,703 (83.9%) white. Women from 40 to 49 years old were observed to predominate, while there was no statistically significant difference in age between the black and white women. Most of the women were married. When compared by "race/color", higher percentages of black women were widowed or single. In terms of socio-economic characteristics, the black women displayed disadvantages, with the majority having less than eight years of schooling, 45% belonging to the classes D and E (the lowest economic classes in the ABEP classification), and 88.9% living with per capita family incomes of three minimum wages or less (Table 1).
Clinical breast examinations had been performed on 53.4% of the women in the past year, but the differences in the percentages of black women not examined (56.6%) were statistically significant (Table 2).
The prevalences of black women who had never undergone a pap-smear examination were higher (Table 2).
Stratified analysis of clinical breast examinations performed showed that, independently of age and schooling, the black women underwent the examination less. The analysis also revealed that black women in economic classes A, B and C also underwent clinical breast examination less (Table 3).
The stratified analysis returned statistically significant differences in the women from 40 to 60 years old, with high risk of black women never having undergone a pap-smear test (prevalence ratio - PR = 3.63; 95%CI; 2.09-5.39). Similarly, black women with little schooling, belonging to economic classes D and E, and with less income continued to show high risk of never having had a pap smear (Table 4).
Although discussion of race/color has been intense in the last 10 years, it is only recently that the racial approach has been applied to studies and research in the health field 3,6. In Brazil, there are still few studies addressing racial inequalities in health, and most of them do not consider representative population-based samples 12,17.
This study presents representative epidemiological data for two medium-sized towns in Rio Grande do Sul State in order to describe women's health care by race/color. The study population was shown to be representative by age distribution and skin color in both towns. Distribution differences between black and white women in Rio Grande do Sul State, and between the towns, can be attributed to migration and to issues relating to the origin and formation of the slave-based economy 18.
Race/color was defined on the criterion of hetero-attribution, which shows how individuals are seen by society. Although this classification has its limitations, i.e., it excludes the interviewees' self-perception, and also shows a tendency to whitening 19, it was possible to show racial inequalities in service access among the women sampled 20,21.
As regards social indicators, in the present study, the black women were at a disadvantage and in a socially precarious situation. The socioeconomic data reinforced the findings of several studies that have identified the vulnerability of black women in Brazil 12,17,22,23. These women were concentrated in the segment with lowest per capita income and fewest years of schooling; in addition, there were about four times more black women in economic class E. As other authors have observed 24, there was a high percentage of widowed black women, from which can be inferred higher male mortality, leaving these women as heads of family.
Health inequalities, in terms of morbi-mortality and health service access, affecting black populations have been documented frequently in Brazil and the United States 14,15,18,25,26,27. These studies have shown evidence of inequities in health service access by the black population, observed in terms of smaller numbers of appointments and early detection examinations, longer examination waiting times, and late diagnosis of pathologies, entailing diminished life expectancy 14,15.
In the towns studied in southern Brazil, black women showed a higher risk of not having undergone early detection examination for breast cancer in the past year. In addition, the number of black women who had never undergone a pap-smear examination was twice that of white women. Willians 26 has shown that white women have high prevalences of breast cancer and low mortality, while black women have shorter survival times, due to racial differences in the staging of the disease. In a multivariate analysis, Madison et al. 25 showed evidence that the significance of race/color persists even after controlling for social economic status, and that black women's excess mortality from cervical cancer was 84% as compared with the white women.
Some researchers assert that the inequalities in black populations' health and access to health services can be attributed to a socioeconomic status rather than to race. In the population sampled in the two Brazilian towns, most of the associations between race/color and undergoing early detection examinations persisted after stratification of the data by economic and demographic variables, indicating inequality in health care for black women, which is accentuated at more advanced age. Accordingly, older black women become even more socially vulnerable. Black women over 40 years old were observed to be more likely not to have undergone a pap-smear examination or to be late in doing so, which agrees with other studies showing older women's difficulty in getting a gynecological appointment 28.
The variable race/color can be considered a demographic marker of inequality, in that black women are in a situation of greater vulnerability economically, socially, and as regards health care. In Belo Horizonte 29, the localities with the worst socioeconomic conditions were the ones where there was the largest presence of black women who had never been to a gynecologist nor undergone a pap-smear examination. The black women who have never undergone a pap-smear examination were the oldest, with least schooling, and in the lowest class and income groups.
The data of this present study show no differentials, as regards the likelihood of having undergone a pap-smear examination, between the black women with most schooling, and in the highest social and income groups, and white women. However, the inequality in access to breast examination persisted among black women in the best social situation, showing that - contrary to what is claimed by critics of the variable race/color - health inequities do persist even after socio-economic stratification. Therefore, despite the limitations entailed by the small number of black women belonging to the higher socioeconomic strata, this study confirmed the initial hypothesis that inequalities in undergoing preventive examinations for cancer - chiefly breast cancer - among black women persist even after stratification for schooling and social class. Pelotas and São Leopoldo have substantial primary health care systems. As a result, population-based cross-sectional studies have not shown an association between outpatient service use and skin color in these two municipalities 30,31. Population-based studies in Pelotas have indicated that coverage by pap-smear examinations performed 28 is higher than for clinical breast examinations 32. Accordingly, these coverage differences detected between white and black women can perhaps be explained by level of coverage 33. In this way, as coverage by a given preventive examination increases, the differences between socioeconomic levels have been observed to decrease.
Considering that early detection and diagnosis examinations, such as breast examination and cervical cancer prevention examinations, are positive factors for women's quality of life, knowing the profiles of the public health system users can contribute to public policy evaluation, particularly in the field of women's health. In addition, the results of studies such as this one inform implementation of health policies focused on racial and socioeconomic inequality, and promote improved access to health services, with quality and equity, for the most vulnerable segments of the population.
F. S. Bairros, S. N. Meneghel, J. S. Dias-da-Costa and M. T. A. Olinto participated in the data collection, literature review, analysis, and in discussion of the article. D. G. Bassani, A. M. B. Menezes and D. P. Gigante collaborated in the analysis and in discussion of the article.
1. Silva JB, Barros MBA. Epidemiologia e desigualdade: notas sobre a teoria e a história. Rev Panam Salud Pública 2002; 12:375-83. [ Links ]
2. Lucchese P. Eqüidade na gestão descentralizada do SUS: desafios para a redução das desigualdades. Cienc Saúde Coletiva 2003; 8:439-49. [ Links ]
3. Dias-da-Costa JS, Olinto MTA, Bassani D, Marchionatti CRE, Bairros FS, Oliveira ML, et al. Desigualdades na realização do exame clínico de mama em São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Cad Saúde Pública 2007; 23:1603-12. [ Links ]
4. Araújo EM, Costa MCN, Hogan VK, Mota ELA, Araújo TM. Diferenciais de raça/cor da pele em anos potenciais de vida perdidos por causas externas. Rev Saúde Pública 2009; 43:405-12. [ Links ]
5. Waiselfisz JJ. Mapa das mortes por violência. Estud Av 2007; 21:119-38. [ Links ]
6. Laguardia J. O uso da variável "raça" na pesquisa em saúde. Physis 2004; 14:197-234. [ Links ]
7. Araújo EM, Nascimento Costa MC, Vilar Noronha C, Hogan VK, Vines AI, Araújo TM. Desigualdades em saúde e raça/cor da pele: revisão da literatura do Brasil e dos Estados Unidos (1996-2005). Saúde Coletiva 2010; 7:116-21. [ Links ]
8. Bhopal R. Racism in medicine: the specter must be exorcised. BMJ 2001; 322:1503-4. [ Links ]
9. Lopes F. Saúde da população negra no Brasil: contribuições para a promoção da equidade. Brasília: Fundação Nacional de Saúde, Ministério da Saúde; 2004. [ Links ]
10. Azevedo E. Raça: conceito e preconceito. São Paulo: Editora Ática; 1987. [ Links ]
11. Krieger N. Does racism harm health? Did child abuse exist before 1962? On explicit questions, critical science, and current controversies: an ecosocial perspective. Am J Public Health 2003; 93:194-9. [ Links ]
12. Leal MC, Gama SGN, Cunha CB. Desigualdades raciais, sociodemográficas e na assistência ao pré-natal e ao parto, 1999-2001. Rev Saúde Pública 2005; 39:100-7. [ Links ]
13. Silverio VR. Ação afirmativa e o combate ao racismo institucional no Brasil. Cad Pesqui 2002; 117:219-46. [ Links ]
14. Kimminau KS, Satzler CJ. Racial and ethnic minority health disparities in Kansas. Topeka: Kansas Health Institute; 2005. [ Links ]
15. Mayberry RM, Mili F, Ofili E. Racial and ethnic differences in access to medical care. Med Care Res Rev 2000; 57 Suppl 1:108-45. [ Links ]
16. Instituto Nacional de Câncer. Estimativa 2006. Incidência de câncer no Brasil. Rio de Janeiro: Instituto Nacional de Câncer; 2006. [ Links ]
17. Monteiro S. Etnicidade na América Latina: um debate sobre raça, saúde e direitos reprodutivos. Rio de Janeiro: Fundação Oswaldo Cruz; 2004. [ Links ]
18. Maestri Filho MJ. O escravo no Rio Grande do Sul, a charqueada e a gênese do escravismo gaúcho. Caxias do Sul: Editora da Universidade de Caxias do Sul; 1984. [ Links ]
19. Bastos JL, Peres MA, Peres KG, Dumith SC, Gigante DP. Diferenças socioeconômicas entre autoclassificação e heteroclassificação de cor/raça. Rev Saúde Pública 2008; 42:324-34. [ Links ]
20. Osório RG. O sistema classificatório de "cor ou raça" do IBGE. Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada; 2003. [ Links ]
21. Maio MC, Monteiro S, Chor D, Faerstein E, Lopes CS. Cor/raça no Estudo Pró-Saúde: resultados comparativos de dois métodos de autoclassificação no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Cad Saúde Pública 2005; 21:171-80. [ Links ]
22. Quadros W. Gênero e raça na desigualdade social brasileira recente. Estud Av 2004; 18:95-117. [ Links ]
23. Rosa W. Sexo e cor: categorias de controle social e reprodução das desigualdades socioeconômicas no Brasil. Revista Estudos Feministas 2009; 17:889-99. [ Links ]
24. Olinto MTA, Olinto BA. Raça e desigualdade entre as mulheres: um exemplo no sul do Brasil. Rev Saúde Pública 2000; 16:1137-42. [ Links ]
25. Madison T, Schottenfeld D, James SA, Schwartz AG, Gruber SB. Endometrial cancer: Socioeconomic status and racial/ethnic differences in stage at diagnosis, treatment, and survival. Am J Public Health 2004; 94:2104-11. [ Links ]
26. Williams D. Racial/ethnic variations in womens's health: the social embeddedness of health. Am J Public Health 2002; 92:588-97. [ Links ]
27. Lessa I, Magalhães L, Araújo MJ, Almeira Filho N, Aquino E, Oliveira MMC. Hipertensão arterial na população adulta de Salvador (BA) - Brasil. Arq Bras Cardiol 2006; 87:747-56. [ Links ]
28. Hackenhaar AA, Cesar JA, Domingues MR. Exame citopatológico de colo uterino em mulheres com idade entre 20 e 59 anos em Pelotas, RS: prevalência, foco e fatores associados à sua não realização. Rev Bras Epidemiol 2006; 9:103-11. [ Links ]
29. Simão AB, Torres MEA, Lacerda MA, Ribeiro PM, Caetano AJ, Perpétuo IH. Desigualdades raciais na saúde da mulher em Belo Horizonte: perfis de acesso à contracepção, acompanhamento ginecológico e diagnóstico de câncer de colo uterino. In: XII Seminário sobre a Economia Mineira. Belo Horizonte: CEDEPLAR; 2006. http://ideas.repec.org/h/cdp/diam06/011.html (acessado em 25/Jul/2011). [ Links ]
30. Capilheira MF, Santos IS. Individual factors associated with medical consultation by adults. Rev Saúde Pública 2006; 40:436-43. [ Links ]
31. Dias-da-Costa JS, Presser AD, Zanotta AF, Ferreira DG, Perozzo G, Freitas IBA, et al. Utilização dos serviços ambulatoriais de saúde por mulheres: estudo de base populacional no Sul do Brasil. Cad Saúde Pública 2008; 24:2843-51. [ Links ]
32. Sclowitz ML, Menezes AMB, Gigante DP, Tessaro S. Breast cancer's secondary prevention and associated factors. Rev Saúde Pública 2005; 39:340-9. [ Links ]
33. Victora CG, Vaughan P, Barros FC, Silva AC, Tomasi E. Explaining trends in inequities: evidence from Brazilian child health studies. Lancet 2000; 356: 1093-8. [ Links ]
F. S. Bairros
Programa de Pós-graduação em Saúde Coletiva
Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sino
Rua José do Patrocinio 486, apto. 32
Porto Alegre, RS 90050-002, Brasil
Submitted on 31/Mar/2011
Final version resubmitted on 05/Jun/2011
Approved on 27/Jun/2011