Services on Demand
- Cited by SciELO
- Access statistics
- Similars in SciELO
On-line version ISSN 1680-5348Print version ISSN 1020-4989
Rev Panam Salud Publica vol.23 n.6 Washington Jun. 2008
La Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública/Pan American Journal of Public Health se complace en publicar cartas de los lectores dirigidas a estimular el diálogo sobre los diversos aspectos de la salud pública en las Américas, así como a esclarecer, discutir o comentar de manera constructiva las ideas expuestas en la revista. Las cartas deben estar firmadas por el autor y especificar su afiliación profesional y dirección postal. Cuando se trate de comentarios sobre un artículo que requieran contestación del autor, se procurará conseguir esa respuesta con el fin de publicar ambas cartas. La Redacción se reserva el derecho de editar las cartas recibidas y resumirlas para mayor claridad.
The Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública/Pan American Journal of Public Health publishes letters from readers for the purpose of stimulating dialogue on various aspects of public health in the Americas and of constructively clarifying, discussing, and critiquing the ideas expressed throughout its pages. Letters should be signed by the author and include his or her professional affiliation and mailing address. If a commentary on a given article requires a reply from the author, an effort will be made to obtain the reply and to publish both letters. The editorial team reserves the right to edit all letters received and to condense them so as to improve their clarity.
PANOSIS: A NEW WORD OR A FORGOTTEN WORLD?
There is no evidence for the eyes that do not want to see but for the determined and eager heart willing to learn and understand
Having always worked in the veterinary field, I had never seriously considered the potential role that antimicrobial-resistant bacteria released to the environment by livestock could play in plant health status.
In fact, I had no notion whether the use of antibiotics for crop protection was significantly widespread or what legal framework, if any, applied to the issue within the European Union (E.U.), the United States of America (U.S.), and other developed countries.
Having observed that streptomycin and tetracycline (1) have been two of the molecules of choice in agriculture for decades and noticing the lack of E.U. and U.S. federal legislation concerning these substances, including banning them for this purpose, I realized that a more global explanation of the origin of the growing resistance of some animal and human microbes relating to the effects of malpractice in agriculture on veterinary therapeutics and human medicine treatments was necessary.
These thoughts led me down paths that had little to do with my original idea as I wondered whether any of the plant bacterial pathogenic species would equally be capable of affecting vertebrate animals and humans.
I checked various lists of the major causative agents of plant diseases and reached a startling conclusion: some microorganisms are responsible for infections and morbid processes in both the vegetable and animal kingdoms, derived from their similar molecular basis and mechanisms of pathogenesis. That is the case for different Gram-negative rods, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia, as well as the Deuteromycete fungus Aspergillus niger (Table 1), demonstrating that flora and fauna, including humans, represent not separate, independent worlds but two interacting sides of the same reality.
These shared pathogenic conditions whose connections were never studied in a comprehen-sive way also generate a more complex topic: a new term must be coined for infections that living plants, and not merely stored vegetable by-products or contaminated decomposing matter, can pass to vertebrate animals and humans acting as bioconcentrators and biomagnifiers.
According to the World Health Organization, zoonosis [Gr. ζoν (animal) + νóσoζ (disease)] (1959) and anthropozoonosis [Gr. άνθρωπo (man) + ζoν (animal) + νóσoζ (disease)] can be defined as any disease and/or infection that is naturally transmissible from vertebrate animals to humans. Rudolf Virchow (18211902) conceived the word in the 19th century, more than 150 years ago, when he was investigating several aspects of Trichinella.
Unfortunately, the previously described examples represent a new concept of global infection for which a new name must be proposed or suggested, an acceptable etymological contribution being "panosis" [Gr. παν (all/inclusive/encompassing) + νóσoζ (disease)] as a synonym for anthropozoophytonosis [Gr. άνθρωπo (man) + ζoν (animal) + φυτóν (plant) + νóσoζ (disease)] if direct and equivalent to phytozooanthroponosis for the reverse. Perhaps this is the missing link in an overall approach to the matter that may open a door to novel possibilities in systematically researching this model that has remained unexplored until the present, becoming a source of unpredictable challenges.
Eduardo E. Respaldiza
Madrid Regional Veterinary Laboratory
Ctra. Guadalix de la Sierra Km. 1,800
1. McManus PS, Stockwell VO, Sundin GW, Jones AL. Antibiotic use in plant agriculture. Annu Rev Phytopathol. 2002;40:44365. [ Links ]
2. Burkholder WH. Sour skin, a bacterial rot of onion bulbs. Phytopathology. 1950;40:1157. [ Links ]
3. Elrod RP, Braun AC. Pseudomonas aeruginosa: its role as a plant pathogen. J Bacteriol. 1942;44:63345. [ Links ]
4. Kominos SD, Copeland CE, Grosiak B, Postic B. Introduction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa into a hospital via vegetables. Appl Microbiol. 1972;24:56770. [ Links ]
5. Quinn PJ, Carter ME, Markey B, Carter GR. Clinical veterinary microbiology. London: Mosby; 1998. [ Links ]
6. Pier GB, Grout M, Zaidi TS, Olsen JC, Johnson LG, Yankaskas JR, et al. Role of mutant CFTR in hypersusceptibility of cystic fibrosis patients to lung infections. Science. 1996;271:647. [ Links ]
7. Britigan BE, Rasmussen GT, Cox CD. Augmentation of oxidant injury to human pulmonary epithelial cells by the Pseudomonas aeruginosa siderophore pyochelin. Infect Immun. 1997;63: 10716. [ Links ]
8. Holmes A, Govan J, Goldstein R. Agricultural use of Burkholderia cepacia: a threat to human health? Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(2):2217. [ Links ]
9. Berriatua E, Ziluaga I, Miguel-Virto C, Uribarren P, Juste R, Laevens S, et al. Outbreak of subclinical mastitis in a flock of dairy sheep associated with Burkholderia cepacia complex infection. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39(2):9904. [ Links ]
10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Department of Health and Human Services. Burkholderia cepacia. Fact sheet. Available from: http://0-www.cdc.gov.mill1.sjlibrary.org/ncidod/dhqp/id_BcepaciaFS.html. Accessed 26 March 2004. [ Links ]
11. Fajardo Olivares M, Cordero Carrasco JL, Beteta López A, Escobar Izquierdo AB, Sacristán Enciso B. Faringitis por Burkholderia cepacia. 2004. Transmisión de persona a persona. An Pediatr (Barc). 2004;60(6):5812. [ Links ]
12. Abd-Alla MA, El-Mohamedy RSR, Badeaa RI. Effect of some volatile compounds on black mould disease on onion bulbs during storage. Res J Agric Biol Sci. 2006;2(6):38490. [ Links ]
13. Beer J. Infektionskrankheiten der Haustiere. 2nd ed. Jena: VEB Fischer-Verlag; 1980. [ Links ]
14. Muntz FHA. Oxalate-producing pulmonary aspergillosis in an alpaca. Vet Pathol. 1999;36:6312. [ Links ]
15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Department of Health and Human Services. Aspergillosis. Technical information by the Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/ aspergillosis_t.htm. Accessed 6 October 2005. [ Links ]